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  • U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington, D. C. 20535 September 9,2009 MR. GRANT F. SMITH IRMEP CALVERT STATION POST OFFICE BOX 32041 WASHINGTON, DC 20007 FOIPA Request No.: 1135944- 000 Subject: AMERICAN ISRAEL PUBLIC AFFAIRS COMMITIEE (1999 OR EARLIER) Dear Mr. Smith: ~ This acknowledges receipt of your Freedom of Information-Privacy Acts (FOIPA) request to the FBI. The FOIPA number listed above has been assigned to your request. o For an accurate search of our records, please provide the complete name, alias, date and place of birth for the subject of your request. Any other specific data you could provide such as prior addresses, or employment information would also be helpful. If your subject is deceased, please include date and proof of death. o To make sure information about you is not released to someone else, we require your notarized signature or, in place of a notarized signature, a declaration pursuant 28 U.S.C. § 1746. For your convenience, the reverse side of this letter contains a form which may be used for this purpose. o If you want the FBI's Criminal Justice Information System (C..IIS) to perform a search for your arrest record, please follow the enclosed instructions in Attorney General Order 556-73. You must submit fingerprint impressions so a comparison can be made with the records kept by CJIS. This is to make sure your information is not released to an unauthorized person. We are searching the indices to our Central Records System for the information you requested, and will inform you of the results as soon as possible. o Processing delays have been caused by the large number of requests received by the FBI. We will process your rcquest(s) as soon as possible. Your request has been assigned the number indicated above. Please use this number in all correspondence with us. Your patience is appreciated. Very truly yours, David M. Hardy Section Chief, Record/lnformation Dissemination Section Records Management Division u.s. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington, D.C. 20535 September 7,2010 MR. GRANT F. SMITH IRMEP CALVERT STATION POST OFFICE BOX 32041 WASHINGTON, DC 20007 Subject: FRANKLIN, LAWRENCE A. ET AL. FOIPA No. 1135944- 002 Dear Mr. Smith: The enclosed documents were reviewed under the Freedom of Information/Privacy Acts (FOIPA), Title 5, United States Code, Section 552/552a. Deletions have been made to protect information which is exempt from disclosure, with the appropriate exemptions noted on the page next to the excision. In addition, a deleted page information sheet was inserted in the file to indicate where pages were withheld entirely. The exemptions used to withhold information are marked below and explained on the enclosed Form OPCA-16a: Section 552 D(b)(1) O(b)(2) D(b)(3) _ O(b)(4) D(b)(5) ~(b)(6) O(b)(7)(A) O(b)(7)(B) :8l(b)(7)(C) D(b)(7)(D) ~(b)(7)(E) O(b)(7)(F) D(b)(8) O(b)(9) Section 552a O(d)(5) 0(j)(2) O(k)(1 ) D(k)(2) O(k)(3) D(k)(4) D(k)(5) o(k)(6) O(k)(7) 405 page(s) were reviewed and 405 page(s) are being released. D Document(s) were located which originated with, or contained information concerning other Government agency(ies) [OGA]. This information has been: o referred to the OGA for review and direct response to you. o referred to the OGA for consultation. The FBI will correspond with you regarding this information when the consultation is finished. I8l You have the right to appeal any denials in this release. Appeals should be directed in writing to the Director, Office of Information Policy, U.S. Department of Justice, 1425 New York Ave., NW, Suite 1'1050, Washington, D.C. 20530-0001. Your appeal must be received by OIP within sixty (60) days from the date of this letter in order to be considered timely. The envelope and the letter should be clearly marked "Freedom of Information Appeal." Please cite the FOIPA Number assigned to your request so that it may be easily identified. . o The enclosed material is from the main investigative file(s) in which the sUbject(s) of your request was the focus of the investigation. Our search located additional references, in files relating to other individuals, or matters, which mayor may not be about your subject(s). Our experience has shown, when ident, references usually contain information similar to the information processed in the main file(s). Because of our significant backlog, we have given priority to processing only the main investigative file(s). If you want the references, you must submit a separate request for them in writing, and they will be reviewed at a later date, as time and resources permit. I8l See additional information which follows. Sincerely yours, David M. Hardy Section Chief Record/I nformation Dissemination Section Records Management Division Enclosure(s) Pursuant to Title 28, Code of Federal Regulations, Sections 16.11 and/or 16.49, there is a fee of ten cents per page for duplication. No fees are assessed for the first 100 pages, upon receipt of these documents, please 'submit a check or money order payable to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the amount of $30.50 for released pages. To insure proper identification of your request, please return this letter or include the FOIPA number(s) with your payment. Failure to pay for this release within (30) days, will close any pending FBI FOIPA requests from you. Nonpayment will also cause an automatic denial of any future FOIPA requests. Please send payment to FBI, 170 Marcel Drive, Winchester, VA 22602-4843. EXPLANATION OF EXEMPTIONS SUBSECTIONS OF TITLE 5, UNITED STATES CODE, SECTION 552 prosecutions if such expected to endanger the life or (b)(l) foreign (b)(2) (b)(3) (b)(4) (b)(5) (b)(6) privacy; (b)(7) security (A) specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or policy and (B) are in fact properly classified to such Executive order; related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of an agency; specifically exempted from disclosure by statute (other than section 552b of this title), provided that such statute(A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as to leave no discretion onissue, or (B) establishes particular criteria for withholding or refers to particular types of matters to be withheld; trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged or confidential; inter-agency or intra-agency memorandums or letters which would not be available by law to a party other than an agency in litigation with the agency; personnel and medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information (A) could be reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings, ( B) would deprive a person of a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication, ( C ) could be reasonably expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, (D) could reasonably be expected to disclose the identity of confidential source, including a State, local, or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on a confidential basis, and, in the case of record or information compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation, or by an agency conducting a lawful national intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source, ( E ) would disclose techniques and procedures for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions, or would disclose guidelines for law enforcement investigations or disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk circumvention of the law, or ( F ) could reasonably be physical safety of any individual; (b)(8) contained in or related to examination, operating, or condition reports prepared by, on behalf of, or for the use of an agency responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions; or (b)(9) geological and geophysical information and data, including maps, concerning wells. SUBSECTIONS OF TITLE 5, UNITED STATES CODE, SECTION 552a (d)(5) information compiled in reasonable anticipation of a civil action proceeding; (j)(2) material reporting investigative efforts pertaining to the enforcement of criminal law including efforts to prevent, control, or reduce crime or apprehend criminals; (k)(l) information which is currently and properly classified pursuant to an Executive order in the interest of the national defense or foreign policy, for example, information involving intelligence sources or methods; (k)(2) investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes, other than criminal, which did not result in loss ofa right, benefit or privilege under Federal programs, or which would identify a source who furnished information pursuant to a promise that his/her identity would be held in confidence; (k)(3) material maintained in connection with providing protective services to the President of the United States or any other individual pursuant to the authority of Title 18, United States Code, Section 3056; (k)(4) required by statute to be maintained and used solely as statistical records; (k)(5) investigatory material compiled solely for the purpose of determining suitability, eligibility, or qualifications for Federal civilian employment or for access to classified information, the disclosure ofwhich would reveal the identity of the person who furnished information pursuant to a promise that his/her identity would be held in confidence; (k)(6) testing or examination material used to determine individual qualifications for appointment or promotion in Federal Government service the release of which would compromise the testing or examination process; (k)(7) material used to determine potential for promotion in the armed services, the disclosure of which would reveal the identity of the person who furnished the material pursuant to a promise that his/her identity would be held in confidence. FBI/DOJ ~. ~ ~aShingtOnpos(¢Om: Mee\lngJcf"::::::~:<;:::~::.fJei'CofuinnE) HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED , DATE 07-2~'-2010 BY 60324 uc baT..:r/sab/lsg Meetings With Iran-Contra Arms Dealer Confirmed By Bradley Graham and Peter Slevin Washington Post StaffWriters Saturday, August 9, 2003; Page AOI Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld acknowledged yesterday that Pentagon officials met secretly with a discredited expatriate Iranian arms merchant who figured prominently in the Iran-contra scandal ofthe mid-1980s, characterizing the contact as an unexceptional effort to gain possibly useful information. While R~sfeld said that the contact occurred more than a year ago and that nothing came ofit, his aides scrambled during the day to piece together more details ~mid other reports that Rumsfeld's account may have been incomplete. Last night, a senior defense official disclosed that another meeting with,the Iranian arms dealer, Manucher Gh9rbanifar, occurred in June in Paris. The official said that, while the first contact, in late 2001, had been fonnally sanctioned by the U.S. government in response to an Iranian government offer to provide information relevant to the war on terrorism, the second one resulted from "an unplanned, unscheduled encounter." A senior administration official said, however, that Pentagon staffmembers held one or two other meetings with Ghorbanifar last year in Italy. The sessions so troubled Secretary ofState Colin L. Powell, the official said, ~at he complained to Rumsfeld and Condoleezza Rice, President Bush's national security adviser. Powell maintained that the Pentagon activities were unauthorized and undermined U.S. policy toward Iran by taking place outside the terms defmed by Bush and his top advisers. The White House instructed the Pentagon to halt meetings that do not conform to policy decisions, said the official, who requested anonymity. The Defense Department personnel who met with Ghorbanifar came from the policy directorat,e. Sources identified them as Harold Rhode, a specialist on Iran and Iraq who recently served in Baghdad as the Pentagon liaison to Iraqi National Congress leader Ahmed Chalabi, and Larry Franklin, a Defense Intelligence Agency analyst. State Department officials were surprised by news ofthe latest meeting with Ghorbanifar. Tension runs d~ep in the Bush administration between State and the Pentagon, which under Rumsfeld has aspired to a powerful role in foreign policy. The two agencies have sparred repeatedly over strategy toward Iran and Iraq. \ The United Stat~s does not have fonnal relations with Iran, although a small number ofsanctioned . meetings between U.S. and Iranian officials have taken place, most notably to address U.S. war plans in :~ ~c Afghanista~ and Iraq. . r&:. . The Bush administration has struggled to develop a coherent and consistent approach to Iran. In his t1 State ofthe Union address last year, Bush characterized Iran as being part ofan axis ofevil, along with --' AirIraq and North Korea, and administration officials have repeatedly accused Iran ofsupporting terrorist. II ~ _ ~1/S-/U~ . - - . _. . .' " <\0--" L ~. http://www.washingtonpost.comlac2lwp-dynlA36669-2003Aug8?language=printer l{'2-1/C'~ 8/12/2003 ·.Page.2 of3 groups and of seeking to acquire nuclear weapons. While broad agreement exists within the administration favoring changes in Iran's Islamic government, officials differ on how to accomplish tnem. More than two years after the administration began drafting a national security presidential directive on Iran, the policy document remains unfinished. While the State Department favors increased dialogue and engagement with potential reformers inside Iran, prominent Pentagon civilians believe the policy should be more aggressive, including measures to destabilize the existing government in Tehran. The Iran-contra scandal erupted over, a decision by the Reagan administration to s,ell weapons to Iran in an effort to win the release ofU.S. hostages in Lebanon. The proceeds ofthe arms sales were illegally funneled to contra fighters opposing Nicaragua's leftisrSandinista government. Ghorbanifar was enlisted in the effort, helping to arrange the delivery by-Israel of 508 TOW antitank missiles to Iran. The White House had drafted him as an intermediary despite warnings from the CIA that he was a cheat and had failed lie-detector tests. The intelligence agency had instructed its operatives not to do business with him. News ofthe Pentagon's contact with Ghorbanifar was first reported yesterday by Newsday, and Rumsfeld was asked about the story when he emerged with Bush from a meeting at the president's ranch in Crawford, Tex. Saying he had just been told ofthe Newsdayarticle by a senior aide. and by Rice, Rumsfeld acknowledged that "one or two" Pentagon officials "were approached by some people who had information about Iranians that wanted to provide information to the United States government." He said that a meeting took place "more than a year ago" and that the information received was circulated to various federal departments and agencies but did not lead to anything. "That is to say, as I ~nderstand it, there wasn't anything there that was ofsubstance or ofvalue that needed to be pursued further," he said. Asked if the Pentagon contact was intended to circumvent official U.S. exchanges with Iran, Rumsfeld replied: "Oh, absolutely not. I mean, everyone in the interagency process, I'm told, was apprised of it, and it went nowhere. It was just _. this happens, ofcourse, frequently, that in -- people come in, offering suggestions or information or possible contacts, and sometimes they're pursued. Obviously, if it looks as though something might be interesting, it's pursued. If it isn't, it isn't." ' Standing by Rumsfeld's side, Bush was asked ifthe meeting was a good idea and ifhis administration wants a change in government. "We support the aspirations ofthose who desire freedom in Iran," the president said, then took a question on a different subject. According to the account given later by the senior Pentagon official, the contact in 2001 occurred after Iranian'officials passed word to the'administration that they had information that might be useful in the global war on terrorism. Two Pentagon officials met with the Iranians in several sessions over a threeday period in Italy. Ghorbanifar attended these meetings, "but he was not the individual who,had apprQached the United States or the on~ with the information,It the official said. What h~s role W3:S, however, the official did not know. 8/12/2003 :Page :3 013 . The official said the June meeting involved one ofthe two Pentagon representatives who had been present at the 2001 meeting, buthe declined to say which one. Staffwriter Dana Priest contributed to this report. © 2003 The Washington Post Company 8/12/2003 Page l'ofl Iraq War Planner Downplays Role Conservative Strategist Denies Running Stealth Intelligence Operation By Thomas E. Ricks Washi~gton Post Staff Writer Wednesday, October 22,2003; Page A27 In normal times, the chiefofthe Pentagon's office for Middle Eastern policy toils in obscurity, a third-level functionary hardly noticed inside the building, let alone outside it. Not so Deputy Undersecretary William 1. uti. The manager ofthe Defense Department's Irag policy, he has the highest profile ofanyone to eve old his post. Arecent Google search uncovered 1,340 Internet hits mentioning him; many ofthem depicting him as a stealthy Svengali ofIraq policy, operating at the center ofa network connecting Vice President Cheney, former House speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.) and Undersecretary ofDefense for Policy Douglas J. Feith -- all people for whom Luti has worked in the past seven years. Some Web sites associated with fringe political player Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr. attack him in lurid terms as an lIignoble liar" and "Satan." The critics are especially suspicious ofhis Office ofSpecial Plans, which was created last year. The purposely ambiguous title -- it was an office to work on policy for invading Iraq -- gave rise to speculation that Luti was running a shadowy intelligence operation intended to second-guess the CIA and provide the Pentagon with findings that supported its policies. The office has since been closed. IIrhe conspiracies out ofthis are quite stunning," Luti said in a recent interview in his crowded office in an unfashionable inner corridor ofthe Pentagon. "We are a consumer ~f intelligence rather than a provider." He insists that he is not as influential as some of his critics suspect. liTo paraphrase Mark Twain, the rumors ofmy power are greatly exaggerated," he said. He has been attacked, he said, because "we work tough issues, we work controversial issues.." But he insisted he does not preside over a secret miniature version ofthe CIA. "For the umpteenth tiine," he said, showing a bit of exasperation, "we do policy work.II What that means, he said, is developing defense policy options and monitoring their implementation -- not collecting intelligence, planning wars or implementing policy. But he also seems to have attracted attention because ofhis zealous manner. "I know he's a lightning rod,".said Richard Shultz, Luti's doctoral thesis adviser at Tufts University. "That's partly because he is so passionate, and partly because he is so devoted to policies that have been divisive." Defense intelligence experts say Bruce Hardcastle, a senior Def~nse Intelligence Agency official for Middle Eastern ~ffairs, began avoiding meeting with Luti after sharply disagreeing with him over the past 12 months about the imminence ofthe threat posed by Saddam Hussein's Iraq. "It'syery ?ifficult to inf0:m people who already know it all," said op.e Pentagon official familiar with the strained ,;I relationship between Lutl and Hardcastle. r 1u "Basically, he [Luti] didn't like other.people's information ifit didn't agree with his opinion," a former DIA an~ls.t ~ ~ . 00~ Hardcastle declined to copunent for thisarticle.' .<a ~1,/~~;. \~ ,16> irIP ~\vtl b6 b7C \ ' washitlgtonposlcom: IraqWar PlannOownPl~YS Role .... . 0 Over~I:Luti said ofhis critics, they are· 'either confuse4, malicious, or both.'" - Page 2 of.3·, He added, "Policy people and intelligence analysts perform different functions, but what's important is that they work !ogether, not that they agree on everything." Those critical views are hardly universal. John Trigilio, a fomler DIA official who works with Luti on defense policy issues, described him as "a straight shooter, professional, honorable," and called the notion that he manipulated intelligence "ridiculous." Adm. William 1. Fallon, who commanded Luti when Luti was skipper ofthe USS Guam, remembers him as an extremely competent leader who did not skew data. "I've heard the allegation, and I've kind ofchuckled at it," said Fallon, who recently became commander ofthe Atlantic Fleet. "I never saw anything along those. lines." Luti's 26-year Navy career was an unusual mix ofsea duty and high-level Washington policy positions. After serving as a weapons officer for EA-6B Prowlers -- aircraft thatjam enemy electronics -- he studied strategy and diplomacy at Tufts University. He went there for a master's degree, "but he was such a damned good student that we admitted him to the doctoral program," recalled Shultz, an authority on international politics and military operations. In the early 1990s, while deputy director ofthe chiefofnaval operations' executive panel, a civilian advisory group, Luti became interested in the views ofone member, strategy guru Albert Wohlstetter. A mentor to Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz, Defense Policy Board member Richard N. Perle and several other prominent conservative defense thinkers, Wohlstetter became Luti's entree into their world. From there, while still in the Navy, Luti became.a congressional fellow in the office ofthen-Speaker Gingrich. His time there, in part spent working on legislation related to arming and training Bosnian Muslims, again brought him into contact with interventionist conservatives. "We were talking with people like Perle and Wolfowitz about doing the right thing in Bosnia," recalled Randy Schuenemann, who then was a foreign policy aide on the Hill, and later, as a lobbyist for an organization that advocated toppling Hussein, worked with Luti on Iraq issues. Gingrich, who has stayed in touch with Luti through meetings of the Defense Policy Board, described his former employee as "very smart, very aggressive, slightly impatient, and ... with a very deep feeling that the world is more dangerous than many ofhis colleagues in the Pentagon, in the services, understand." Luti's last major Navy assignment was as captain ofthe USS Guam, an aging helicopter carrier with a crew of 700. "Guam was one of!he oldest ships in the. fleet," recalled Fallon, but Luti kept it in "marvelous condition.1I When the Bush administration came into office, Luti was asked to work for Cheney on Middle East-policy. Afew months later, he retired from the Navy to take his current position. He was in Cairo on Sept. 11, 2001, and, with commercial traffic stopped, got back to the United States aboard an Air Force KC-135 refueling jet. On the way home, he recalled, the plane flew over New York City, escorted by F-16 fighters, and the pilot lowered a wing so those aboard could get a full view ofthe smoke plume rising from the rubble ofthe World Trade Center. When the jet finally landed, he recalled, "we had this war on our hands.,11 Since then, he has had a total of 12 days off. C 2003 The Washington Post Company washillgtOP.l;.ost.conl~ In Profile· . ,v ~ washingtonpost.c.~m In'Profile Wednesday, October 22,2003; Page A27 William J. Lut; Title: Deputy undersecretary ofdefense for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs. Age: 49. Education: Bachelor's degree in history, the Citadel; master's degree in national security and strategic studies, U.S. Naval War College; master's and doctorate in international relations, Tufts University. Career highlights: Served abm~rd the USS John F. Kennedy during the 1991 Persian Gulf War; congressiont;ll fellow, office ofHouse Speaker Newt Gil1grich (R"Ga.), 1996-97; commander, USS Guam, 1997-98; special adviser to Vice Pre~ident Cheney for national security affairs (Middle East), 2001. Pastime: Golf. ' © 2003 The Washington Post Company ADVERTISER LINKS Shipmates Old Comrades. Ships. Friends Family & Good memories Essex Carrier Models Recreate the·ship you served on. Build an American aircraft carrier. http;/Iwww.modelshiDbuil~ing.Com.- . . wa')~i~l&to~P'ostco~n: Iraq War Planp~owllPlayS Role . AI.L HJP"OnH1..TI m'1 CONrAINED HEREIN IS TJIYICLAS"-tED ..' . DATE 07-29-.2010~oi24 u~ baw/seb/ l~g Page·! of3 Iraq War Planner Downplays Role Conservative Strategist Denies Running Stealth Intelligence Operation By Thomas B. Ricks Washington Post StaffWriter Wednesday, October 22, 2003; Page A27 In normal times, the chiefofthe Pentagon's office for Middle I;astern policy toils in obscurity, a third-level functionary hardly noticed inside the building, let alone outside it. Not so Deputy Undersecretary William J. LutL The day-to-day manager ofthe Defense Department's Iraq policy, he has the highest profile ofanyone to ever hold his post. Arecent Google search uncovered 1,340 Internet hits mentioning him, many ofthem depicting him as a stealthy Svengali ofIraq policy, operating at the center of a network connecting Vice President Cheney, former House speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.) and Undersecretary ofDefense for Policy Douglas J.Feith-- all people for whom Luti has worked in the past seven years. Some Web sites associated with fringe political player Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr. attack him in lurid terms as an "ignoble liar" and "Satan.1I The critics are especially suspicious ofhis Office ofSpecial Plans, which was created last year. The purposely ambiguous title -- it was an office to work on policy for invading Iraq -- gave rise to speculation that Luti was running a shadowy intelligence operation intended to second-guess the CIA and provide the Pentagon with findings that supported its policies. The office has since been closed. liThe conspiracies out ofthis are quite stunning,II Lutisaid in a recent interview in his crowded office in an unfashionable inner corridor ofthe Pentagon. IIWe are a consumer ofintelligence rather than a provider." He insists that he is not as influential as some of his critics suspect. liTo paraphrase Mark Twain, the rumors ofmy power are greatly exaggerated,II he said. He has been attacked, he said, because "we work tough issues, we work controversial issues.II But he insisted he does not pres.ide over a secret miniature version ofthe CIA. "For the umpteenth time," he said, showing a bit of exasperation,'''we do policy work.II What that means, he said, is developing defense policy options and monitoring ~heir implementation -- nof collecting intelligence, planning wars or implementing policy. Buthe also seems to have attracted attention because of his zealous manner. "I know he's a liglitning rod," said Richard Shultz, Luti's doctoral thesis adviser at Tufts University.. "That's partly because·he is so passionate, and partly because " he is so devoted to policies that have been divisive." Defense intelligence experts say Bruce Hardcastle, a senior Defense Intelligence Agency official for Middle Eastern affairs, began avoiding meeting with Luti after sharply disagreeing with him over the past 12 months about the imminence ofthe threat posed by Saddam Hussein's Iraq. "It's very difficult to inform people who already know it all," said one Pentagon official familiar with the strained relations4ip between Luti and Hardcastle. uw~ \. 4'S~~. • ~~"'S-'t-.\C.....b6 <{1~\C1;)1 I."'-=z&==«"./ b 7C Hardcastle declined to comment for this article. "Basically, he [Luti] didn't like other people's information if it didn't agree with his opinion,1I a former DIA analyst agreed. wasliiDgtonpostcom: Iraq War Plann~ownplllYS Role, ' . 0 ovttian, Luti said ofhis critics, they ~either conftlSedll tnalicious, or both." Page2.of3 ' He added, "Policy people and intelligence analysts perform different iUnctions, but what's important is that they work together, not that they agree on everything." Those critical views are hardly universal. John Trigilio, a former DIA official who works with Luti on defense policy issues, described him as "a straight shooter, professional, honorable," and called the notion that he manipulated intelligence "ridiculous." Adm. William J. Fallon, who commanded Luti when Luti was skipper ofthe USSGuam, remembers him as an extremely competent leader who did not skew data. "I've heard the allegation, and I've kind ofchuckled at it," said Fallon, who recently became commander ofthe Atlantic Fleet. "I never saw anything along those lines." Luti's 26-year Navy career was an unusual mix ofsea duty and high-level Washington policy positions. After serving as a weapons officer for EA-6B Prowlers -- aircraft that jam enern,.y electronics -- he studied strategy and diplomacy at Tufts University. He went there for a master's degree, "but he was such a damned good'student that we admitted him to the doctoral program," recalled Shultz, an authority on international politics and military operations. In the early 1990s, while deputy director ofthe chiefofnaval operations' executive panel, a civilian advisory group, Luti became interested in the views ofone member, strategy guru Albert Wohlstetter. A mentor to Deputy Defense Secretiuy Paul D. Wolfowitz, Defense Policy Board member Richard N. Perle and several other prominent conservative defense thinkers, Woh~stetter became Luti's entree into, their world. From there, while still in the Navy, Luti became a congressional fellow in the office ofthen-Speaker Gingrich. His time there, in part spent working on legislation related to arming and training Bosnian Muslims, again brought him into contact with interventionist conservatives. "We were talking with people like Perle and.Wolfowitz about doing the right thing in Bosnia," recalled Randy Schuenemann, who then was a foreign policy aide on the Hill, and later, as a lobbyist for an organization t4at advocated toppling Hussein, worked with Luti on Iraq issues. Gingrich, who has stayed in touch with Luti through meetings ofthe Defense Policy Board, described his former employee as "very smart, very aggressive, slightly impatient, and ... with a very deep feeling that the world is more dangerous than many ofhis colleagues in the Pentagon, in the services, understand." I Luti's last major Navy assignment was as captain ofth~ USS Guam, an aging helicopter car.rier with a crew of 700. "Guam was one ofth~ oldest ships in the fleet," recalled Fallon, but Luti kept it in "marvelous condition." When the Bush administration came into office, Luti was asked to work for Cheney on Middle East policy. A few months later, he retired from the Navy to take his curre!1t position. He was in Cairo on Sept. 11,2001, and, with commercial traffic stopped, got back to the United States aboard an Air Force KC-135 refueling jet. On the way home, he recalled, the plane flew overNew York City, escorted by F-16 fighters, and the pilot lowered a wing so those aboard could get a full view ofthe smoke plume rising from the rubble ofthe World Trade Center. When the jet finally landed, he recalled, "we had this war on our hands." Since then, he has had a total of 12 gays off. © 2003 The Washington Post Company In Profile· w8ahingtonpost.conl In Profile Wednesday, October 22,2003; Page A27 William J. Lut; . ALl, INFmU'ihT'J,Cl:i C01:.l'I'AUIED , ~IN IS Ul\iT;LAS 51FIED ' '" 'CIn 07-<:::9-2010 BY 60324 UC, baTff!Seb/'f.ii! . , Page 1of1 Title: Deputy undersecretary ofdefense for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs. Age: 49. Education: Bachelor's degree in history, the Citadel; master's degr~e in national security and strategic studies, U.S. Naval War College; master's and doctorate in international relations, Tufts.University. C~reer highlights: Served aboard the USS John F. Kennedy during the 1991 Persian Gulf War; congressional fellow, office ofHouse Speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.), 1996·97; co~ander, USS Guam; 1997-98; special adviser to Vice President Cheney for national security' affairs (Middle East), 2001. Pastime: Golf. © 2003 The Washington Post Company ADVERTISER LINKS Shipmates . Old Comrades. Ships. Friends Family & Good memories OldOppos.~s Wtafsthis? Essex Carrier Models Recreate the ship you selVed on. Build an American aircraft carrier. ~ttp:/1www ,modelshipbuild!ng.comZ r.1 '_'_"~-~-_'.~,,,,...,,.,.,.,",. . _. __..._-_.... ,.,~., _..._.._......_.-:.;;::::.)i;,).."":_'_.. _.~ .._.... ,,.,..-.,.._._- Q~. ·~~~f' :--' ,,--;,'" "..t!.~ ...... b6 b7C B~ <£1!dtf G5~,w F- ~3l) -IV C- 1~~_·'~_<3I\\-..IC~ Mother Jones Magazine January/February 2004 The Lie Factory Only weeks after 9/11, the Bush administration set up a secret Pentagon unit to create the case for invading Iraq. Here is the inside story for how they pushed dlslnformation and bogus intelligence and led the nation to war. By Robert Dreyfuss and Jason Vest It's a crisp fall day in western Virginia, a hundred miles from Washington, D.C., and a breeze is rustling the red and gold leaves of the Shenandoah hills. On the weather-beaten wood porch of a ramshackle 90-year-old farmhouse, at the end of a winding dirt-and-gravel road, Lt. Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski is perched on a plastic chair, wearing shorts, a purple sweatshirt, and muddy sneakers. Two scrawny dogs and a lone cat are'on the prowl, and tne air is filled with swarms So far, she says, no investigators have come knocking. Not from the Central Intelligence Agency, which conducted an internal inquiry into intelligence on Iraq, not from the congressional inteiligence committees, not from the president's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. All of those bodies.are ostensibly looking into the Bush administration's prewar Iraq intelligence, amid charges that the White House and the Pentagon exaggerated, distorted, or j~st plain lied about Iraq's links to AI Qaeda terrorists and its possession of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. In her hands, Kwiatkowski holds several pieces of the puzzle. Yet she, along with a score of other career officers recenUy retired or shuffled off to other jobs, has not been approached by anyone. Kwiatkowski, 43, a now-retired Air Force officer who served in the Pentagon's Near East and ·South Asia (NESA) unit in the year before the invasion of Iraq, observed how the Pentagon's Iraq war-planning unit manufactured scare stories about Iraq's weapons and ties to' terrorists., "It wasn't intelligence-it was propaganda," she says. "They'd take a little bit of intelligence, cherrypick it" make it sound much more exciting, usually by taking it out of context, often by juxtaposition of two pieces of information that don't belong together." It was by turning such bogus intelligence into talking points for U.S. officials-including lSminous lines in speeches by President Bush and Vice President Cheney, along with Secretary of State Colin Powell'.s testimony at t~e U.N. Security Council last February-that the administration pushed Ainerican public opinion into supporting an unnecessary war. Until now, the story of how the Bush administration produced its wildly exaggerated estimates of the threat posed by Iraq has never been revealeCf in full. But, for the first time, a detailed investigation by Mother Jones, based on dozens of interviews-some on the record. some with officials who insisted on anonymity-exposes the workings of a secret Pentagon intelligence unit and of the Defense Department's war-planning task force, the"Office of Special Plans. It's the story of a close-knit team of ideologues who spent a decade or more hammering out plans for an attack on Iraq and who used the events of September 11, 2001" to set it into motion. SIX MONTHS AFTER THE END of major combat in Iraq, the United States had spent $300 million trying to find banned weapons in Iraq, and President Bush was.seekiflg $600 million more to extend the search., Not found were Iraq's Scuds and other long-range missiles, thousands of barrels and tons of anthrax and botulism stock, sarin and VX nerve agents, mustard gas, biological and chemical munitions, mobile labs for producing biological weapons, and any and all evidence of a reconstituted nuclear-arms program, all of which had been repeatedly cited as justification for the war. Also missing was evidence of Iraqi collaboration with AI Qaeda. The reports, virtually all false, of Iraqi weapons and terrorism ties emanated from an apparatus that began to gestate almost as soon as the Bush administration took power. In.the very first meeting of the Bush national-security team, one day after President Bush took the oath of office in January 2001 , the issue of invading Iraq was raised. according to one of the participants in the meeting-and officials all the way down the line started to get the message, long before 9/11. Indeed, the Bush team at the Pentagon hadn't even been formally installed before Paul '. - · , ,CQ Wolfowitz, the deputy secretary of Defense, and Douglas J. Feith, undersecretary of Defense for policy, began putting together what would become the vanguard for regime change in Iraq. Both Wolfowitz and Feith have deep roots in the neoconservative.movement. One of the most influential Washington neoconservatives in the foreign-policy establishment during the . Republicans' wilderness years Qf the 1990s, Wolfowitz has long held that not taking Baghdad in 1991 was a grievous mistake. He and others now prominent in the administration said so repeatedly over the past decade in a slew of letters and policy papers from neoconservative groups like the Project for the New American Century and the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq. Feith, a former aide to Richard Perle at the Pentagon in the 1980s and an activist in far-right Zionist circles, held the view that there was no difference between U.S. and Israeli security policy and that the best way to secure both countries' future was to solve the Israeli-Palestinian problem not by serving as a broker, but with the United States as a force for "regime change" in the region. Called in to help organize the Iraq war-planning team was a longtime Pentagon official, Harold Rhode, a specialist on Islam who speaks Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, and Farsi.>Though Feith would not be officially confirmed until July 2001, career military and civilian officials in NESA began to watch his office with concern after Rhode set up shop in Feith's office in early January. Rhode, seen by many veteran staffers as an ideological gadfly, was officially assigned to the Pentagon's Office of Net Assessment. an in-house Pentagon think tank headed by fellow neocon Andrew Marshall. Rhode helped Feith lay down the law about the department's new anti-Iraq, and broadly anti-Arab, orientation. In one telling incident. Rhode accosted and harangued a visiting senior Arab diplomat, telling him that there would be no "bartering in the bazaar anymore.... You're going to have to sit up and pay atlention when we say so." Rhode refused to be interviewed for this story, saying cryptically, "Those who speak, pay." According to insiders, Rhode worked with Feith to purge career Defense'officials who weren't sufficiently enthusiastic about the muscular anti-Iraq crusade that Wolfowitz and Feith wanted. Rhode appeared to be "pulling people out of nooks and crannies of the Defense Intelligence Agency and other places to replace us with," says a former analyst. "They wanted nothing to do with the professional staff. And they wanted us the fuck out of there." The unofficial, off-si~e recruitment office for Feith and Rhode was the American Enterprise Institute,'a right-wing think tank whose 12th-floor conference room in Washington is named for the dean of neoconservative defense strategists, the late Albert Wohlstetter, an influential RAND' analyst and University of Chicago mathematician. Headquartered at AEI is Richard Perle, Wohlstetter's prize protege, the godfather of the AEI-Defense Department nexus of neoconservatives who was chairman of the Pentagon's influential Defense Policy Board. Rhode, along with Michael RUbin, a former AEI staffer who is also now at the Pentagon, was a ubiquitous presence at AEI conferences on Iraq over the past two years, and the two Pentagon officials seemed almost to be serving as stage managers for the AEI events, often sitting in the front row and speaking in stage Whispers to panelists and AEI officials. Just after September 11, 2001, Feith and Rhode recruited David Wurmser, the director of Middle East studies for AEI, to serve as a Pentagon consultant. Wurmser would be the founding participant of the unnamed, secret intelligence unit at the Pentagon, set up if1 Feith's office, which would be the nucleus of the Defense Department's Iraq disinformation campaign that was established within weeks of the attacks in New York and Washington. While the CIA and other intelligence agencies concentrated on Osama bin Laden's AI Qaeda as the culprit in the 9/11 att.acks, Wolfowitz and Feith obsessively focused on Iraq. It was a theory that was discredited, even ridiculed, among intelligence professionals. Daniel Benjamin, co-author of The Age of Sacred Terror, was director of counterterrorism at the National Security Council in the late 1990s. "In 1998, we went through every piece of intelligence we could find to see if there was a link between AI Oaeda and Iraq," he says. 'We came to the conclusion that our intelligence agencies had it right: -There was no noteworthy relationship between AI Qaeda and Iraq. I know that fora fact." Indeed, that was the consensus amqng virtually all antiterrorism specialists. o In short, Wurmser, backed by Feith and Rhode, set out to prove(what didn't exist. IN AN ADMINISTRATION devoted to the notion of "Feith-based intelligence," Wurmser was ideal. For years, he'd been a shrill ideologue" part of the minority crusade during the 1990s that was beating the drums for war againstlraq. Along with, Perle and Feith, in 1996 Wurmser and his wife, Meyrav" wrote a provocative strategy paper for Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu called "A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm." It called on Israel to work with Jordan and Turkey to "contain, destabilize and·roll back" various states in the region, overthrow Saddam Hussein in Iraq, press Jordan to res'tore a scion of the Hashemite dynasty to the Iraqi throne, and, above all, launch military assaults against Lebanon and Syria as a "prelude to a redrawing of the map of the Middle East which would threaten Syria's territorial integrity." In 1997, Wurmserwrote a column in the Wall Street Journal called "Iraq Needs a Revolution" and the next year co-signed a letter with Perle calling for all-out U.S. support of the Iraqi National Congress (INC), an exile group led by Ahmad Chalabi, in promoting an insurgency in Iraq. At AEI, Wurmser wrote Tyranny's Ally: America's Failure to Defeat Saddam Hussein, essentially a booklength version of "A Clean Break" that proposed an alliance between Jordan and the INC to redraw the map of the Middle East. Among the mentors cited by Wurmser in the book: Chalabi, Perle, and Feith. The purpose of the unnamed intelligence unit, often described as a Pentagon "cell," was to scour reports from the CIA, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and other agencies to find nuggets of information linking Iraq, AI Oaeda, terrorism, and the existence of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction (WMD). In a controversial press briefing in October 2002, a year after Wurmser's unit was established, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld acknowledged that a primary purpose of the unit was to cull factoids, which were then used to disparage, undermine, and contradict the CIA's reporting, which was far more cautious and nuanced than Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz, and Feith wanted. Rumsfeld particularly enjoyed harassing the CIA staffer who briefed him every morning, using the type of data produced by the intelligence unit. 'What I could do is say, 'Gee, what about this?'" Rumsfeld noted. "'Or what about that? Has somebody thought of this?'" Last June, when Feith was questioned on the same topic at a briefing, he acknowledged that the secret unit in fact looked at the connection between Iraq and terrorism, saying, "You can't rely on deterrence to deal with the problem of weapons of mass destruction in the hands of state sponsors of terrorism because [of] the possibility that those state sponsors might employ chemical weapons'or biological weapons by means of a terrorist organization proxy...." Though Feith, in that briefing, described Wurmser's unit as an innocent project, "a global exercise" that was not meant to put pressure on other intelligence agencies or create skewed intelligence to fit preconceived policy notions, many other sources assert that it did exactly that. That the White House and the'Pentagon put enormous pressure on the CIA to go along with its version of events has been widely reported, highlighted by visits to CIA headquarters by Vice President Cheney and Lewis Libby, his chief of staff. Led by Perle, the neocons seethed with contempt for the CIA. The CIA'S analysis, said Perle, "isn't worth the paper it's printed on." Standing in a crowded hallway during an AEI event, Perle added, "The CIA is status quo oriented. They don't want to take risks." That became the mantra of the shadow agency within an agency., Putting Wurmser in charge of the unit meant that it was being run by a pro-Iraq-war ideologue who'd spent years calling for a pre-emptive invasion of Baghdad and who was clearly predisposed to find what he wanted to see. Adding another layer of dubious quality to the endeavor was the man partnered with Wurmser, F. Michael Maloof•. Maloof, a former aide to Perle in the 1980s Pentagon, was twice stripped of his high-level security clearances-once in late 2001 and again last spring, for various infractions. Maloof was also reportedly involved in a bizarre scheme to broker contacts between Iraqi officials and the Pentagon, channeled through Perle. in what one report called a "rogue [intelligence) operation" outside official CIA and Defense Intelligence Agency channels. o As the momentum for war began to build in early 2002, Wolfowitz and Feith beefed up the intelligence unit and created an Iraq war-planning unit in the Pentagon's Near East and South Asia Affairs section, run by Deputy Undersecretary of Defense William Luti, under the rubric "Office of Special Plans,,"or OSP; the new unit's director was Abram N. Shulsky. By then, Wurmser had moved on to a post as senior adviser to Undersecretary of State John Bolton, yet another neocon, who was in charge of the State Department's disarmament, proliferation, and WMD office and was promoting the Iraq war strategy there. Shulsky's OSP, which incorporated the secret intelligence unit, took control, banishing veteran experts-including Joseph McMillan, James Russell, Larry Hanauer, and Marybeth McDevitt-who, despite years of service to NESA, either were shuffled off to other positions or retired. For the next year, Luti and Shulsky not only would oversee war plans but would act aggressively to shape the intelligence product received by the White House. Both Luti and Shulsky were neoconservatives who were ideological soulmates of Wolfowitz and Feith. But Luti was more than that. He'd come to the Pentagon direct,y from the office of Vice President Cheney. That gave Luti, a recently retired, decorated Navy captain whose career ran from combat aviation to command of a helicopter assault ship, extra clout. Along with his colleague Colonel William Bruner, Luti had done a stint as an aide to Newt Gingrich in 1996 and, like Perle and Wolfowitz, was an acolyte of Wohlstetter's. "He makes Ollie North look like a moderate," says a NESA veteran. Shulsky had been on the Washington scene since the mid-1970s. As a Senate intelligence committee staffer for Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, he began to work with early neoconservatives like Perle, who was then an aide to Senator Henry Jackson. Later, in the Reagan years, Shulsky followed Perle to the Pentagon as Perle's arms-control adviser. In the '90s, Shulsky co-authored a book on intelligence called Silent Warfare, with Gary Schmitt. Shulsky had served with Schmitt on Moynihan's staff and they had remained friends. Asked about the Pentagon's Iraq intelligence "cell," Schmitt-who is currently the executive director of the Project for the New American Century-says that he can't say much about it "because one of my best friends is running it.," According to U. Colonel KWiatkowski, Luti and Shulsky ran NESA and the Office of Special Plans with brutal efficiency, purging people they disagreed with and enforcing the party line. "It was organized like a machine," she says. "The people working on the neocon agenda had a narrow, well-defined political agenda. They had a sense of mission." At NESA, Shulsky, she says, began "hot-desking," or taking an office wherever he could find one, working with Feith and Luti, before formally taking the reins of the newly created OSP. Together, she says, Luti and Shulsky turned cherry-picked pieces of uncorroborated, anti-Iraq intelligence into talking points, on issues like Iraq's WMD and its links to AI Oaeda. Shulsky constantly updated these papers, drawing on the intelligence unit, and circulated them to Pentagon officials, including Rumsfeld, and to Vice President Cheney. "Of course, we never thought they'd go directly to the White House," she adds. Kwiatkowski recalls one meeting in which Luti, pressed to finish a report, told the staff, "I've got to get this over to 'Scooter' right away." She later found out that "Scooter" was none other than Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Vice President Cheney's chief of staff. According to KWiatkowski, Cheney had direct ties through.Luti into NESA/OSP, a connection that was highly unorthodox. "Never, ever, ever would a deputy undersecretary of Defense work directly on a project for the vice president," she says. "It was a little clue that we had an informal network into Vice President Cheney's office." Although Feith insists that the OSP did not seek to gather its own intelligence, Kwiatkowski and others sharply disagree. Staff working for Luti and Shulsky in NESA/OSP churned out propaganda-style intelligence, she says. As an example, she cited the work of a U.S. intelligence officer and Arabic specialist, Navy Lt. Commander Youssef Aboul-Enein, who was a special assistant to Luti. "His job was to peruse the Arabic-language media to find articles that would incriminate Saddam Hussein about terrorism, and he translated these.II Such raw intelligence is usually subject to a thorough vetting process, tracked, verified, and checked by intelligence e o professionals. But not at OSP-the material that it produced found its way directly into speeches by Bush, Cheney, and other officials. According to Melvin Goodman, a former CIA official and an intelligence specialist at the National War College, the OSP officials routinely pushed lower-ranking staff around on intelligence matters. "People were being pUlled aside [and being told], We saw your last piece and it's not what we're looking for,'" he says. "It was pretty blatant." Two State Department intelligence officials, Greg Thielmann and Christian Westermann, have both charged that pressure was being put on them to shape intelligence to fit policy, in particular from Bolton's office. ''The AI Oaeda connection and nuclear weapons issue were the only two ways that you could link Iraq to an imminent security threat to the U.S.," Thielmann told the·New York Times. "And the administration was grossly distorting the intelligence on both things." BESIDES CHENEY, key members of the Pentagon's D~fense Policy Board, including Perle and ex-House Speaker Newt Gingrich, all Iraq hawks, had direct input into NESAlOSP. The offices of NESA were located on the Pentagon's fourth floor, seventh corridor of 0 Ring, and the Policy Board's offices were directly below, on the ttaird floor. During .the run-up to the Iraq-war, Gingrich often came up for closed-door meetings with luti, who in 1996 had served as a congressional fellow in Speaker of the House Gingrich's office. As OSP got rolling, Luti brought in Colonel Bruner, a former military aide to Gingrich, and, together, luti and Bruner opened the door to a vast flow of bogus intelligence fed to the Pentagon by Iraqi defectors associated with Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress group of exiles. Chalabi founded the'lraqi National Congress in 1992, with the help of a shadowy CIA-connected publicrelations firm called the Rendon Group, one of whose former employees, Francis Brooke, has been a top aide to Chalabi ever since. A scion of an aristocratic Iraqi family, Chalabi fled Baghdad at the age of 13, in 1958, when the corrupt Iraqi Hashemite monarchy was overthrown by a coalition of communists and the Iraqi military. In the late 1960s, Chalabi studied mathematics at the University of Chicago with Wohlstelter, who introduced him to Richard Perle more than a decade later. Long associated with the heart of the neoconservative movement, Chalabi founded Petra Bank in Jordan, Which grew to be Jordan's third-largest bank by the 1980s. But Chalabi was accused of bank fraud, embezzlement, and currency manipulation, and he barely escaped before Jordanian authorities could arrest him; in 1992, he was convicted and sentenced in absentia to more than 20 years of hard labor. After founding the INC, Chalabi's bungling" unreliability, and penchant for mismanaging funds caused the CIA to s0l.!r on him, but he never lost the support of Perle, Feith, Gingrich, and their allies; once, soon after 9/11, Perle invited Chalabi to address the Defense Policy Board. According to multiple sources, Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress sent a steady stream of misleading and often faked intelligence reports into U.S. inteUigence channels., That information would flow sometimes into NESA/OSP directly, sometimes through Defense Intelligence Agency debriefings of Iraqi defectors via the Defense Human Intelligence Service, and sometimes through the INC's own U.S.-funded Intelligence Collection Program, which was overseen by the Pentagon. The INC's intelligence "isn't reliable at all," according to Vincent Cannistraro, a former CIA chief of counterterrorism. "Much of it is propaganda. Much of it is telling the Defense Department what they want to hear, using alleged inform~nts and defectors who say what Chalabi wants them to say, [creating] cooked inform~tion that goes right into presidential and vice presidential speeches." Bruner, the aide to Luti and Gingrich's former staffer, ''was Chalabi'shandler," says Kwiatkowski. "He would arrange meetings with Chalabi and Chalabi's folks." she says, adding that the INC leader often brought people into the NESA/OSP offices for debriefings. Chalabi claims to have introduced only three actual defectors to the Pentagon, a figure Thielmann considers "awfully low." However, according to an investigation by the los Angeles Times. the three defectors provided by Chalabi turned up exactly zero useful intelligence. The first. an Iraqi engineer, claimed to have specific information about biological weapons, but his information didn't pan out; the second claimed to know about mobile labs, but that information, too, was worthless; and the third, who claimed to have data about Iraq's nuclear program, proved to be a fraud. Chalabi also .. • • t G - claimed to have given the Pentagon information about Iraqi support for AI Oaeda. 'We gave the names of people who were doing the links," he told an interviewer from PBS'S Frontline. Those links, of course, have not been discovered. Thielmann told the same Frontline interviewer that the Office of Special Plans didn't apply strict intelligence~verification standards to "some of the information coming out of Chalabi and the INC that OSP and the Pentagon ran with~" In the war's aftermath, the Defense Intelligence Agency-which is not beholden to the neoconservative civilians at the Pentagon-leaked a report it prepared, concluding that few, if any, of the INC's informants provided worthwhile intelligence. SO FAR, DESPITE ALL of the investigations underway" there is little sign thatany of them are going to delve into the operations of the Luti-Shulsky Office of Special Plans and its secret intelligence unit. Because it operates in the Pentagon's policy shop, it is not officially part of the intelligence community, and so it is seemingly immune to congressional oversight. With each passing day, it is becoming excruciatingly clearer just how wrong U.S. ~ntelligence was in regard to Iraqi weapons and support for terrorism. The American teams of inspectors in the Iraq Survey Group, which has employed up to 1,400 people to scour the country and analyze the findings, have not been able to find a shred of evidence of anything other than dusty old plans and records of weapons apparently destroyed more than a decade ago. Countless examples of fruitless searches have been reported in the media. To cite one example: U.S. soldiers followed an intelligence report claiming that a complex built for Uday Hussein, Saddam's son, hid a weapons warehouse with poison-gas storage tanks. "Well," U.S. Army Major Ronald Hann Jr. t~ld the Los Angeles Times, "the warehouse was a carport. It still had two cars inside. And the tanks had propane for the kitchen." Countless other errors and exaggerations have become evident. The thousands of aluminum tubes supposedly imported by Iraq for uranium enrichment were fairly conclusively found to be designed to build noncontroversial rockets. The long-range unmanned aerial vehicles, allegedly built to deliver bioweapons, were small, rickety, experimental planes with wood frames. The mobile bioweapon labs turned out to have had other, ,civilian purposes. And the granddaddy of all falsehoods, the charge. that Iraq sought uranium in the West African country of Niger, was based on forged documents-documents that the CIA, the State Department, and other agencies knew were fake nearly a year before President Bush highlighted the issue in his State of the Union address in January 2003. "Either the system broke down," former Ambassador Joseph Wilson, who was sent by the CIA to visit Niger and whose findings helped show that the documents were forged, told Mother Jones, "or there was selective use of bits of information to justify a decision to go to war that had already been taken." Edward Luttwak, ~ neoconservative scholar and ~uthor, says flatly that the Bush administration lied about the intelligence it had because it was afraid to go to the American people and say that the war was simply about getting rid of Saddam Hussein. Instead, says Luttwak, the White House was groping for a rationale to satisfy the United Nations' criteria for war. "Cheney was forced into this fake posture of worrying about weapons of mass destruction," he says. "The ties to AI Qaeda? That's complete nonsense." In the Senate, Senator Jay Rockefeller (D-W.Va.) is pressing for the Intelligence Committee to extend its investigation to look into the specific role of the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans, but there is strong Republican resistance to the idea. In the House, Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Calif.) has introduced legislation calling for a commission to investigate the intelligence mess and has collected more than a hundred Democrats-but no RepUblicans-in support of it. "I think they need to be"looked at pretty carefully,II Waxman told Mother Jones when asked about the Office of Special Plans. "lid like to know whether the political people pushed the intelligence people to slant their conclusions." Congressman Waxman, meet Lt. Colonel Kwiatkowski. -T' AI.L nJFOPH.~TION CONTAn-rED 0 HEP.EHI IS TJ1JCI,P..Z5IFIED DAn 07-'29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg' Document 8 of 8 Page 1of2: I" -. t1 • Copyright 2003 The Washington Post The Washington Post June 15, 2003 Sunday Final Edition SECTION: A SECTION; Pg. A20 LENGTH: 1448 words HEADLINE: Pressure Builds for President to Declare Strategy on Iran BYLINE: Michael Dobbs, Washington Post Staff Writer BODY: Soon after George W. Bush took office In January 2001, his advisers began drafting a strategy fo'r dealing with Iran, a radical Islamic state long suspected by Washington of supporting International terrorism and pursuing weapons of mass· destruction. More than two years later, the national security presidential directive on Iran has gone through several competing drafts and has yet to be approved by Bush's senior advisers, according to well-placed sources. In the meantime, experts In and outside the government are focusing on Iran as the United States' next big foreign policy crisis, with some predicting that the country could acquire a nuclear weapon as early as 2006. Critics on the left and the right point to the unfinished directive as evidence the administration lacks a coherent strategy toward a country Bush described as a key member of the "axis of eVil," along with North Korea and Saddam Hussein's Ir~q. "Our policy toward Iran Is neither fish nor fowl, neither engagement nor regime change," said Flynt L. Leverett, a Bush adviser on the Middle East who left the National Security Council staff In March and Is now with the Brookings Institution. The Bush·admlnlstratlon has yet to formulate a true Iran policy, agreed Michael A. Ledeen, a Middle East expert with the American Enterprise Institute. With other neoconservative Intellectuals, Ledeen has founded the Coalition for Democracy In Iran, which Is looking for ways to foment a democratic revolution to sweep away the ~ullahs who came to power In 1979. Senior administration officials refused to talk about the status of the Bush polley directive on Iran, on the grounds that It Is classified, but they say they have had some success In mobilizing International opinion against Iran's nuclear weapons program. As eVidence, they cite recent threats by Russia to cut off nuclear assistance to Tehran and moves by the International Atomic Energy Agency to censure Iran for failing to report the processing of nuclear· materials. While the officials have stopped short of embracing a policy of "regime change" In Iran, U.S. officials from Bush down have talked about prOViding moral support to the "reform movement" In Iran In Its struggle against an uneleeted government. As defined by Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, the U.s. goal Is to speak directly to the Iranian·people "over the heads of their leaders to let them know that we agree with them.n The Internal and external debate about what to do about Iran.has been brought to a head by recent revelations suggesting the Iranian nuclear weapons program Is much further along than many suspected. Tomorrow, the IAEA Board of Governors In Vienna Is to discuss findings shOWing that Iran has a wide range of options for producing fissile material for a nuclear bomb, from using heavy water reactors to produce plutonium to experiments In uranium enrichment. U.S. officials have also accused Iran of harboring members of the al Qaeda terrorist network who escaped from Afghanistan after the fall of the Tallban In December 2001. Th~y say some al Qaeda supporters hiding In Iran appear to have known In advance about recent terrorist attacks In Saudi Arabia, although there Is no direct evidence of operational ties between the Iranian government and al Qaeda. The escalating Iranian nuclear threat and suspicions of Iranian ties to terrorists have sharpened long-standing divisions In the administration over how to deal with Tehran. In the past, the State Department has put the emphasis on opening a dialogue with r~forF!.llst elements In the .~ranla~ leadership while the Pentagon has been more Interested In looking for ways to destabilize the authoritarian Islamic government. '---- Page2of2 ----:0-------_ 1';' ...~-:" .;:.;. Pr~nt ~ . ,.0. I .'\;,7.. I BU,reaucratlc tensions have reached the level where eac~ s!de has begun accusing the other of leaking unfavorable stories to the •mpdla to block policy Initiatives. "The knives are out,1I said a Pentagon official, who criticized national security adviser Condoleezza Rice for failing to end the dispute by Issuing clear policy guidelines. Powell, meanwhile, Insisted to Journalists that there has been no change In policy on Iran, despite what he depicted as frenzied media speculation "about what this person In that department might think or that person In another department might thlnk." The Iran debate goes back to a failed attempt by the Clinton administration to open an "unconditional dialogue" with Tehran. Even though the Iranians rejected the U.s. offer of unconditional talks, some Bush administration officials led by the State Department's director for policy planning, Richard N•. Haass, favored making renewed overtures. The proposals for a dialogue with Iran were partly Inspired by the 1994 framework agree~ent With North Korea under which the North Korean government agreed to accept International controls over Its nuclear program In return for economlc,asslstance, Including the construction of a civilian nuclear reactor. But the State Department approach ran Into strong opposition from the Pentagon and Vice President Cheney', and was shot down In Interagency meetings at the end of 2001. While there would be no "grand bargain" with th!! Iranian leadership, the Bush administration agre,ed to a more limited diplomatic dialogue, focusing on specific areas such as the war In Afghanistan or cooperation over Iraq. Several rounds of such talks took place In Geneva and Paris, with the Involvement of a special presidential envoy, Zalmay Khalllzad, but were suspended after the bombings In Saudi Arabia on May 12. The administration debate has been echoed by a much more public debate among Middle East analysts, nuclear proliferation experts, and leaders of the Iranian dlaspora. Congress has also weighed In with legislation sponsored by Sen. Sam Brownback (RKan.) that would funnel more than $ 50 million to Iranian pro-democracy Initiatives, Including prlyate California-based satellite television and radio stations set up by Iranian exiles. "We are not calling for a military attack on Iran," said Brownback, whose proposed IraI') Democracy Act has drawn bipartisan support but Is opposed by the leadership of the Foreign Relations Committee. The goal,he said, Is to support Iranian democracy activists, Including students Who took to the streets of Tehran again last week to protest the closure of opposition ne~spaper and the jailing of dissidents. Just how far the United States should go In supporting the protests Is the subject of heated argument Inside and outside the government, even among conservatives. Some argue Iran Is ripe for revolution. Others contend there Is little guarantee of radical change In Tehran In the three-year period some Independent proliferation experts estimate it will take before Iran could acquire nuclear weapons, and the United States should be thinking about other options, including preemptive action against suspected nuclear sites. "The Internal democratic forces In Iran are real and growing,. but they're not going to save us from having to think about what we • are going to do about theJranlan nuclear program and support for terrorlsm," said Reuel Marc Gerecht, a CIA case officer for Iran now with the American Enterprise Institute. Some analysts say that U.S. financial and propaganda support for the Iranian democracy movement could be counterproductive. lilt allows the hardliners to argue that there Is an external threat, and they must crack down In the name of national unlty," said Kaveh Ehsanl, an editor of the pro-reform journal Dialogue In Iran, now visiting the United States. ''There Is a kind of an unholy alliance between the Bush administration and the Iranian hardllners." • "We have tried appeasement, we have tried containment, and we h'ave tried engagement," countered S. Rob Sobhanl, a co-founder of the Coalition for Democracy In Iran and adjunct professor of government at Georgetown University. "All these policies have failed. What have we got to lose by empowerment?" The White House has avoided taking a position on the Brownback legislation and has restricted Its encouragement of democracy In Iran to verbal broadsides against the mullahs. In comments Thursday, Rice described Iran's pursuit of weapons of mass destruction as "not acceptable" and said that the United States "cannot tolerate circumstances In which at Qaeda operatives come In and out of ' Iran." She also accused Iran of stirring up trouble among ShIIte communities In southern Iraq. "We have to stand with the aspirations of the Iranian people which have been clearly expressed," she told a meeting in los Angeles, as thousands of Iranians took to the streets of Tehran In anti-government protests. LOAD-DATE: June 15, 2003

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OneMan's SecretPlan. ~, .., ~. 0 /1\ UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO 'Newsweek December 22, 2003 Periscope h~tp; ·0 ALL FBI INFO~~TION CONTAI~mD HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Regime Change In Iran? One Man's Secret Plan. Iran's Cllalabi? Manucller Gizorbanij'ar says he talked secretly witll Pentagon officials ahoutplansfor regime cllallge in Iran By Mark Hosenball What was international man ofmystery Manucher Ghorbanifar up to when he met with top Pentagon experts on Iran? In aNEWSWEEK interview in Paris last month, Ghorbanifar, a former Iranian spy who helped launch the Iran-contra affair, says one ofthe things he discussed with Defense officials Harold Rhode and Larry Franklin at meetings in Rome in December 2001 (and in Paris last June with only Rh9de) was regime change in Iran. Ghorbanifar says there are Iranians capable oforganizing a peaceful revolution against the ruling theocracy. He says his contacts know where Saddam Hussein,hid $340 million in cash. With American help, he says, this money could be retrieved and half used to overthrow the ayatollahs. (The other halfwould be turned overto the United States.) Ghorbanifar says he told his U.S. interlocutors that ousting the mullahs would be a breakthrough in the war on terror because top Qaeda, including Osama bin Laden, are in Iran. (ltyou wonlt be surprised ifyou find that Saddam Hussein is on one ofthe Iranian islands.It) Among other intel Ghorbanifar says he arid associates gave the Pentagon: a warning that terrorists in Iraq would a~ck hotels. He also says he had advance info about Iranian nukes and a terrorist plot in Canada. Financial gain was never his objective, he says: "We wanted to give them the money, not to take the money." The Pentagon cut offcontact with Ghorbanifar, whom the CIA years ago labeled as a fabricator, after _ news about the talks broke last summer. But controversy about the Iranian still reverberates in Washington. Administration sources say that when White House officials OK'd what they believed was a Pentagon effort to gather info about Iranian terrorist activity in Afghanistan, they didn't know Ghorbanifar was involved. When senior officials learned in 2002 about Ghorbanifar--and that regime change was on his agenda-they decided further contacts were "not worth pursuing." But Ghorbanifar says he continued to communicate with Rhode, and sometimes Franklin, by phone and fax five or six times a week until shortly after the Paris meeting last summer. (The Pentagon says any such contacts were sporadic and not authorized by top officials.) In Congress, investigations into the Ghorbanifar story have sparked partisan tensions. Democrats'want to know if the Ghorbanifar contacts are evidence of "rogue" espionage by a secretive Pentagon unit that allegedly dealt with controversial Iraqi exile Ahmad Chalabi; Republicans want to know whether the CIA refused to meet with potential informants merely because the middleman-Ghorbanifar--was someone the agency distrusted. A. Defense official says any discussion that Ghorbanifar had w~th Pentagon experts about regime change was a "one-way conversation." lofl 3130120041:31 PM ~~~l~ 6St~-d9b315-tJ c- kf>:>"~ P. UNCLAsSIFIED o WASHINGTON JOURNAL C-SPAN 7:45 AM JANU~RY 1,2004 U.S. Intelligence in Iraq ALL INFOP.NATION C01JTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-2~-2010 BY .60324 uc baw/sab/lsg CONNIE BROD: Robert Dreyfuss is a contributing editor for Mother Jones and the January-February edition ofMother Jones has the hit cover story by him called, liThe Lie Factory.1I What is the lie factory? ROBERT DREYFUSS [Contributing Editor, Mother Jones]: Well, I called the lie factory. It's kind ofbroader than"that. There was lies, but also distortions and exaggerations. I'm referring to the unit inside the Pentagon that prepared intelligence reports and talking papers for senior U.S. officials in the period going up to the war with Iraq. Now, that the war is over and we know that we found exactly zero evidence ofties between Iraq anp. al Qaeda and zero evidence of tie~ between Iraq and weapons ofmass destruction, it's way past time that we went back and looked at how did they get this so wrong? The administration is already trying to change the subject, as you know, they're saying, well, it wasn't about weapons ofmass destruction, Saddam was a bad guy and the world is safer now. I guess I'm amazed that he's been able to get away with that so far, the President. BROD: You went all the way b~ck to the day after the President took office to begin this story about this office. What happened that day? DREYFUSS: Well, one day after the President was sworn in they had a meeting oftheir national security team. And one ofthe top items on the agenda ofthat meeting -- this was nine months before 9/11 was regime change in Iraq. And ofcourse there's a reason for that, many ofthe senior officials who took up places in the Bush administration have long been on record, some ofthem for as long as a decade going back to the first GulfWar that the United States had a responsibility to go in militarily and get rid ofSaddam Hussein. So there had been a drumbeat from afairly small but well organized group offormer U.S. officials, many ofthem intelligence people, and, ofcourse, the Iraqi exile groups that they were associated with to bring about regime change. And that meeting that you referred to UNCLASSIFIEDo UNCIJASSIFIED o really was the first ofmany efforts to start to focus this administration on Iraq. And they started to putting into place the people in various parts ofthe Pentagon~ especially who would undertake tnat. And ofcourse it wasn't until after 9/11 that the political will suddenly materialized and they realized thatthey could sell this policy, first of all to the President and then second of all to the America~ people. BROD: Some ofthe figures who you talk about in here are very well known -- Newt Gingrich,.Paul Wolfowitz, Richard Perle, but you also concentrate a lot on a gentleman who may not be as well known, Douglas Feith. Who is he? And what was his role in this office -. secret office set up? DREYFUSS: Well, Doug Feith works directly under Paul Wolfowitz as the person at the Pentagon in charge ofpolicy. He's a senior official at the Pentagon, a civilian, not a military person. And he and Wolfowitz both have long roots in the neo-conservative movement. Doug Feith's law firm, Feith and ZeU, which had been around for the years before the administration took power, has a big Israeli office . and a lot ofties to the right wing Israeli government, the settler movement in Israel, and so forth. And Feith was a leading advocate in the 1990s for going to war in Iraq long before the Bush administration took office. So he was kind of an ideblogue and it was his job to put.together the team that would undertake the actual war planning inside the Pentagon and not just war planning in a technical sense, but also the policy and propaganda aspects ofhow to justify that war. BROD: Now,_ you talk -- this office, was it physically an office? Could people go the~e? DREYFUSS: Well, it was physically an office. What happened was under Doug Feith there is a second office which is sort ofthe . regional planning components ofthe Pentagon, there's one for each part of the world, and the Near East and.South Asian affairs office, which is called NESA, was headed up by a man named Bill Lootey, who is a former N~wt Gingrich aide who is also a longtime neoconservative and a U.S. Navycap~ain, former captain. And:.Bill Lootey headed up the office called NESA. And that was because Iraq is located in Near East, or Middle East. That was the office that Feith used to build up and create as the Office ofSpecial Plans. They gave that name to it in 2002 because they didri't want to tip their hand that they were definitely planning a war, so they gave it a meaningless name, special plans. But it was really the office for Iraq plans. BROD: And how did the office work? 2 UNCLASSIFIED \ UNCLASSIFIED o DREYFUSS: Well~ it started out actually as an intelligence group ofjust two or three people and it expanded to four or five people, but it started out right after 9/11 in 2001 when Doug Feith and a man named Harold Rhode, who'is another Pentagon official and a neo~onservative Middle East expert who speaks many languages from the region. And some others started putting ,together a team to try to link Iraq to what happened on 9/11. As we all knoW now, there was no connection between Iraq and 9/11. But they brought in a man named David Wormser who was at the time the head ofMiddle East Policy at the American Enterprise Institute. Now, AEI, American Enterprise Institute is where people like-Newt Gingrich and Richard Perle and many other neoconservatives and other conservatives sort ofhang out and use as their exile foreign policy shop. Wormser was brought in along with a guy named Mike Maloofand they were the first two p~ople who set up this little intelligence unit in the Pentagon that eventually grew and expanded and started churning out all ofthe misleading and distorted apd exaggerated efforts -- pieces ofinformation that were then handed to the various U.S. officials to run the propaganda to justify the war. They wanted to go into Iraq for grand strategic reasons, but they couldn't just say that and get the public behind them and certainly not Congress behind them. So they had to create the idea that Iraq was an imminent threat and the only way to do that was to say that Iraq was tied to terrorists who were planning to strike us and that Iraq had weapons ofmass destruction that could strike us. So Wormser and Maloofand then some ofthe other people who were brought into this job under Bill Lootey, under a guy named Abe Shulsky"who was later brought run the Office ofSpecial Pl~ns, not only started picking and choosing among all the intelligence that's available, you know, there are tens ofthousands ofbits ofintelligence that go into a con~lusion. Well, they discarded the ones they didn't like and they seized on the ones that justified the cause that they were trying to pursue. And they would write up talking points in papers and so forth, which were not real intelligence, in fact, none ofthese people were intelligence professionals; they were ideologues, they were people who had a mission. And there's no disputing this, in other words, you can disput~ whether the war was a good thing or a bad thing and you can dispute whether Bush is kind ofa dunce or a genius. But you can't dispute the fact that this office was made of people who were first of all not intelligence professionals and who purged -- fired, transferred a number ofpeople who were intelligence professionals because they disagreed with the conclusions that these ideologues were coming to. 3 UNCLASSIFIED \ o UNCLASSIFIED They brought into this office as it expanded into probably a couple ofdozen people with maybe 50 or 100 people who would pass in · and out ofit as contractors and helpers and supporters, they brought into people who were committed ideologically to the cause and who would come up with the conclusion they wanted. So all ofthe information that we later heard from people like Vice President Cheney and even the President about the aluminum tubes, about the uranium from Niger, about tlie unmanned aerial vehicles that could strike the United States, about thousands oftons ofterrible gasses and chemicals that were stored in Iraq, about its reconstituted nuclear program, about biological mobile labs, none ofthis existed. It was all a complete mythology. BROD: This is a complicated story and you have laid out the kind ofthe flow chart for this office in your piece and ifour camera could just go down you'll see some ofthe names ofthe people that youhave talked about. Our phone lines are also open. You can start dialing now if you're interested in talking with Mr. Dreyfuss. My question to you is: Who are your sources for this? DREYFUSS: Well, many ofthe people we talked to, we talked to on the record and they are quoted in there. I think the most courageous person of all is Lieutenant Colonel Karen Ketkowsky who is now retired, but she served in the Office ofNESA, the Near East and South Asian affairs office for about a year and saw this up close. And she described to me in detail sitting on a wood porch in her farm now, she lives out in western Virginia. She described to me in detail how people she knew were purged and forced into - retirement in this office and how people were encouraged to come up with the kind of conclusions that the President and the Vice President seemed to want. She talked about how Vice President Cheney had his staff working directly with this Pentagon office, which is highly unusu~l. In otl!er words, this office was four levels down in the Pentagon. Normally its work would go to Bill Lootey, and then to Doug Feith, and then to Paul Wolfowitz, and then to Secretary ofDe(ense Rumsfeld. But, in fact, you had people like Newt Gingrich coming in constantly, people like Richard Perle and people like Vice President Cheney and his office, who were tasking this unit, saying what about this and what about that? And getting reports from, them. I mean it's highly unusual for the Vice President's office, which is not part ofthe Pentagon, as we know to have a direct working relationship with an office in the bowels ofthe Pentagon's civilian bureaucracy. 4 UNCLASSIFIED 'I I rt '\ \ UNCLASSIFIED o BROD: Let's get-to some phone calls for you, first off, Westwood, New Jersey, Republican. Good morning. CALLER: Connie, happy New Year to you and Robert. DREYFUSS: Thank you. CALLER: I'm very, very interested in your flow chart and I'm a veteran of World War II. My parents taught me never to lie. And so lies are very important to. me. The big lie at the present time, I think, is that judges have the right to make laws and I think you should be more interested in that because that has more far-reaching effects on everything, including what you're talking about. The big lie is that, for example, in Roe v. Wade. BROD: Caller, I'm sorry, but this is really way offthe subject ofwhat we're talking about this morning. We're going to let you go and try to stay on topic this morning. Burlington, Massachusetts, Democrat. , CALLER: Hi, good morping, Robert Dreyfuss. DREYFUSS: Good morning. CALLER: Fantastic subject this morning. Very similar to really an awesome chapter in the AI Franken book about lies and how that was -- when that administration came in it seemed like they were really trying to warn them about terrorist activities and they were trying to ignore it and ignore it and put their own thing into place and I'm sorry I don't have the book in front ofme, but it's a fantastic chapter right next to which you're talking about and I think everybody should read it. BROD: Have you read it, Mr. Dreyfuss? DREYFUSS: I haven't read AI's book yet, but it's on my list ofNew Year's reading. BROD: Greenville, South Carolina. Republican. CALLER: Good morning, how are you? BROD: Great. CALLER: I think that his whole premise is ajoke. And I think that you're just trying to grasp with straws to put down President Bush who is doing a.greatjob by the way I might add. BROD: Grasping at straws, Mr. Dreyfuss? 5 UNCLASSIFIED (/ \ o UNCLASSIFIED o DREYFUSS: That's a silly comment. The President may be doing a great job or not doing a great job. This is a story about whether' ... there were weapons ofmass destruction in Iraq, which was the main rationale for mobilizing our entire nation to go to war. And the things weren't there and I thi~ we're going to ask why and what happened and why was ,. the President so wrong? I mean Senator Bill Nelson from Florida said the other day that he was told in a closed briefing that Iraq had unmanned aerial vehicles that can carry chemical weapons and biological weapons to the East Coast ofthe United States. Things like this are simply not true. When we finally got there we found these rickety old Wright brothers looking planes that couldn't have gotten out ofBaghdad airport, which were not ' really military by the way at all. So the kinds ofexaggerations and distortions that got into the President's speeches, he said that in Cincinnati in a modified way about these vehicles that could attack the United States are ludicrous. And I'm just stunned at the fact that even supporters ofthe President and Republicans in Congress just dismissed this and say, well, Iraq is better off, so why are we bothering even to talk about these weapons when that was hammered and hammered and hammered for months that Iraq was an urgent threat to the·United States. BROD: Besides writing for Mother Jones as a contributing editor, Mr. Dreyfuss is also a contributing editor for The Nation magazine and a contributing writer for The American Prospect and a frequent contributor to Rolling Stone. 6 UNCLASSIFIED rt --' ' _._-----..,-_._--- --- ( TheJ.,ie FactofY e,YBIPJ)!040106ls2(\0401062ti65Z0.html o UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Mother Jones Magazine January/February 2004 Pg.34 , "•" ~:.,;' :J,~':( ~ :-~;~..~.~~~t·~~~:t:~V!1{af:~D~~ariill~iif~ftle~~1f~r~' - ·w .. ~ .... ...f"tt"",~_\:;'.1~~~J.,~,..-l""~=:=;) ... ,."............."~"'Z~~ .. \,,,II. ~ PIA HomeIWhat's New IProduetsJ)y T)3)el Products by Re8ionI~ I&1R. ALL FBI INFORMATION CbNTAINED HEREIN IS TlNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg The Lie Factory Only weeks after 9/11, tile Busl, administration set up a secret Pelltagon unit to create ti,e case for invading Iraq. Here is ti,e inside story for I,OW tlley puslied disinformation and bogus intelligellce and led ti,e nation to war. By Robert Dreyfuss and Jason Vest It's a crisp fall day in western Virginia, a hundred miles from Washington, D.C., and a breeze is rustling the red',and gold leaves ofthe Shenandoah hills. On the weather-beaten wood porch ofa ramshackle 90-year-old farmhouse, at the end ofa winding dirt-and-gravel road, Lt. Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski is perched on a plastic chair, wearing shorts, a purple sweatshirt, and muddy sneakers. Two scrawny dogs and a lone cat are on the prowl, and tne air is filled with swarms So far, she says, no investigators have come knocking. Not from the Central Intelligence Agency, which conducted an internal inquiry into intelligence on Iraq, not from the congressional intelligence committees, not from the president's Foreign·Intelligence Advisory Board. All ofthose bodies are ostensibly looking into the Bush administration's prewar Iraq intelligence, amid charges that ~he White . House and the Pentagon exaggerated, distorted, or just plain lied about Iraq's links to Al Qaeda terrorists and its possession of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons., In her hands, Kwiatkowski holds several pieces ofthe puzzle. Yet she, along with a score ofother career officers recently retired or shuffled offto other jobs, has not been approached by anyone. . Kwiatkowski, 43, a pow-retired Air Force officer who served in the Pentagon's Near East and South Asia (NESA) unit in the year before the invasion ofIraq, observed how the Pentagon's Iraq war-planning unit manufactured scare stories about Iraq's weapons and ties to terrorists. "It wasn't intelligence-it was propaganda," she says. "They'd take a little bit ofinteIligence, cherry-pick it, make it sound much more exciting, usually by taking it out ofcontext, often by juxtaposition oftwo pieces ofinfonnation that don't belong together." It was by turning such bogus intelligence into talking points for U.S. officials-including ominous lines in speeches 1?Y President Bush and Vice President Cheney, along with Secretary ofState Colin Powell's testimony at the U:N. Security Council last February-that the administration pushed American public opinion into supporting an unnecessary war. - Until now, the story ofhow the Bush administration produced its wildly exaggerated estimates ofthe threat posed by Iraq has never been revealed in full. But, for the first time,a detailed investigation by Mother Jones, based on dozens ofinterviews-some on the record, some with officials who insisted on anonymity-exposes the workings ofa secret Pentagon intelligence unit and ofthe Defense Department's war-planning task force, the Office ofSpecial Plans. It's the story ofa close-knit team of ideologues who spent a decade or more hammering out plans for an attack on Iraq and who used the events of September 11, 2001, to set it into motion. _SIX MQNTHS AFTER THE END ofmajor combat in Iraq, the United States had spent $300 million 10f7 313012004 1:31 PM - I ~ ---------_.._-_._-_._--_._-----_._---_..._---_.__._- _._._.__._--_.•_----_.._--_..._------ r 111e:Lie FactoI)',yBIRD/040106l.~OO40J06246S20.html .r ·0 0 " trying to find banned weapons in Iraq, and President Bush was seeking $600 million more to extend the search. Not found were Iraq's Scuds and other long-range missiles, thousands ofbarrels and tons of anthrax and botulism stock, sarin and VX nerve agents, mustard gas, biological and chemical munitions, mobile labs for producing biological weapons, and any and all ~vidence ofa reconstituted nuclear-arms program, all ofwhich had been repeatedly cited as justification for the war. Also missing was evidence ,ofIraqi collaboration with Al Qaeda. The reports, virtually all false, ofIraqi weapons and terrorism ties emanated from an apparatus that began to gestate almost as soon as the Bush administration took power. In the very first meeting ofthe Bush national-security team, one day after President Bush took the oath ofoffice in January 2001, the issue of invading Iraq was raised, according to one ofthe participants in the meeting-and officials all the way down the line started to get the message, long before 9/11. Indeed, the Bush team at the Pentagon hadn't even been formally installed before Paul Wolfowitz, the deputy secretary ofDefense, and Douglas J. Feith, undersecretary ofDefense for policy; began putting together what would become the vanguard for regime change in Ira~. Both WolfoWitz and Feith have deep roots in the neoconservative movement. One ofthe most influential Washington neoconservatives in the foreign-policy establishment during the Republicans' wilderness years ofthe 1990s, Wolfowitz has long held that not taking Baghdad in 1991 was a grievous mistake. He and others now prominent in the administration said so repeatedly over the past decade in a slew of letters and policy papers from neoconservative groups like the Project for the New American Century . and the Committee for the Liberation ofIraq. Feith, a former aide to Richard Perle at the Pentagon in the 1980s and an activist in far-right Zionist circles, held the view that there was no difference between U.S. and Israeli security policy and that the best way to secure both countries' future was to solve the Israeli-Palestinian problem not by serving as a broker, but with the United States as a force for "regime change" in the region. Called in to help organize the Iraq war-planning team was a longtime Pentagon official, Harold Rhode, a specialist on Islam who speaks Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, and Farsi. Though Feith would not be officially confirmed until July 2001, career military and civilian officials in NESA began to watch his office with concern after Rhode set up shop in Feith's office in early January. Rhode, seen by many veteran staffers as an ideological gadfly, was officially assigned to the Pentagon's Office ofNet Assessment, an in-house Pentagon think tank headed by fellow neocon Andrew Marshall. Rhode helped Feith lay down the law about the department's new anti-Iraq, and broadly anti-Arab, orientation. In one telling incident, Rhode accosted and harangued a visiting senior Arab diplomat, telling him that there would be no "bartering in the bazaar anymore.... You're going to have to sit up and pay attention when we say so." Rhode refused to be interviewed for this story, saying cryptically, "Tho~e who speak, pay." ~ According to insiders, Rhode worked with Feith to purge career Defense officials who weren't sufficiently enthusiastic. about the muscular anti-Iraq crusade that Wolfowitz and Feith wanted. Rhode appeared to be "pulling people out ofnooks and crannies ofthe Defense Intelligence Agency and other places to replace us with," says a fonner analyst. "They wanted nothing to do with the professional staff. And they wanted us the fuck out ofthere." The unofficial, off-site recruitment office for Feith and Rhode was the American Enterprise Institute, a right-wing think tank whose 12th-floor conference room in Washington is named for the dean of neoconservative defense strategists, the late Albert Wohlstetter, an influential RA~·analyst and University ofChicago mathematician. Headquartered at AEI is Richard Perle, Wohlstetter's prize protege, the godf~ther ofthe AEI-Defense Department nexus ofneoconservatives who was chairman of 2of7 .313012004 1:31 PM o o the Pentagon's influential Defense Policy Board. Rhode, along with Michael Rubin, a former AEI staffer who is also now at the Pentagon, was a ubiquitous presence at AEI conferences on Iraq over the past two years, and the two Pentagon officials se~med almost to be serving as stage managers for the A.EI events, often sitting in the front row and speaking in stage whispers to panelists and AEI officials. Just after September 11,2001, Feith and Rhode recruited David Wurmser, the director ofMiddle East studies for AEI, to serve as a Pentagon consultant. ~: The J.,ie Factory Wurmser would be the founding participant ofthe unnamed, secret intelligence unit at the Pentagon, set up in Feith's office, which would be the nucleus ofthe Defense Department's Iraq disinfonnation campaign that was established within weeks ofthe attacks in New York and Washington. While the CIA and other intelligence agencies concentrated on Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda as the culprit in the 9/11 attacks, Wolfowitz and Feith obsessively focused on Iraq. It was a theorY that was discredited, even ridiculed, among intelligence professionals. Daniel Benjamin, co-author ofThe Age ofSacred Terror, was director ofcounterterrorism at the National Security Council in the late 1990s. "In 1998, we went through every piece ofintelligence we could find to see if there was alink between Al Qaeda and Iraq," he says. "We came to the conclusion that our intelligence agencies had it right: There was no noteworthy relationship between Al Qaeda and Iraq. I know that for a fact!' Indeed, that was the consensus among virtually all anti-terrorism specialists. In sh~rt, Wurmser, backed by Feith and Rhode, set out to prove what didn't exist. IN AN ADMINISTRATION devoted to the notion of '·Feith-based intelligence," Wurmser was ideal. For years, he'd been a shrill ideologue, part ofthe minoritY crusade during the 1990s that was beating the drums for war against Iraq. Along with Perle and Feith, in 1996 Wurmser and his wife, Meyrav, wrote a provocative strategy paper for Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu called"A Clean Break: ANew Strategy for Securing the Realm." It called on Israel to work with Jordan and'Turkey to "contain, destabilize and roll back" various states in the region, overthrow Saddam Hussein in Iraq, press Jordan to restore a scion ofthe Hashemite dynasty to the Iraqi throne, and, above all, launch military assaults against Lebanon and Syria as a "prelude to a redrawing ofthe map ofthe Middle East which would threaten Syria's territorial integrity." In 1997, Wormser wrote a column in the Wall Street Journal called "Iraq Needs a Revolution" and the next year co-signed a letter with Perle calling for all-out U.S. support ofthe Iraqi National Congress (INC), an exile group led 'byAhmad Chalabi, in promoting an insUrgency in Iraq. At AEI, Wurmser wrote Tyranny's Ally: America's Failure to Defeat Saddam Hussein, essentially a book-length version of "A Clean Break" that proposed "an alliance between Jordan and the INC to redraw the map ofthe Middle East. Among the mentors cited by Wurmser in the book: Chalabi, Perle, and Feith. The purpose ofthe unnamed intelligence unit, often described as a Pentagon "cell," was to scour reports from the CIA, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and other agencies to find nuggets ofinformation linking Iraq, Al Qaeda, terrorism, and the existence ofIraqi we~pons ofmass destruction (WMD). In a controversial press briefing in 0ctober 2002, a year after Wurmser's unit was established, Secretary ofDefense Donald Rumsfeld acknowledged that a primary purpose ofthe unit was to cull factoids, which were then used to disparage, undermine, and contradict the CIA's reporting, which was far more cautious and nuanced than Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz, and Feith wanted. Rumsfeld pa~icularly enjoyed harassing the CIA staffer who briefed him every morning, using the type of~ata produced by the intelligence unit. "What I could do is say, 'Gee, what about this?'" Rumsfeld noted. "'Or what about that? Has somebody thought ofthis?'" Last June, when Feith was questioned on the same topic at a briefing, he acknowledged that the secret unit in fact looked at the connection between Iraq and terrorism, saying, "You can't rely on deterrence to deal with the problem ofweapons ofmass destruction in the hands of 30f7 313012004 1:31 PM o o 4of? s~te sponsors ofterrorism because [of] the possibility that those state sponsors might employ chemical weapons or biologicatweapons by means ofa terrorist organization proxy...." Though Feith, in that briefing, described Wunnser's unit as an innocent project, "a global exercise" that was not meant to put pressure-on other intelligence agencies orcreate skewed intelligence to fit preconceived policy notions, many other sources assert that it did exactly that. That the White House and the Pentagon put enonnous pressure on the CIA'to go along with its version ofevents has been widely reported, highlighted by visits to CIA headquarters by Vice President Cheney and Lewis Libby, his chief ofstaff. Led by Perle, the neocons seethed with contempt for the CIA. The CIA'S analysis, said Perle, "isn't worth the paper it's printed on." Standing in a crowde~ hallway during an AEI event, Perle added, liThe CIA is status quo oriented. They don't want to take risks.," That became the mantra ofthe shadow agency within an agency.. Putting Wurmser in charge ofthe unit meant that it was being run by a pro-Iraq-war ideologue who'd spent years calling for a pre-emptive invasion ofBaghdad and who was clearly predisposed to find what he wanted to see. Adding another layer ofdubious quality to the endeavor was the man partnered with Wurmser, F. Michael Maloof. Maloo~ a former aide to Perle in the 1980s Pentagon, was twice stripped ofhis high-level security clearances-once in late 2001 and again last spring, for various infractions. Maloofwas also reportedly involved in a bizarre schemeto broker contacts betweenJraqi officials and the Pentagon, channeled through Perle, in what one report called a "rogue [intelligence] operation" 'outside officiai CIA and Defense Intelligence Agency channel~. As the momentum for war began to build in early 2002, Wolfowitz and Feith beefed up the intelligence unit and created an Iraq war-planning upit inthe Pentagon's Near East and South Asia Affairs section, run by Deputy Undersecretary ofDefense William Luti, under the rubric "Office ofSpecial Plans," or OSP; the new unit's director was Abram N. Shulsky. By then, Wunnser had moved on to a post as senior adviser to Undersecretary of State John Bolton, yet another neocon, who was in charge ofthe State Department's disarmament, proliferation, and WMD office and was promoting the Iraq war strategy there. Shulsky's OSP, which incorporated the secret intelligence unit, took control, banishing veteran experts-including Joseph McMillan, James Russell, Larry Hanauer, and Marybeth McDevitt-who, despite years ofservice t9 NESA, either were shuffled offto other positions or retired. For the next year, Luti and Shulsky not only would oversee war plans but would act aggressively to shape the intelligence product rece~ved by the White House. Both Luti and Shulsky were neoconservatives who were ideological soulmates ofWolfowitz and Feith. But Luti was more than that. He'd come to the Pentagon directly from the office ofVice President Cheney. That gave Luti, a recently retired, decorated Navy captain whose career ran from combat aviation to command ofa helicopter assault ship, extra clout. Along with his colleague Colonel William Bruner, Luti had done a stint as an aide to Newt Gingrich in 1996 and, like Perle and Wolfowitz, was an acolyte ofWohlstetter's. "He makes Ollie North look like a moderate," says a NESA veteran. Shulsky had been on the Washington scene since the mid-1970s. As a Senate intelligence committee staffer for Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, he began to work with ~arly neoconservatives like Perle, who was then an aide to· Senator Henry Jackson. Later, in the Reagan years, Shulsky followed Perle to the Pentagon as Perle's arms-control adviser. In the '90s, Shulsky co-authored a book .on intelligence called Silent Warfare, with Gary Schmitt. Shulsky had served with Schmitt on Moynihan's staffand they had remained friends. Asked about the Pentagon's Iraq intelligence "cell," Schmitt-who is currently the executive director ofthe Project for the New American Century-says that he can't say much about it "because one ofmy best friends is running it." .3130120041:31 PM (1 The Tie,Factory L. f"" http://delphi.dia.ic.gev/admfnlEARLYBIRD/040106/s200~0106246S20.html o 50f7 According to Lt. Colonel Kwiatkowski, Luti and Shulsky ran NESA and the Offi~e of Special Plans with brutal efficiency, purging people they disagreed with and enforcing t~e party li~e. "It was organized like a machine," she says. "The people working on the neocon agen~a had a narrow, well-defined political agenda. They had a sense of mission." At NESA, Shulsky, she says, began "hot-desking," or taking an office wherever he could find one, working with Feith and Luti, before formally taking the reips ofthe newly created asp. Together, she says, Luti and Shulsky turned cherry-picked pieces ofuncorroborated, . anti-Iraq intelligence into talking points, on issues like Iraq's WMD and its links to Al Qaeda. Shulsky constantly updated these papers, drawing on the intelligence unit, and circulated them to Pentagon officials, including Rumsfeld, and to Vice President Cheney. "Ofcourse, we never thought they'd go directly to the White House," she adds. Kwiatkowski recalls one meeting in which Luti, pressed to finish a report, told the staff, "I've got to get. this over to 'Scooter' right away." She later found out that "Scooter" was none other than Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Vice President Cheney's chief ofstaff. According to Kwiatkowski, Cheney had direct ties through Luti into NESAlOSP, a connection that was highly unorthodox. "Never, ever, ever would a deputy undersecretary ofDefense work directly on a project for the vice pre.sident," she says. Illt was a little clue that we had an informal network into Vice President Cheney's office." Although Feith insists that the OSP did not seek to gather its own intelligence, Kwiatkowski and others sharply disagree. Staffworking for Luti and Shulsky in NESAlOSP churned out propaganda-style intelligence, she says. As an example, she cited the work ofa U.S. intel1~gence officer and Arabic specialist, Navy Lt. Commander Youssef Aboul-Enein, who W8;S a special assistant to Luti. "His job was to peruse the Arabic-language media to find articles that would incriminate Saddam Hussein about terrorism, and he translated these.II Such raw intelligence is usually subject to a thorough vetting process, tracked, verified, and checked by intelligence professionals. But not at aSP-the material that it produced found its way directly into speeches by Bush, Cheney, and other officials. According to Melvin Goodman, a former CIA official and an intelligence specialistat the National War College, the OSP officials routinely pushed lower-ranking staffaround on intelligence matters. "People were being pulled aside [and being told], 'We saw your last piece and it's not what we're looking for,t1t he says. "It was pretty blatant.II Two State Department intelligence officials, Greg Thielmann and Christian Westermann, have bot~ charged that pressure was being put on them to shape intelligence to fit policy, in particular from Bolton's office. tithe Al Qaeda connection and nuclear ~eapons issue were the only two ' ways that you could link Iraq to an imminent security threat to the U.S.," Thielmann told the New York Times. IIAnd th~ administration was grossly distorting the intelligence on both things.It BESIDES CHENEY, key members ofthe Pentagonls Defense Policy Board, i!1cluding Perle and ex-House SpeakerNewt Gingrich, all Iraq hawks, had 4ir~ct input into NESAlOSP. The offices ofNESA were located on the Pentagonls fourth floor, seventh corridor of0 Ring, and the Policy Board's offices were directly below, on the third floor. During the run-up to the ;Jraq war, Gingrich often came up for closed-door meetings with Luti, who in 1996 had served as a congressional fellow in Speaker ofthe House Gingrich's office., As OSP got rolling, Luti brought in Colonel Bruner, a former military aide to Gingrich, and, together, Luti an4 Bruner opened the door to a vast flow ofbogus intelligence fed to the Pentagon by Iraqi defectors associated with Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress group ofexiles. Chalabi founded the Iraqi National Congress in 1992, with the help ofa shadowy CIA-connected public-relations firm called the 313012004 I:31 PM rr The,Lie Factory G 60f7 Rendon Group, one ofwhose former employees, Francis Brooke, has been a top aide to Chalabi ever since. Ascion ofan aristocratic Iraqi family, Chalabi fled Baghdad at the age of 13, in 1958, when the corrupt Iraqi Hashemite monarchy was overthrown by a coalition ofcommunists and the Iraqi military. In the late 1960s, Chalabi studied mathematics at the University ofChicago with Wohlstetter, who introduced him to Richard Perle more than a decade later. Long associated with the heart ofthe neoconservative movement, Chalabi founded Petra Bank in Jordan, which grew to be Jordan's third-largest bank by the 1980s. But Chalabi was accused ofbank fraud, embezzlement, and currency manipulation, and he barely escaped before Jordanian authorities could arrest him; in 1992, he was convicted and sentenced in absentia to more than 20 years ofhard labor. After founding the INC, Chalabi's bungling, unreliability, and penchant for mismanaging funds caused the CIA to sour on him, but he never lost the support ofPerle, Feith, Gingrich, and their allies; once, soon after 9/11, Perle invited Chalabi to address the Defense Policy Board. According to m!1ltiple sources, Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress sent a steady stream ofmisleading and often faked intelligence reports into U.S. intelligence channels. That information would flow sometimes into NESA/OSP directly, sometimes through Defense Intelligence Agency debriefings ofIraqi defectors via the Defense Human Intelligence Service, and sometimes through the INC's own U.S.-funded Intelligence Collection Program, which was overseen by the Pentagon. The INC's intelligence "isn't reliable at all," according to Vjncent Cannistraro, a former CIA chiefofcounterterrorism. "Much ofit is propaganda. Much of it is telling the Defense Department what they want to hear, using alleged informants and defectors who say what Chalabi wants them to say, [creating] cooked information that goes right into presidential and vice presidential speeches." Bruner, the aide to Luti and Gingrich's former staffer, "was Chalabi's pandler," says Kwiatkowski. "He would arrange meetings with Chalabi and Chalabi's folks," she says, adding that the INC leader often prought people into the NESA/OSP offices for debriefings. Chalabi claims to have introduced only three actual defectors to the Pentagon, a figure Thielmann considers "awfully low." However, according to an investigation by the Los Angeles Times, the three defectors provided by Chalabi turned up exactly zero useful intelligence. The first, an Iraqi engineer, claimed to have specific informatio~ about biological weapons, but his information didn't pan out; the second claimed to know about mobile labs, but that information, too, was worthless; and the third, who claimed to have data about Iraq's nuclear program, proved to be a fraud. Chalabi also claimed to have given the Pen~gon information about Iraqi SliPport for AI Qaeda. "We ga~e the names ofpeople who were doing the links," he told an interview~r from PBS'S Frontline. Those links, ofcourse, have not been discovered. Thielmann told the same Frontline interviewer that the Office ofSpecial Plans didn't apply strict intelligence-verification standards to "some ofthe information coming out ofChalabi and the INC that OSP and the Pentagon ran with... In the war's aftermath, the Defense Intelligence Agency-which is not beholden to the neoconservative civilians at the Pentagon-leaked a report it prepared, concluding that few, if any, ofthe INC's informants provided worthwhile intelligence. SO FAR, DESPITE ALL ofthe investigations underway, there is little sign that any ofthem are going to delve into the operatidns ofthe Luti-Shulsky Office ofSpecial Plans and its secret intelligence unit. Because it operates in the Pentagon's policy shop, it is not officially part ofthe intelligence community, and so it is seemingly immune to congressional oversight. With each passing day, it is becoming excruciatingly clearer just how wrong U.S.. intelligence was in regard to Iraqi weapons and support for terrorism. The American teams ofinspectors in the Iraq Survey Group, which ha_s employed ~p to 1,400 p~op~e to scour the country and analyze the findings, have not _313012004 1:31 PM been able to find a shred of evidence ofanything other than dusty old plans and records ofweapons apparently destroyed more than a decade ago., Countless examples offruitless searches have been reported in the media. To cite one example: U.S. soldiers intelligence report claiming that a complex built for Uday Hussein, Saddam's son, hid a weapons warehouse with poison-gas storage tanks. "Well," U.S. Army Major Ronald Hann Jr. told the Los Angeles T~mes, "the warehouse was a carport. It still had two cars inside. And the tanks had propane for the kitchen." tr..i.t.. The } Faetoty " - o 7of7 Countless other errors and exaggerations have become evident. The thousands ofaluminum tubes supposedly imported by Iraq for uranium enrichment were fairly conclusively found to be designed to build noncontroversial rockets. The long-range unmanned aerial vehicles, allegedly built to deliver bioweapons, were smal~, rickety, experimental planes with wood frames. The mobile bioweapon labs turned out to have had other, civilian purposes. And the granddaddy ofall falsehoods, the charge that Iraq sought uranium in the West African-country ofNiger, was based on forged documents-documents that the CIA, the State Department, and other agencies knew were fake nearly a year before President Bush highlighted the issue inhis State ofthe Union address in January 2003. "Either the system broke down," former Ambassador Joseph Wilson, who was sent by the CIA to visit , Niger and whose findings helped show that the documents were forged, told Mother Jones, "or there was selective use ofJJits ofinformation to justify a decision to go to war that had already been taken." Edward Luttwak, a neoconservative scholar and author, says flatly that the Bush administration lied about the intelligence it had because it was afraid to go to the American people and say that the war was simply about getting rid ofSaddam Hussein. Instead, says Luttwak, the White House was groping for a rationale to satisfy the United Nations' criteria for war. :'Cheney was forced into this fake posture of worrying about weapons ofmass destruction," he says. liThe ties to Al Qaeda? That's complete no.nsense." In the Senate, Senator Jay Rockefeller (D-W.Va.) is pressing for the Intelligence Committee to extend its investigation to look into the specific role ofthe Pentagon's Office of Special Plans, but there is strong Republican resistance to the idea. In the House, Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Cali£) has introduced legislation calling for a commission to investigate the intelligence mess and has collected more than a hundred Democrats-but no Republicans-in support ofit. "I think they need to b~ looked at pretty carefully," Waxman told Mother Jones when asked-about the Office ofSpecial Plans. "I'd like to know whether the political people pushed the intelligence people to slant their conclusions." - Congressman Waxman, meet Lt. Cololl:el Kwiatkowski. 3130120041:31 PM i_, ~ -I; ~1I .~ ~-- ALL INFOR}~TION CONTAI~mD HEREIN IS VNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg The United States and Shi'ite Religious Factions in Post-Ba'thist Iraq Juan Cole In post-Saddam Husayn Iraq, Shi'ite militias rapidly established their authority in East Baghdadand other urban neighborhoods ofthe south. Amongthe various groups which emerged, the Sadr Movement stands out as militant and cohesive. The sectarian, anti-American Sadrists wish to impose a puritanical, Khomeinist vision on Iraq. Their political influence is potentially much greater than their numbers. Incorporating them into a democratic Iraq while ensuring that they do not come to dominate itposes a severe challenge to the US Administration. In planning the war on Iraq, the American Defense Department and intelligence organizations appear to have been unaware that millions of Iraqi Shi'ites had joined a militant and puritanical movement dedicated to the establishment of an Iran-style Islamic Republic in Iraq, even though these developments had been detailed in many Arabic-language books-and articles.. On February 18, 2003, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz gave an interview on National Public Radio in which he maintained that "The Iraqis are . '0 • by and large quite secular.. They are overwhelmingly Shi'a which is different from the Wahabis of the peninsula, and they don't bring the sensitivity of having the holy cities of Islam being on their tenitory.~'1 Even more disturbingly, this quote shows that Wolfowitz did not realize that religious Iraqi Shi'ites are extremely sensitive about foreigners in their shrine cities such as Najafand Karbala, or that these cities are religious power centers of great symbolic potency. YS Defense Department leaders such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and his deputies, Wolfowitz and Douglas F~ith, mistakenly thought that the middle and lower strata of the Ba'th bureaucracy, police, and army would survive the war, and that they could simply hand it over to secular expatriate figure Ahmad Chalabi and his Iraqi National Congress. Although from a Shi'ite background, Chalabi was largely unknown in Iraq and was wanted in Jordan on embezzlement charges. The CIA and the State Department broke with Chalabi late·in 2002 when he proved unable -Juan Cole is Professor ofModern Middle Eastern and South Asian History at the University of ~ichigan. He is editor of the International Journal of Middle Bast Studies, and author of numerous books and articles. His recent works include Modernity and the Millennium (NewYork: Columbia University Press. 1998) and Sacred Space and Holy \Var.· The Politics, Culture and History ofShrite Islam (London: I.B. Tauris. 2002). . 1. "Deputy SecretaryWolfowitz Interview with National Public Radio:' February 19,2003 at http:/ Iwww.washingtonfile.netl2003IFeblFeb21IEURS09.HTM. MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL*VOWMES7. NO.4,AUI"UMN2003 IL II CoIeFlnaLp65 101&'2003. 4:00PM -"'~~ IL 544*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL to account for about $2 million of the $4 million they had given his Iraqi National Congress. The major religious Shi'ite groups with which the Americans were negotiating were part ofChalabi's group and included-the Tehran-based Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, the London branch of the al-Da'wa Party, and the J{hoei Foundation, of which only al-Da'wa had much popularity on the ground in Iraq. The US was ignorant of the Sadr Movement, the main indigenous Shi'ite force.. This ignorance was to cost the US great political capital in the first mont~s of the occupation. When the Ba'th fell on April 9, 2003, Shi'ite militias seemed suddenly to emerge and take control of many urban areas in the south of the country, as well as in the desperately poor slums of East Baghdad. The moral authority of Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani and his more quietist colleagues in Najaf had been known to the US, but it transpired that other ayatollahs and leaders had more political clout. The rank and file of Iraqi Shi'ites in the urban areas was far more radicalized by the last decade of Ba'th rule than anyone on the outside had realized. These developments alarmed Washington, given that some 60% to 65% of Iraqis are.Shi'ites, and this group would therefore predominate in a democratic Iraq. The religious groups constitute only one section of the Shi'ite population, perhaps a third or more, but they are well organized and armed. - My thesis here is that the Sadr Movement is at the moment the most important tendency among religious Shi'ites in post-Ba'thist Iraq, and that it is best seen as a sectarian phenomenon in the "sociology of religions" sense. It is· primarily a youth movement and its rank and file tend to be poor•. It is highly puritanical and xenophobic, and it is characterized by an exclusivism unusual in Iraqi Shi'ism. To any extent that it emerges as a leading social force in Iraq, it will prove polarizing and destabilizing. In spring and summer of 2003 its leadership had decided not to challenge actively the coalition military. In contemporary theories of the sociology of religion, a "sect" is characteri~ed by a high degree of tension with mainstream society, employing a rhetoric of difference,antagonism, and separation.2 The "~igh-tension" model of the sect predicts that it will attempt strongly to demarcate itself off from the mainstream of society. It will also cast out those members who are perceived to be too accommodating of non-sectarian norms., it demands high levels of loyalty and obedience in the pursuit of exclusivism. IRAQI SHI'ISM IN HISTORY Under the Ottomans, a Sunni political elite flourished in what is now Iraq, with political ties to Istanbul. Shi'ism remained vigorous, however. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many tribespeople of the south converted to-the Shi'ite branch of Islam, under the influence of missionaries sent out from the shrine cities of Najaf and Karbala, where Shi'ite holy figures Imam 'Ali and Imam Husayn were int~rred. -2. Rodney Stark an~ William Sims Bainbridge, The Future ofReligion (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University ofCalifornia Press, 1985), pp. 19·34, 135. -+ 1~4:00PM • ",!, ~ ..J f 1~-:crQru IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*545 'Ali was the son-in-law and cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, and Husayn was the prophet's grandson. This tribal conversion movem~nt appears to have been a protest of the weak, a way of using religion to resist the power of the Sunni Ottoman bureaucracy•. Over time, it created a Shi'ite majority in what was to become Iraq. This region also witnessed the victory among Shi'ites in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries of the Usuli ,school ofjurisprudence, which held that all lay believers must follow or "emulate" a learned ShiCite jurisprudent with seminary training. They are to implement the rulings of this "object of emulation" (marja t al-taqlid) with regard to disputed points of Islamic law. They can only follow a living jurisprudent or mujtahid, however, with regard to any new issues that arise after the old one's death. The Usuli school gave to Shi'ite clerics a leadership position much more powerful and central than typically was bestowed by Sunni Muslims on their clerics.3 The British conquered Mesopotamia during World'War' I, and created out of Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra provinces (Arabic wi/ayat) a colonial state they called Iraq, which became formally independent in 1932..They cobbled together a big Kur4ish community in the north, $ome Thrkmen tribespeople, Sunni townspeople of the cen' ter, and the Shi'ite tribes and settled urban and rural groups of the south, into a new state. The Shi'ite majority probably grew larger in the course of the 20th century, but Sunnis remained in control politically and economically, under the monarchy, then the officers-ruled republic of 1958-.968, and then the Ba'th (Arab nationalist) regime of 1968-2003. The.Ba'th massively persecuted the religious Shi'ites of the south. It especially feared the aI-Da'wa al-Islamiyya Party, founded around 1958, which aimed at establishing a 'Shi'ite-dominated Islamic state. 4 The rise of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1978-79 frightened the Ba'th , which launched a war against the Khomeinist state there, and simultaneously, cracked down hard on the radical Shi'ite clerics in Iraq such as Muhammad Baqiral-Sadr (d. 1980), who theorized an Islamic state.. Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, "Sadr I," was executed alorig with many -3. For the historical background ofmodem Iraqi Shi'ism, see Pierre-Jean Luizard, Lafonnation de l'Irak contemporain [The Fonnation ofContemporary Iraq] (Paris: Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1991); Yitzhak Nakash, The Shi'is 'of Iraq (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994); MeirLitvak, Shi'ite ScholarsofNineteenth Century Iraq (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); Juan Cole,SacredSpace andHoly War: The Politics, Culture, andHistoryofShi'ite Islam (London: I. B.. Tauris, 2002), and Faleh Abdul-labar, ed., Ayatollahs, Sufis and Ideologues (London: Saqi Books, 2(02). • 4. Sal~ al-Khursan, Hiw al-Da'waal-Islamiyya: Haqa'iq wa watha'iq [The Islamic Da 'wa Party: Facts and !Jocwnents] (Damascus: al-Mu'assassa al-'Arabiyya li'I-Dirasat wa'I-Buhuth aJIstratijiyya, 1999); RUhaimi; '7he Da'wa Islamic Party:' in Abdul-Jabar, Ayatollahs, pp. 149-161; Keiko Sakai, "Modernityand tradition in the Islamic movements inIraq:'AmbStudies Quarterly, Vol. 23, No.1 (Winter2001), pp. 37-52; MahanAbedin, "Dossier: HezbaJ-Daawaal-Islamiyya: Islamic Call Party:' Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. 5, No.6 (June 2003) at: http://www.meib.orglaniclesl 0306Jraqd.htm; HannaBatatu,"Shi'iteOrganizations in Iraq: AI-Da'wah al-Islamiyah and al-Mujahidin:' In Juan R. I. Cole and Nikki R. Keddie,.eds., Shi'ism andSocial Protest(New Haven: Yale University PreSs, 1986), pp. 179-200; Joyce N. Wiley, The Islamic Movement ofIraqi Shi'ites (Boulder, Co.: LynneRienner, 1992). -+-. --+- 1~4mPM ).' \0 ,; " .~ IL. .-<;r 546*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL other activists.5 The al-Da'wa Party g~ve birth to splinter groups like the Suprem~ Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq (founded by expatriates in Tehran in 1982) and the Sadr Movement, while remaining a separate party in its own right. In contrast, the mainstream Najaf clerical tradition in Iraq, exemplified by Abu al-Qasim alKhu'i (d. 1992), tended to be quietist and to reject Khomeini's theory that the clergy should rule (vilayat-e faqih).6 But unbeknownst to the outside world, many Iraq! Shi'ites, inspired by al-Sadr and his suc~essors, were being radicalized by the eP ample of Iran and by the brutality of the Ba'th persecution. THE POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY OF IRAQI SHrISM The Iraqi Shi'ites come from a number of distinct social niches. Over two million dwell in the poor neighborhoods of aast Baghdad, constituting some 8% of the total Iraqi population (est. at 24 million in 2003) and 13% ofthe Shi'ites. This quarter was called alThawra( URevolution") Township when it was founded by military dictator 'Abd alKarim al-Qasim in the early 19608, and was renamed Saddam City by the Baeth. It was settled by Shi'ite villagers who emigrated from the hardscrabble farms of the South, often retaining their tribal identities, customs, rituals and ties in their new environment. Some young people there even go back to their villages to consult with their tribal chieftains from time to time.? The new generation quickly became in important senses urban in outlook. As soon as the Ba'th fell in spring of 2003, its inhabitants renamed it Sadr City, areference to Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr ("Sadr II"), who had been assassinated by Saddam's agents in 1999.. The residents of East Baghdad live under appalling social and economic conditions, with little access to basic necessities such as sewerage, clean water, and decent housing. Unemployment is high. The quarter suffered dreadfully from Ba'th party repression, with many killed in uprisings in 1977, 1991 and 1999. East13aghdad is thus a fertile ground for Shi'ite radicalism and populism, and its residents seem largely to· favor the Sadr nMovement. Shi'ites predominate in Basra, Iraq's second largest city, which ha~ a population of about 1..3 million.. Basra is often said to be more cosmopolitan and secular than other Shi'ite areas, and its mayor under the British administration in the post-Ba'th period, Wa'il 'Abd ai-Latif, is a secular court judge. Still, religious factions are organizing there, and eyewitness accounts suggest that by.summer of 2003 even Christian women felt forced to veil when they went out of the house because of pressure from hard line ·Shi'ites.8 Basra has been a center of a breakaway faction of the al-Da'wa Party, Tanzimal-Da'wa, which rejected Khomeini's theory of clerical rule. It also has .5. TaIib Aziz, '7he PoliticalTheory ofMuhammad Baqir Sadr:' in Abdul-labar, pp. 231·244; Chibli Mallat, The Renewal of Islamic Law: Muhammad Baqer al-Sadr, Naja/. and the Shi'i International (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). 6. YusifAl-Kho'i,"GrandAyatollahAbu aI-Qassim aI·Kho'i:' inAbdul·labar, pp. 224-230; Jawdat aIQazwini, ''The School ofNajaf:' in Abdul-labar, pp. 243·264. 7. Hazim aI-Amin, "'Baghdad allati lam talal hi 'asha'iriha rna talaluhu al-mudun hi'!- 'asha'ir" ["Baghdad which Has Not Dealt with its nibes as Other Cities Don], A/.Ba)'at, July 10, 2003. 8. "Christians Under More Pressure in Postwar Iraq: Intemew with Marie Angel Siebrecht ofAid to the Chun:hinNeed:' ZenitNewsAgency,July4,2003at!englishlvisua!izza.phtml?sid=38309. -<;r- ~I • CoItFN1p65 _ -<;r- 10r'B.'2003. 4:00PM -I r.- •• IL THE US AND SHI'lTE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*541 substantial numbers of followers of the Sadr Movement, and of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, about which more below. A little over a fifth of Iraqi Shi'ites therefore live in the big cities. Another important stratum lives in important towns in the south. These towns average populations between 100,000 and about 600,000 persons. They include al-Zubayr (l74,000), Samawah (128,000), Nasiriyya (560,000), 'Amara (351,000), Kut (400,000), Diwaniyia (443,000), Hillah (548,000), Kufa (119,000), Najaf (585,000), Karbala (572,000), and Baquba (295,000). Samarra' (207,000), a northern town with a Shi'ite quarter, can also be listed here.9 These substantial towns accounted for nearly 4.5 million residents in 2003, largely Shi'ites, and therefore for about a third of the Iraqi Shi'ite population. Many Shi'ites Jiving in them are merchants and shopkeepers, insofar as government employment Was often denied to them or seep as undesirable by them under the Ba'th.lo The towns differ among themselves in character. Najaf, KarbaIa and Samarra stand out in being shrine cities, where Imams are buried that Shi'ites consider rightful heirs and successors to the prophet Muhammad. They also have seminary establishments, training clerics. The clerics of Najaf in particular enjoy great prestige in Iraq and throughout the Shi'ite world, and in the twentieth century outside Iran the co.nvention has been tharthe most senior grand ayatollah in Najaf is the chief legal and religious authority for lay Shi'ites. Each town has a different religious and political orientation. The al-Da'wa Party ,seems particularly strong in Nasiriyya. Baquba and Kut, in the east near Iran, are under the influence of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI).u This group had its origins in the al-Da'wa Party but became a separate organization in 1982. In 1984, Muhammad Baqir aI-Hakim came to head it" and he remained at the helm thereafter, until his assassination in the car bombing outside the Shrine of 'Ali in Najaf on August 29, 2003.12 SeIRI was based .in Tehran for two decades.. Kufa, like. East Baghdad, is a stronghold of the Sadr Movement. Some other substantial towns are more tied to the tribes and the rural areas, and have seen recent large influxes of marsh Arabs and other political refugees from the countryside. These relatively newly settled townspeople are used to being armed, and so for them, the Anglo-American troops' a~tempts to confiscate their rifles have produced a great deal of tension. Another large proportion of Shi'ites lives in small towns and villages in the countryside. The rural Shi'ites are now a minority. They tend to be organized by tribe though few are any longer pastoral nomads, and to practice a folk Shi'ism at variance .-9. Population statisticsare from Stefan Helder, "WorldGazetteer:'athnp:l!! frlfr_iq.htm; an imponant recent overviewofShi'ite currents in Samma' is Hazim aI-Amin, IiSamarra' wa Ikhwatuha," ["Samarra' and its Sisters"] AI-Hayat, IS July 2003. 10. Ma'd Fayyad, ~~Shahid 'ala Rihlatal-Khu'i ilaal- ~lraq." [Witness to the Journey ofaI-Khu'i to lraq"],AI-Sharq al-Awsat, April 28, 2003. - 11. Juan Cole, "Mariage mal assoni entre les radicaux chiites irakiens et les Etats-Unis:' ["Mis~ matched Marriage Between Radical Shi'ites and the US"], Le Monde Diplomatique (July 2(03). 12. Mukhtar aI-Asadi, AI-Taqsir al-Kabir bayna ai-Salah wa al-Islah [Mere Passive Goodness Falls FarShort ojActiveRejorm](Beirut: DaraI-Furat, 2001). -" CoIeFN1.p65 _ 547 1MWOO3" 4:00 PM Ii -I '-..J I 1-----·:cQm ·i IL 548*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL with the more scholastic and bookish Shi'ism of the seminary cities. They invest their tribal shaykhs with great authority, and often with some religious· charisma, as well (the shaykhs often claim to be Sayyids or Sharifs, i.e., descendants of the prophet.) On July 8,. a convention was held by Iraqi tribal leaders, representing the rural Shi'ite tribes of the center and south of Iraq called ''The' Bloc of Democratic Iraqi tribes." They 'aimed at ensuring they have a voice in the governance of Iraq. The convention chair, GhaIib al-Rikabi, insisted that Iraqis themselves draft the new constitution and demanded early elections for an Iraqi govemment.13 A subset of the rural Shi'ites is the so-called marsh Arabs, said to be about 500,000 strong. They once dwelled in the swamps of southern Iraq, working as fishermen, hunters, farmers and smugglers. In the 1990s, the swamps were used by Iranbased paramilitary organizations of Iraqi expatriates to infiltrate into Iraq and strike at Ba'th targets, and the marsh Arabs themselves often resisted Ba'th rule. They were organized politically and militarily by the Iraqi Bizbu'llah, a radical group that fought a guerrilla war against the Iraqi·state. The Ba'th found it difficult to operate in the .marshes and therefore drained them. The marsh Arabs were forced to settle in poor southern towns such as Majar al-Kabir, or to go to small cities like Amar:a, where they largely subsisted in poverty, having lost their livelihoods. In the aftermath ofthe second GulfWar, 'Abd aI-Karim Mahmudal-Muhammadawi, a marsh Arab who had fought guerrilla actions against the Ba'th under the nom de guerre ofAbu Hatim, emerged as an important civic leader in Amara. He provided security with . the help of his tribal militia (presumably Hizbullah). Although an observant Shi'ite, he decries "religious fanaticism" and urges tole~tion. In early July 2063, he was also insisting on the quick formation ofan indigenous Iraqi government and an early end to what he caIled American occupation.14 The tragic clash between British troops and residents of Majar al-Kabir on June 23 and 24, in'which six British trQOps were killed, came about in large part because the British insisted on disanning the population. Arab tribesmen origi., nally from the marshes saw this step as a way of dishonoring them and rendering them defenseless. for people who had lost everything, being without arms to protect their families was afrightening prospect.IS Muhammadawi himself played an important role in calming tensions after the clash.16 Of all these groups, the urban religious Shi'ites are the most highly networked for political and crowd action. Najaf, the chief shrine city, provides much of the leadership and organization, whereas the slum dwellers ofEast Baghdad can easily be bused as foot soldiers to the center of Baghdad for rallies. Other urban populations -13. Ai-Bayat, July 8, 2003. 14. Patrice Claude, "Dans Ie sudde l'Irak, Ie 'Seigneur des marais', hiros de la resistance cOnlre Saddam, aspire II la paix," ["{n southern Iraq, the 'Lord ofthe Marshes', Hero ofthe Resistance against Saddam, Hopes for Peace"], Le Monde, July 3, 2003•. IS. PatrickCockburn in MajaraI-Kahir, "MarshArabs threaten to resist 'Anny ofOccupation,'" The Independent (London), June 27,!."'eastl story.jsp?story=419367. 16. Michael Howard and Jamie Wilson, "British forces try to mend fences in town where six soldiers died,"The Guardian, June 28,2003. -<fr- 1CW12OC)3, 4;00PM Ir .. .f"I. IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*549 have also demonstrated a potential for crowd action. Some 10,000 demonstrated in Basra against the US occupation in June. As many as 20,000 demonstrated in Nasiriyya in late April, and there have also been-demonstrations in Baquba. THE AFl'ERMATH OF THE 1991 UPRISING The religious movements of contemporary Iraqi Shi'ites today have important roots in the failed rebellion against the Ba'th of spring, 1991.17. During the first Gulf War, President George H. W. Bush called up0D: the Iraqis to rise up and overthrow Saddam Husayn. When Saddam was forced to withdraw from Kuwait and seemed weakened, the people did just that. It is alleged that 17 of 19 provinces were lost to the Ba'th government in the popular uprisings ofMarch and April, 1991. In major Shi'ite population centers such as Basra, Nasiriyya, and Najaf, local Shi'ite religious figures emerged as popular political leaders supplanting Ba'th authority. The leaders were aware that the uprising could succeed Oldy if it received US support. But the request for assistance by Grand Ayatollah Khu'i on March 11 was rejected by the US. The Ba'th military, ~eeing that the US had decided to remain neutral, massacred tens of thousands. It also rounded up the prominent clerics of Najaf and Karbala, seen as ringleaders of the southern revolt, and over 200 were executed or made to disappear. Others escaped into exile in Tehran or London. The property of many clerics was also expropriated by the regime. The major scholars who remained lived under virtual house arrest, their movements and statements closely watched by the Ba'th secret police. How many persons were killed and buried in mass graves may never be known, . but it certainly ran into the .tens of thousands._ Iraqi Shi'ites have for the most part never forgiven the US for its callous policy of standing by during these massacres. Najaf's seminary establishment -was gutted ~nd its student body shrank precipi-tously. The preeminent Grand Ayatollah in Najaf in the 1970s through his death in 1992 at the ag~ of .93 was Iranian-born quietist Abu al-Qasim al-Khu'i. After his death, one of his sons, Taqi, garnered respect as an ayatollah in Najaf, but died under suspicious circumstances in an automobile accident in 1994. His remaining son, 'Abd ai-Majid al-Khu'i, had relocated to London, where Khu'i senior had in 1989 established the Khoei Foundation (that is how the family spells the name in English). 'Abd . ai-Majid, then only 40, Was too young to become the object of emulation for Iraqi Shi'ites, but he did become involved with Iraqi expatriates aiming.for the overthrow of Saddam. Husayn. The repression of the Shi'ite establishment was so severe in the aftermath of the crushed uprising that Najaf became a shadow of its former self, and its twentieth century position as a center of Shi'ite leadership and learning was threatened with oblivion. In 1900, Nakash estimates that there had been 8,000 seminary students in Najaf, but the shrine cities declined under the British Manda~e and the Sunni monar- -17. Keiko Sakai, "The 19911ntifadah in Iraq: Seen through Analyses of the Discourses ofIraqi Intellectuals:' in Keiko Sakai, ed., Social frotests andNation-Building in the Middle East andC.entral Asia (Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developing Economies, 2003), pp. 156·172. 101&'2003, 4.:COPU ·I~ . .'" 550*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL chy, so that by 1957 there were only about 2,000 students there. There may have been a slight rebound during the "golden age" of intellectual activities in the shrine cities during the 19605 and 1970s. But after the Ba'th crushed the movement of the late 1970s and began deporting lraqis of Iranian heritage, Najaf's student body shrank . once again, to only a few hundred. 18 In the 1990s the decline became even more steep. Clerics pulled back from teaching anything but the most basic classes in Shi'ite law and practice, lest their teachings be viewed by the secret police as seditious. ~ Friday prayers were for the most part banned, and clerics often declined to hold them in public.. ~9 Qom, in Iran, emerged as the intellectual center of Shi'ism, as Najaf's campuses became a virtual ghost town. Najaf the city continued to flourish, as a provincial capital, growing to over 500,000 residents in the late 1990s from 134,000 in 1965. Reversing the historical situation that had obtained for two or three centuries, "town" thus became substantially more'important than "gown." Even in the tense and repressed circumstances of the 1990s, religious leadership did emerge in the shrine cities. Grand'Ayatollahs 'Ali Sistani, 'Ali al-Gharawi, and Shaykh 'Ali Muhammad Burujirdi were among the m9re prominent, though Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr also began to become respected for his small symbolic acts of defiance against the regime. Sistani, who was born around 1930 in Mashhad, had come to Najaf in 1~52. He came to have the largest reputation outside 'Iraq, gradually succeeding to the position ~I-Khu 'i had enjoyed, ofchief legal anq religious authority for many Shi'ites in Lebanon and elsewhere outside Iran and Iraq. He also garnered support from the older generation of Iraqi Shi'ites that had followed alKhu'i. His growing reputation worried the Ba'th regime, which in 1996 launched an unsuccessful assassination attempt against him, in which two employees of his office were killed and two others wounded.20 He was not the only target, or the only postuprising leader to enjoy new prominence. In April of 1998, Grand Ayatollah Murtada .Burujirdi was shot down by an unknown assailant, who escaped. In June of the same year, gunmen sprayed Kalashnikov fire at the car of Grand Ayatollah Ali Oharawi, killing him and three others in the car. The regime attempted to imply that the deaths were the result of internecine fighting within the clerical establishment, and executed several minor Shi'ite clerics whom ,it accused of the assassinations.:n No one inside the Shi'ite community doubted that these were the actions of~a'th Party death squads. THE SADR MOVEMENT IN THE 1990s An up-and-coming figure in the 1990s was Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr.. His rival, Sistani, enjoyed the greatest reputation as a scholar and a jurist, especially outside -18. Nakash, The Shi'is ofIraq, pp.256, 259;he gives only 150as the number ofNajafseminarians in the 19808; this seems low for that period; see a high~r numbercited in Footnote 19. 19.MukhtarAsadi,Al.Sadral-Thani:al-shahidwatl-shahid,al-zahirawa-rududal-ji'1[Sadrll:The Witnessandthe Martyr, the Phenomenonandthe Reaction], ([Iran]: Mu'assasat ai-Acraf, 1999), pp. 53-54; he says in the 19808 the number ofstudents fell to 700. See the preceding footnote for anotherestimate. 20. Al-Ha)'at, Dec. 3, 1996, via BBCSummary ofWorld Broadcasts, Dec. 4, 1996. 21. AI-Thawra, March 14, J999, via BBC Summary ofWorld Broadcasts, March 17,1999. -+-. 10I8l2OO3. 4:00 PM Ir• oJ'\ IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*551 Iraq. Sistani's cautiousness about getting involved in politics, however" appears to have made many local Iraqis impatient with him. The more militant younger generation of Iraqi Shi'ites turned to Muhammad Sadiq, a cousin of the martyred revolutionary Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, who was executed in 1980. Muhammad Sadiq was born March 23, 1943, into a prominent clerical family. He married the daughter of his paternal uncle, who bore to him four sons, Mustafa, Muqtada, Mu'ammal, and Murtada. The first three of these married daughters of Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr. lie also had two daughters. Educated in the seminary founded by Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, he received his certificates of independent legaJ reasoning (ijazat al-ijtihad) in 1977, when he was only 34. The diplomas were granted by Muhammad Baqir aI-Sadr and Abu al-Qasim al-Khu'i. He studied law with Ruhu'llah Khomeini (who labored in exile in Najaf 1964-1988). Muhammad Sadiq had a wide-ranging intellect. He not only excelled in the Islamic branches of knowledge, but also learned fluent English, and studied psychology and. history. AI-Asadi says that I!is history tutor,Dr., Fadil Husayn, considered him his best student and presented him with a rare copy of The Paris Commune (presumably the one authored by Karl Marx).22 This anecdote suggests the way in which leftist and Marxist influences circulated even in clerical circles in the shrine cities, a phenomenon that went back at least to the 1950s. Muhammad Sadiq wrote a Shi'ite commentary on the 1789 "Rights of Man" issued by the French revolutionaries. Muhammad Sadiq was briefly imprisoned by the Ba'th in 1972 and again (with over two dozen others) in 1974. The second time, he was tortured, though he escaped the fate of five of his colleagues who were secretly executed.23 On his release in 1915, he turned to Shi'ite mysticism (al-'ir/an), and engaged in ascetic practices. His self-denial went to the extent that Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr advised him to be more moderate. 'bfan is a Shi'ite form of individ~alistic Sufism, and although some cler-. ics have been attracted by it, it is unusual. for someone so centrally located in the ,seminaries to pursue it (though Khomeini also had a keen interest in the works of medieval Sufis). Muhammad Sadiq studied the subject with a common wage-earner in Najaf, provoking astonishment. When pressed on the issue, he explained that close.. ness to God does not depend on knowledge, but rather on the goodness of the self, and he cited the prophetic saying, HGod has hidden his $aints among his servants!'24 He remained a mystic all his life, and the egalitarian ethical and spiritual outlook it fostered appears to have made him especially beloved by the poor and the co~mon people. Under the influence of Khomeini and ofMuhammad Baqir ai-Hakim, Muhammad Sadiq came to believe in the necessity to establish an Islamic state. Indeed, he main-. -22. Al..Asadi, AI-Sadr al-Thani, pp. 28..29. 23•. 'Adil Ra'uf, Muhammad Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr: marja'iyat ai-maydan: mashru'a al-. thaghayyiri wa-waqa'i' al-;ght;yal [MuhammadMuhammadSadiqal-Sadr: The ReligiousLeadership ofthe Arena: His Transformational Plan and the Facts ofthe Assassination.] (Damascus: Markaz al.. 'Iraqi Ii'l-I'lam wa-al..Dirasat, 1999), p. 92; Phebe Marr, The Modem History ofIraq (Boulder, Co.: Westview Press, 1985), p. 237. . 24. AI-Asadi, al·Sadr al-Thani, pp. 29·30. .-+- II ·55' '~4:COPM 1,1 '. ;..,. IL 552*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL tained that Islamic law could not be fully implemented without such a state. In 1984, four years after the execution of his cousin, "Sadr r' (Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr), he began functioning as an object of emulation for lay Shi'ites. He was imprisoned for a third time after the 1991 uprising, for having issued a strong statement in its support. 2.S On his release, he threw himself into organizing the Shi'ite community, especially in populous East Baghdad. He established informal Shi'ite courts that would adjudicate issues among Shi'ites outside the secular Ba'thist legal system. He also gained wide influence among the settled tribes. Unlike most clerics, he worked with tribal leaders to find ways of addressing clan customs and law in the framework of Shi'ite jurisprudence.26 He took increasingly controversial stances as the 1990s progressed, forbidding membership in the ruling Ba'th Party and forbidding Iraqis to hold Friday prayers in the name of the secular authority, "The Leader-President" (i.e. Saddam Husayn). He forbade cooperation with the Mujahidin-e Khalq, an anti-Khomeinist Iranian guerrilla group that was given bases in Iraq by the Ba'th. He accepted Khomeini's theory of the guardians~ip of the jurisprudent, which required ultimate clerical control of society, and called upon his students and congregations tQ esta!>1ish a state like it in Iraq. He condemned-women for coming in public unveiled, saying that for even one hair of her head to show is religiously prohibited.2'7, He is also said to have ruled that even Christian women living in lVIuslim societies must veil.. He took hard line·stances against Israel anq the United States, maintaining that if only the Shi'ite clerics would unite; they could easily defeat Israel. A recording of his Friday sermon for December 25, 1998, reveals his congregants chanting, "No, no to falsehood; No, no to America; No, no to Israel; No, no to imperialism; No, no to arrogance; No, no to Satan!" He made war against the influence of American popular culture, and discouraged his followers from wearing clothing with American labels. He scolded one couple who had put their toddler in American clothes, saying words to the effect that "Why do you imitate the West, when they try to subject you to their monopoly!. Think!. Analyze!"~8 Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr criticized Grand Ayatollah Sistani for locking the outer door ofhis office, thus barring casual visitors, after the assassinations ofGharawi and ~urujirdi. He said that if this were done as a sign of mourning and as a protest, it was understandable, but if it was done out of fear, there was nothing to fear. He also developed a theory of the "silent jurisprudent" and the "speaking jurisprudent," saying that quietist Shi'ite leaders i,mplicitly uphelQ the oppressive status quo, and insisting that the only ethical course for an object of emulation was to speak out against tyranny., This h~lfsh condemnation of Sistani and other quietist clerics in· Najaf provoked a severe split in the Shi'ite population. He appointed as his successor Sayyid Kazim al-Ha'iri. An Iraqi cleric resident in Qom, Iran, and associated with the al-. -25. Ra'uf, Sadiq al.Sadr, p. 92. 26. Ra'uf, pp. 113 ff.. 27. AI-Asadi, AI-Sadral.Thani, p. 64 28. Ra'uf, Sadiqal.Sadr, pp. 207, 217,. --<t-. t~4:OOPM · .... 'jf~--~ JL THE US AND SHI'ITB RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*553 Da'wa Party, al-Ha'iri had also embraced Khomeini's theory of vilayat-efaqih or the rule of the clerical jurisprudent and had attempted to subordinate the Iranian branch ofal-Da'wa to the authority ofthe SupremeJurisprudent(Khomeini and then Khamenei) in Iran.29 Despite the Ba'th prohibition on the holding of Friday prayers, Muhammad S~diq insisted on trying to revive them, giving moving and defiant sermons at his mosque in Kufa on social issues that thrilled his congregations. He sent representatives (wukala') to mosques throughout Iraq, but especially in East Baghdad, who opened the mosques on Fridays and preached to crowds as large as 2,000, despite Ba'th opposition. His representatives were tightly networked and had the reputation of being young, upright and highly competent. Unlike those of.other Objects of Emulation, his representatives were forbidden to represent anyone but him, an exclusivism that clashed with pluralistic Najaf traditionJO He considered holding Friday prayers to be an unambiguous duty, even though this was a minority position in Shi'ite legal thought, because they were a symbol of Islam at a time·and place where it was under attack. Crowds began chanting slogans at the prayers such as "Our frophet is Muhammad, our leader is Muhammad, our messiah is Muhammad," and "Our first is Muhammad, our middle is Muhammad, an4 our end is Muhammad." The middle term, their leader, was of course Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr himself. This adulation seems to have gone well beyond the typical veneration for an "object of emulation." In one of his last sermons, he compared.Saddam Husayn to the medieval Umayyad Caliph al-Mutawakkil, who is vilified by Shi'ites. for his persecution of them. 31 The Ba'th regime was extremely disturbed by these sentiments, and by MuhammadSadiq's defiance in holding the Friday prayers and in establishing a dense network of activist mosques. One of his fatwas is said to have stipulated that it was not wrong to kill a , Ba'thist persecutor, and he met with some members of th~ paramilitary Badr Corps, based in Iran, which snuck across the border to strike at Ba'thist targets in lraq.32. AI-Hayat newspaper reported that Ba'th internal security warned Muhammad Sadiq about his defiance in early 1999, but was rebuffed.33 On February 18, 1999, he was gunned down in his car with sons Mustafa and Mu'ammal as he was driving home from his office on the outskirts of Najaf. Southern Iraq erupted in demonstrations and riots, which were brutally put down. Over 100 were killed in Najaf, and 54 more in East. Baghdad, while demonstrations spread to provincial cities. The total.death toll was put at 200. After Muhammad Sadiq',s death, Iraqis were divided on to whom to pledge their religious allegiance. Some followed Sistani, while others turned to MuhammadSadiq's appointed successor, Sayyid Kazim al-Ha'iri.34 The latter, however, had the disadvan- -29.AI-Asadi,Al.Sadra.l-Thani, pp.ll ff.,94,99-100, 109, 221-222; Khursan,HizbaI.Da4wa,PP. 411-420., .30. Ra'uf, Sadiq al·Sadr, pp. J42 ff., pp. 160-161. .31. AI-Asadi, Al-Sadrai-Thani., 57-63. .32.. Ra'uf, Sadiq al-Sadr, pp. 216-217• .3~. AI.Hayal, February 22, 1999 (Arabic text)• .34. AI-Hayat, March 9, 1999, BBCSummary ofWorld Broadcasts, March II, 1999. 10t'&'20CX\ 4...00PM 1·1 · .,,-., ..J(L--·~ IL -+-. CoIeFlnalp65 .554*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL tageof residing in Qom and of being somewhat distant from the daily realities in Iraq. The young Muqtada al-Sadr (born in the early to mid-1970s), on~ of Muhammad Sadiq's surviving sons, now went underground, using his father's networks to establish a tight, clandestine organization among the poor and repressed Shi'ites of Kufa and East Baghdad. He had not finished his studies and so was not a legitimate Object of EmulatioQ for the laity in his own right. But he won their hearts as a leader.. He retained the loyalty of many of his father's devotees and agents, and, unbeknownst to the outside world, established the most effective religious opposition movement in Iraq. His followers became k:nown as al-Sadriyyun, or the Sadrists, and their organization was Jama'at al-Sadr al-Thani, the Sadr II Movement. They were characterized by a Puritanism, militancy and intolerance that was very different from the genteel Najaf tradition. They held that only the legal rulings of Muhammad Sadiq alaSadr could be followed, rejecting any other religious authority. They insisted that the leadership of Iraqi Shi'ites be invested in Iraqis, a slam at Iranian-born Sistani.. The strict code of moral conduct to which they aspired, their opposition to movie theaters, the serving of alcohol, and the appearance of wQmen unveiled in public, on the other hand, simply reflected the social and religious milieu of Najaf itself.?S For the moment, they constituted a proscribed and clandestine movement, but political events would soon allow them to make claims on local power. . THE SI\DR MOVEMENT AFTER THE FALL OF THE BA'TH Muqtada al-Sadr, underground in Najaf, saw the fall of the Ba'th coming in the spring of 2003, and arranged for the extensive mosque network of the Sadr Movement to be reactivated as $oon as th~ government collapsed under the weight of the Anglo-American invasion. He was aided in this endeavor by the quietism ofhis rivals, who had acquiesced in the Ba'th prohibition on Friday prayers, and so had not been running mosques. Even before the Sadpam regime fell on April 9, Sadr Movement militias rose against the Ba'th and expelled its police and soldiers from al-Thawra (Saddam City), which they promptly renamed Sadr City. (Accounts differ as to whether this uprising began on April 7 or April 8.) The mosques were immediately reopened, at least for organizational purposes, by Sadr Movement preachers such as Shaykhs Muhammad alaFartusi and 'Ala' al-Mas'udi. On April 8, Sayyid Kazim al-Ha'iri, the appointee of Sadr II living in Qom, Iran, is~ued a fatwa calling on Iraq's Shi'ites to ignore the Americans and simply take control of Iraq themselves, fighting against the cultural corruption the US would bring with it. He also made Muqtada his representative in Iraq, more or iess giving him authority to do as he pleased in alaHa'iri's name. Muqtada sent money around, made appointments of followers to take over public institutions, and signed numerous decrees posted on walls throughout Iraq.36 -.35. Fayyad, "Shahid.:' April 28. 2003• .36. Craig Smith, IIShiite Clerics Make Bid for Power:' New York TImes, April 26, 2003. II • •'.j t t I' .-II .-<fr IL. 1.1 THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*555 The mosques and their Sadr Movement preachers became centers of power.. They organized private militias of young men to go out and take control of the major hospitals in East Baghdadl7. They organized neighborhood patrols to reestablish security · with the disappearance of the Ba'th police. The Sadr Movement militias raided old Ba4th weapons depots and came away with stockpiles of Kalashnikov machine guns and rocket propelled grenade launchers, along with massive quantities ofammunition. They stored·these arms in mosques and safe houses.. THE BATTLE FOR NAJAF AND THE D/JATH OF AL-KHU'1 Muqtada faced three challengers for authority in the post-Ba'th environment. One was Grand Ayatollah Sistani and his colleagues at the Najafseminaries, with their quietist political tradition and their rejection of clerical rule. Another was the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI), which had been based in Tehran since 1982, and the members of which began returning to Iraq even before the Ba'th had fallen. SCIRl maintained a paramilitary wing, the Badr Corps, of about 10,000 trained men, and these began infiltrating back into Iraq. A third was a new force, 'Abd aI-Majid al-Khu'i (or al-KhOei), mentioned earlier in this article. He was flown to Kuwait by the Anglo-American Coalition that had invaded Iraq, and then given resources to go to Najaf around April.3. It has been alleged that al-Khu'i had been given $13 million by the CIA, and began spreading money around Najafin order to line up clients and begin taking over the city politically.38 It has also been said that he was accompanied by a CIA field officer and some Iraqi-American aides detailed to him, and sometimes by Coalition troops.39 His family and admirers dispute the CIA connection, but even his companions admit that he came to Najaf with American help. Now SO, and the son of the former Object of Emulation who had dominated Najaffor two decades until his death in 1992, al-Khu'i had the credentials to make a serious bid to become the chief religious and political authority among the Shi'ites. Muqtada's rougher followers in Najafviewed al-Khu'i's activities,.with extreme suspicion and anger. He was everything they stood against. They rejected the religious authority of anyone but Sadr II and his successors. They rejected clerics from Iranian lineages as leaders of Iraqi Shi'ites (conveniently'ignoring the Iranian antecedents of the al-Sades themselves). They rejected Western influence, and,saw al-Khu'i as little more than an American puppet. AI-Khu'i was attempting to get control of the shrine of Imam 'Ali, among the holiest sites in Iraq. Saddam's Fida'iyun had established themselves in the shrine and stockpiled grenades and ammunition there, firing at US~ -.37. Lara Marlowe, "Islamic Radicals Ready to Reach.for Power:' Irish Tunes, ,Aprill7, 2003; Juan Cole, "Shiite Religious Parties Fill Vacuum in Southern Iraq:' Middle East Report Online, April 22, 2003, at http://www.merip.orglmero/mer0042203.html. 38. Knut Royce with MuhammadBazzi, "Cleric's Killing aSetback to US: CIA Lost anAlly and $13 Million:'Newsday, May,3, 2003. 39. David Ignatius, "Omens ofTrouble in Iraq:' Washington Post, April 29, 2003. 1~~PM -<fr. -, I ... IL 556*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL troops from it in hopes of tricking them into harming the shrine and enraging the Shi'ite public. "The US military declin~d to fall for the trick. Eventually Saddam's forces became so exposed that they departed the shrine. The Sadr Movement militia immediately replaced them and claimed the weapons stockpi'e there.40 One of al-Khu'i's companions, Ma'd Fayyad, an Iraqi journalist, described what happened next in an eyewitness account. 41 His account is largely corroborated by the narrative of Jabar Khani la'far, the deputy keeper of Imam 'Ali's shrine.42 .Al-Khu'i decided that the easiest way to assert control over the shrine, wresting it from the Sadr Move~ent, was to rehabilitate the shrine keeper, Haydar Rafi'i Kalidar. The Kalidars had overseen the shrine for generations, and so al-Khu'i seems to have believed they would have legitimacy. But Kalidar had allowed himself to be co-opted by the Ba'th department of religious affairs, and had gained the reputation among many Najaf Shi'ites as a collaborator with Saddam Husayn as a result. The Sadr Movement, which mourned the martyrdom ofSadr II at the hands of Ba'th a~sassins, was particu-. lady bitter about prominent Shj"ites who they felt had secured their lives by collaborating. On April 9, al-Khu'i told Kalidar to start coming back to his office at the shrine, an attempt to install him there. Kalidar was there on April 10 wh~n al-Khu'i and his companions performed the rites of "visitation" or pilgnmage to the shrine.. Fayyad says that an angry crowd gathered in the square outside the shrine, chanting slogans in favor of Muqtada al-Sadr. -Determined to prevent 'Kalidar from becoming established at the shrine, they demanded that he be surrendered to them. They were also enraged that al-Khu'i was accompanied by Mahir al-Yasiri, an Iraqi Shi 'ite. settled in Dearborn, Michigan, who was part of an expatriate group helping the US forces and who was wearing a.US flack jac~et. The encounter became a firefight when someone in al-Khu'i's party, perhaps al-Khu'i himself, fired,a pistol over the heads of the Sadr Movement mob. They replied with gunfire, and killing aIYasiri. Eyewitness Ma'd Fayyad says that after an hour-long standoff, al-Khu'i and his party surrendered. He then maintains that al-Khu'i and others were bound and taken to Muqtada al-Sadr's house, but that the latterdeclined to admit them and that the word came back out that they should be kill~d in the squar~. Fayyad admits, however, that he had loosened his ropes and escaped before this point, so that he may have had this story second hand... Other accounts suggest a more spontaneous mob action, in which the crowd closed on al-Khu'i and Kalidar and stabbed them to death. If the Anglo-American Coalition had in fact entertained hope that al-Khu'i could exercise a moderating "influence in Najaf, the attempt died with him.· There seems little doubt that al-Khu'i fell to angry members of the Sadr Movement. -40. Fayyad, '·Shahid 'ala Rih/at al·Khu'; ila al.~lraq," [UWitness to the Journey of al..Khu'i to Iraq"], Al.Sharq al.Awsat, April 30, 2003. (Second Part of a two-part story previously cited.) 41. Ma'dFayyad, "Ightiyalal-7A';m al·Shi'i tAbdal-Majidal-Khu'ijiNajaf," [Assassination ofthe Shi 'iteLeader 'Abd al·Majidal..Khu'i in Najaf;' Al-Sharqal-Awsat,Aprilll, 2003. . 42. Meg Laughlin and Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, "Shiite Killing Described:' Knight Ridder News Service, April 27, 2003. 10I8l2OO3. 4:00PM 1·1 / rL ----III!II~ ...._-_.....!~ , ....... , '.' , • -.J I I • • -, THE US AND SHI'ITB RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN"IRAQ*557 Crowds from the Jama'at al-Sadr al-Thani, inclpding 50 armed'men, now surrounded the houses of Grand Ayatollah 'Ali Sistani and his colleague Ayatollah Muhammad Sa'id ai-Hakim, both of whom had been rivals of Sadr II and both of whom he had criticized by name..They gave the two 48 hours to leave Najaf, demanding that the Iraqi Shi'ite leadership, be solely in the hands of Iraqis.~3 'Sistani had, however, already left his home and gone into hiding, which was one reason al-Khu'i had never been able to meet him. The mobs made a similar demand of other major clerics, including the Afghan ayatoll~h, Ishaq al-Fayyad. The crisis lasted until Monday, April 14, when city elders brought armed tribal elements loyal to them into the town to restore order. The Sadr Movement crowds were dispersed and a modicum of security was regained.44 The US military forces were, throughout, careful not to intervene directly, because of the sensitivities of Shi'ites to the presence of foreigners at the shrine. Since the CIA had long cultivated the Iraqi tribes, and had spent millions to encourage them to rise against Saddam during the war, it is not impossible that the iribal take-over of the city was in part the Agency's doing. In the aftermath, the US forces appointed a Sunni ex-Ba'th officer who claimed to have turned against Saddam during-the war as the mayor of Najaf, and he kept order with his supporters until he was finally dismissed two months later for corroption and kidnapping. The battle for Najafwas inconclusive, though it is likely that Sistani retained his position mainly among the older inhabitants, while many of the youth gravitated to Muqtada. When for the ,first time Muqtada came out into the open and led Friday prayers at his father's old mosque in Kufa, on April 18, thousands attended. Sistani and. his senior colleagues remained much more circumspect about coming into public, for which Muqtada derided them. At his first Friday prayers sermon after the war, on April 18 in Kufa, Muqtada thanked God rather than the US "for religious freedom and for liberating us from-dictatorship." Thousands had flocked to hear him from among local laborers and farmers, suggesting the class base of his movement. He complained about the lack- of electricity and water, and implied that the US was deliberately withholding services. He also criticized then-SCIRI leader Muhammad Baqir aI-Hakim, saying, "Religious people who went'into exile should not have left. The country needed them." Since Muqtada's father died for his insistence on remain-. ing, one can understand his bitterness. The slam at aI-Hakim was more than rhetorical. Shaykh 'Ali al-Maliki, the leader of the paramilitary branch of the Sadr Movement, toldjoumalist Lara Marlowe that his forces had driven Badr Corps fighters out of East Baghdad on April 17. She concluded that the rumors that Shi'ite militias were fighting off "Ba'thists" and "Wahhabis" were a cover for. internecine battles among Shi'ite forces themselves.4s -43. ··Jama'at Muqtada al·Sadrtuhasir Mandl al·Sistan;," [''The Muqtada ~-Sadr Movement Besieges the House ofAl-Sistani:·] Al.Sharqal·Awsat, April 14, 2003. 44. 14TadakhkhulShuyukh Qaba'ilal·Furat," ["Intervention ofthe Shaykhs ofthe EuphratesTribesn ]. Al.ShalrJ al·Awsat, April IS, 2003. 45. Lara Marlowe, report from Najar, The Scotsman, Apri119, 2003. t~4:COPU ·j I' I I_=~ IL +. 558*MIDDLBBASTJOURNAL AL-THAWRA TOWNSHIP OR "SADR CITY" The more important political action took place in the poor quarters of East Baghdad or al~Thawra, now informally known as Sadr City, where the Sadr Movement became a "youth movement" par excellence.s46 Journalist Muhammad Husni reported firsthand on April 17 that Sadr Movement militias had filled the power vacuum created by the fall of the Ba'th Party, establishing patrols and engaging in firefights with infiltrators. They had also organized the return of looted goods, and were providing food aid (rom the mosques. He reported strong anti-American sentiments among the Friday prayers leaders at the Sadr mosques, who insisted that the US leave as soon as possible. The movement leaders told flusni that the enemy infiltrators were "Arab volunteers:' with the implication that they wereal-Qaeda or Sunni Arab · nationaIists.47, We have aiready seen that Marlowe concluded they were actually fighting the Badr Corps. The following day, on Friday, April 18, the Sadr movement helped staged one of the largest demonstrations yet seen in post-war Iraq, with an estimated 20,000 Baghdadis coming out for it. Sadr Movement supporter Shaykh Muhammad al-Fartusi and self-styled "head Qf security" gave a rousing sermon at the al-Hikmah mosque in al-Thawra, saying that the Shi'ites would not accept a brand of democracy "that allows Iraqis to say what they want but gives them no say in their destiny," adding, "this form of government would be worse than that of Saddam Husayn.~' fie urged believers to follow the decrees of the Najaf religious establishment (by which he meant Muqtada al-Sadr), and listed ~ four-point code ofconduct, stressing that music, imitation of Westerners, women going unveiled, and preferring tribal custom to Islamic law are aU forbidden. After Friday prayers (where the congregants received their instructions), crowds poured into the streets, demanding that the US depart from Iraq and insisting on an Islamic state. Placards read, "Oetout Now," and "No to Bush, no to Saddam, Yes to Islam!." The largely Shi'ite crowds were joined by Sunni Islamists. Asupporting large demonstration was held the same day in the holy shrine city of Karbala, spurred on by the sermon of Sadr Movement preacher Kazim al-'lbadi alNasiri at the mosque attached to the shri~e of Imam Husayn, also demanding an immediate departure of US troops, saying "We reject this foreign occupation, which is a new imperialism."4& ' The religious rites of commemorative pilgrimage carried out by Shi'ites to Karbala that began over the weekend ofApril 19 and 20 did not, as some radicals had -46.Agood overview is al·Amin, "Baghdad allati lam taral/' and by the same author, "Madina tahkumuha shabakat masajidal-Hawzaal-Natiqa," ["CityGoverned by the Networks ofthe Mosques oftheSpeaking Religious Authority:' A1.Bayal, July'12, 2003, both parts ofa6-part series on Muqtada and Iraqi Shi'ism. 47. Muhammad Husni, "Rijal aJ-Din al-Shi'a yandafi'una Ii mil'al·Firagh al·Si)· al- 'Iraq," [Shi'ite Clerics Rush in to Fill the Political Void in lraq"],AI.Quds ai-'Arabi, April 18, 2003. 48. Hasan Hafiz, ~'Muzaharat Hashida," ["Mass Demonstrations"), AI·Quds ai-'Arabi, Apri119, 2003; Mohamed Hasni, "iraq's Friday Prayers IssueWarnings to US:'Agence France-Presse, April 19, 2003; "The Search Continues:' Monday Morning (Beimt),ApriI28, 2003. II 10l812003. 4iooPM ·11 • \i IL THE US AND SHI'ITB RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*559 hoped, tum into an anti-American political protest. The large crowds, in their hundreds of thousands, remained peaceful and apparently more interested in the pilgrimage itself than politics, though a small group occasionally chanted against the US occupation. Many followers of Sadr II stopped off at his tomb in Najaf to pay their re~pects.49 Shaykh Fartusi visited Najaf over that weekend to get instructions from Muqtada, and returned to Baghdad late Sunday,,after the curfew. He was stopped by Marines at a checkpoint, and they found a pistol in his car. They arrested him, apparently unaware of his importance. The next day, Monday April 21, the SadrMovement mobilized and bused 5,000 protesters to the center of Baghdad, who chanted for the release of Fartusi. The rallies of the previous Friday had been much less visible, because they took place in neighborhoods. This demonstration was the largest yet staged at the center of the city. It was repeated on Thesday, but then the Marines, finally aware of their mistake, released Fartusi. He maintained that he had been beaten and mistreated, saying that theUS was "worse than Saddam!' .so The Sadr Movement continued to express strong anti-Western feelings, with gangs threatening and closing down liquor stores and cinemas, and enforcing the veil on women. Some Sadr Movement clerics nevertheless cooperated thereafter with US military community development effoi:ts, and they continued to have great sway in East Baghdad, supplying food and other aid paid for by Iranian sources.51 Muqtada has taken a rejectionist but non-violent stance toward the US presence and its ~fforts to establish a new Iraqi government. He was invited by Jay Garner, the first US civil administrator of the country, to participate in a leadership conference held at Nasiriyya on April 28, but refused.52 He said, "I don't want the chair of the government because it will be controlled by the US and I don't want to be controlled by the US" Eyewitness journalist Nir Rosen reports that, "When asked if that meant he would want to attack the Americans, he snorted and replied with the colloquial Arabic equivalent of 'Why would I want to f**k myself1"'~3 The al-Da'wa Party also opposed that meeting, because it was being held by a former US General under Pentagon auspices. SelRI $ent a low-level delegation. Later, when Garner was replaced by civilJan L. Paul Bremer Ill, both SCIRI and al-Da'wa proved ultimaJely willing to join the new Governing Council that declared itselfon July 13 after negotiations with the US. Muqtada, however, refused, denouncing the plan at his June 14 Friday sermon at Kufa.$4 He later expressed severe reserva~ions that the Americans could establish a just government in Iraq, since they were opposed to a Shi'ite state. Muqtada called on May 2 for strict Islamic law to be applied to Iraq's Christians, as well, including the prohibition on bars and on allowing women to appear -49. Richard Uoyd Parry, "Pilgrimage represents Rebirth ofShia Faith:' The 1i'mes, April 21, 2003 (reporting from Najaf). 50. Nadiya Mahdid, "AI·Quwwat al-Amrikiyya tufrij 'an Rajul Din," ["American Forces Release ClericPIJ, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, April 23 2003; same author., ''AI-Fartusir,Al-Sluzrq al-Awsat, 24 April 2003; Craig S. Smith, "Shiite Clerics make Bid for Power:' New York limes, April 26, 2003. 51. Anthony Shadid, "Troops Test Cooperation With Clerics:' Washington Post, May 23, 2003., 52. Nadim Ladki, "Gamerto Meet Prominent Iraqis:' Reuters,· April 27,2003 (via Lexis Nexis). 53. Nir Rosen, "Shiite Contender Eyes Iraq's Big Prize:' 'lime Magazine Online, May 3, 2003. 54. AI-Zaman, June 16,2003. 10t'812003. 4:00PM II ,.----,=~ IL · .~ "if l , ; '.-1 I t .~ ~- 560*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL~ unveiled.55 This ruling appears to be a restatement of one of his father's fatwas, but this time the al-Sadr family had the authority to make it stick in some parts of Iraq. In contrast, Grand Ayatollah Sistani issued a statement saying that the Najaf establishment had not called for forcible veiling. Muqtada also forbade Iraqi merchants to deal with Kuwaitis, and his mentor Ayatollah Kazim al-Ha'iri forbade Iraqis to seUland to Jews, calling for such Jewish buyers to be killed.56 The Sadr Movement stranglehold on power in al-Thawra continued to be strengthened in May, June, and July. Sadrists established informal Shi'ite courts in mosques to deal with local disputes, including over burglary and murder. Sadr II had run such courts clandestinely, but now they were the de facto tribunals of justice in many neighborhoods. The al-Muhsin Mosque 'was a key Sadr Movement institution in East Baghad. Shaykh Kazim 'Ibadi al-Nasiri called in his sermon on May 9 there for vigilante reprisal killings of Ba'thists, referring to a fatwa of Ayatollah Kazim al-Ha'iri.57, In his sermon from the same mosqu~ on May 16, Shaykh Muhammad Fartusi thundered, "The cinemas in AI-Saadun Street show indecent films. I warn them: if in a week they do not change, we will act differently with them. Wewarn women and the go-betweens who take them to the Americans: If in a week from now they do not change their attitude, the murder of these women is sanctioned (by Islam). This warning also goes out to sellers.of alcohol, radios and televisions., The torching of cinemas w~uld be permitted," he said, if cinemas did not change their ways.58 In fact, many liquor shops, cinemas, and cosmetic shops·were closed by threats or in some instances tire bombings. DEMONSTRATIONS The Sadr Movement attempted to provoke numerous demonstrations in Baghdad and Basra, calling for a withdrawal of Anglo-American troops, as a way of showing its popl:llar influence. On May 14, hundreds of Shi'ites demonstrated in downtown Baghdad for an Islamic government, saying that it should be Shi'ite because they had suffered most under Saddam. On May 15, Shaykh al-'Ibadi al-Nasiri preached a thunderous sermon to 30,000 congregants at the Imam Sadr Mosque in East Baghdad, accusing US troops of using night vision goggles to see through women's clothes and of passing out pornography to children in the form of candy wrappers. He all but called for terror attacks on US forces. Ironically, the US forces had provided special security to the mosque. His sermon appears to have alarmed Muqtada al-Sadr back in Najaf, and it was announced that it had not been approved and that henceforth the -.55. Mohamed Hasni, uSadr Calls for Iraqi Christians to Follow Islamic Law;' Middle East Online, May 2, 2003•. 56. Ulraqi Fatwa Bans Trading with Kuwaitis;' Arab nmes (Kuwait), July 12, 2003; "Cleric Calls for Killing ofJews who Buy Land;' Reuter, June 28, 2003. 57. James Drummond and Nicholas Pelham, "Shia Clerics Urge Faithful to Attack Returning Ba'athists;' Financial 7imes, May 10,2003. _58•. "Shiite Leader in Baghdad WarnsWomen, Alcohol Sellers, Cinemas;'Agence France Presse, May 16,2003 (via Lexis Nexis). 11 1~4.'OOPM . '" 'j(I---~:~ •• IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*561 Najaf religious establishment (i.e. Muqtada) would have to pre-approve such sermons. Muqtada has steadfastly refused to sanction violence against A~ericans. That weekend, Shi'ite clerics like Shaykh Fartusi began calling for a million man march on Monday, May 19, the Shi'ite commemoration of the death of the Prophet Muhammad, wh~ch they had been forbidden by the Ba'th to mark on a day different from the one honored by the Sunnis. bn May 19, Shi'ites conducted the commemorative procession to a mosque, and about 10,000 Sadrists turned the occasion into an anti-American rally, demanding an Iraqi government overseen by the Najaf ayatollahs and the departure of the Americans.s9 Given the difference between Fartusi's predictions and the actual turnout, arid given that even it depended on the holy day procession, this outcome can only be seen as a setback for the Sadr Movement. Most Iraqi Shi'ites clearly were still willing to give the US time., On Thursday, May 29, hundreds of Shi'ites, including 50 clerics, gathered in downtown Baghdad to chant against the US for using troops to make arrests of armed clerics in Najaf. They also chanted against Israel, and called the US "the number one source of terrorism.~'60 The same day, a Baghdad cinema near the demonstration was rocked by a grenade attack, after defying·demands from the Sadr movement "punishment committee" to close down. On June 3, hundreds of Sadr Movement Shi'ites demonstrated against the US in downtown Baghdad, protesting the brief detention of Shaykh Jasim Sa'adi on weapons charges. Among those protesting were members of the breakaway Fadilah Party, a faction of the Sadr Movement headed by Shaykh Muhammad Ya'qubi.6l On Saturday, June 21, 2,500 Shi'ites demonstrated jn downtown Baghd~d at the behest of Sadr Movement preachers, demanding that the Najaf religious authorities establish and supervise the new Iraqi-government, and denouncing the Americans as occupiers. This protest came at a time when US civil administrator L. Paul Bremer seemed determined to relegate Iraqi leaders to a merely ~dvisory role. During his Friday Prayers sermon, Shaykh Kazim 'Ibadi al-Nasiri had told his 10,000 congregants that they were engaged in a "clash of civilizations," and urged them to gather downtown during his Friday prayers sermon. They were joined by worshippers from Kazimiyya and Shuala.62 June saw three big demonstrations against the British authorities in Basra, on June 1(5,000), June 7 (2,000), and June 15 (10,000). The BBC online reported of the June 7 rally, "They were said to have rallied on the instructions of an organisation named after Ayatollah Mohammed Sadeq al-Sadr . " ."63 Although ShiCite-unrest in -,59. "Shiites call for Iraqi government free offoreign influences:' Deutsche Press Agentur, 15May 2003; Warren Richey, "Reverberations from an I~q PrayerMeeting:' Christian Science Monitor, May, 19, 2003; "Shiites o~nly mark Mohammed's birthday in Iraq as lawlessness still reigns;' A~ May 19,2003. 60. "Hundreds ofShiites hold anti-US rally in Baghdad:' Agence France Presse, May 29, 2003. 61"Iraqis protest at arrest ofShiite dignitary," Agence France Presse, June 3,2003. 62. Patrick1Yler, "'2,000 at Rally Demand Jslamic Supervision ofElections:'New York 'limes, June 22, 2003; Anthony Shadid, "Iraqi Shiite Leader Uneasy With U.S. Role," Washington Post, June 23, 2003. 63. "Basra protest against British presence:'BBCNew~ Online, June7,2003 at Continuedon Next Page 581 1CWJ2OO3, ":00PM ,i lI'·~ • ~I 562*MIDDLBEASTJOURNAL Basra is often blamed on al-Hakim's Supreme Council for Isiamic Revolution in Iraq, the Sadr Movement is a considerable force in the city in its own right.64 Still, the demands of the protesters were remarkably local, having to do with discontents about the way the British were running the city and with their appointees to the governing council. FACIIONAUSM Muqtada al-Sadr ma4e a trip to Iran for a week beginning June 7, meeting'with high Iranian authorities and with his mentor, Ayatollah Kazim al-Ha'iri. Given the subsequent tension that developed between the two, this meeting may not have gone well. The Iranians had supplied food and other aide to Sadr Movement clerics in East Baghdad, allowing them to gai.n popularity by providing services to the people. Muqtada may have been seeking further such aid. If so, the Iranians wanted a quid pro quo. They wanted the exclusivist and sectarian Sadr Movement to avoid any further internal Shi'ite clashes such as had broken out over al-Khu'i's arrival in Najaf in early April. Former Iranian president and head of the Expediency Council, 'Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanja~i, said "All Iraqi Shiite groups and fighters, especially those of the Supreme Assembly for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, should keep their unity and work for Iraq's interests by combatting internal and external conspiracies."6S Rafsanjani's pleading was not entirely successful. By late June, Muqtada was telling journalist Hazim aI-Amin that there was no coordination between him and the other Shi'ite leaders in Najaf, and that it was the fault of Grand Ayatollah Sistani and his colleagues, who were apolitical because they were not Iraqis. (This is a reference to his father's theory of the "al-Hawza al-Natiqa" or the "Speaking Religious Authority:' the mantle of which Muqtada now claims). AI-Amin also reported thatSistani and Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir aI-Hakim of SCIRI had grown closer, in hopes of uniting against the threat of the exclusivist and powerful Sadr Movement. Muqtada told him that he believes in the Khomeinist theory of the role of the jurisprudent, but -Continuedfrom Previous Page Ilhilworldlmiddle_east/2972308.stm ; "Iraqis protest against new British. roler in Basra :' Agence france Presse, June I, 2003; "Iraqis protest against British role in Basra:'Agence France Presse, June IS, 2003. 64.. Andrzej Rybak, "Irak.Tageblicher: Basra holt Schwung JUr den Neubeginn," ["Iraq Diary: Basra gets Momentum for a New Beginning:' Financial 'limes Deutschland, AprilS, 2003 at http:// www.ftd.deJpw/inlIOS0940024444.html?nv=tn-rs. He says, "Viele unterstiitzen den jungen 'Religionsgelehrten Muqtada al·Sadraus Nadschaf, der gegen die Priisenzder USA in Irak. '.• eintritt." [Many .Support the Young Religious Scholar Muqtada al·Sadr of Najaf, who Stands against the US Presence in Iraq:'] 65. "Iran's Rafsanjani Appeals for UnityAmongRival Iraqi ShiiteGroups:'Agence France-Presse, June 8,2003,. See also "Muqtadaal·Sadr)'abhathfi Qumm lawdatal-Ha'iri ila al-Najaf," ["Muqtada al-Sa~r discusses in Qom the Return ofal-Ha'iri to Najar'), AI-ZLzman, June 6, 2003.. 1CW12oo3. 4:00PM IL .Q IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*,563 that the supreme jurisprudent of Iraq would be a different person than the supreme jurisprudent of Iran (among believers in the th~ory, a big debate has raged for over a decade over whether Iranian Supreme Jurisprudent 'Ali Khamenei's authority extends to aUShi'ites or is country-bound). Muqtada reaffirmed that he refused to cooperate with the American administratio!l, but also declined to oppose'it.66 June and July witnessed an- outbreak of fierce rivalry in Karbala between the Sadr Movement and followers of Grand Ayatollah Sistani over the right to preach in the mosque attached to the shrine of Imam Husayn, among the' more prestigious venues in the Shi'ite world. An agreement was initially reached to alternate each Friday, but then in e~rly July Muqtada issued a typically exclusivist decree that only Sadrist clerics had the right to lead prayers. On July 4, the two factions came to blows inside the shrine of the Imam, leaving the city polarized and tense.61. In July, as well, the Sadr Movement and SCIRI quarreled over the shrine of Imam 'Ali in Najaf.. In early JulY,Muqtada, who is said to be on the brink of being an independent jurisprudent (mujtahid) and Object of-Emulation himself, also began being,critical of his supposed mentor, Ayatollah Kazi1!l al·Ha'iri, for refusing to come ba,ck to Najaf from Qom, and suggesting that he did not after aU recognize him as a superior.68 For his part, according to the Iranian newspaper Baztab, al-Ha'iri began backing off his support for Muqtada, saying that offices dedicated to the memory ofSadr II should tie closed except in Najaf, and that the activities of the Muslims should henceforth be conducted under the shadow of. the quardian (Wafi) of the Muslims (i.e. al-Ha'iri himselt).69 If Baztab is to be believed, AI-Ha'iri was positioning himself to succeed . to Sadr II and sideline Muqtada. He received some help, inadvertent or not, when on July 16 Shaykh MuhammadYa'qubi finally declared himself an Object of Emulation, making formal the split of his al-Fadila group from the Muqtada loyalists.. His followers demonstrated again~t threats ~o him in Najaf, though the Muqtada group maintained that he had no local support and just brought in some'armed tribes~en to stage the demonstration. Ayatollah Kazim al-Ha'iri is said to have blessedYa'qubi's schism, saying he had the prerequisites for being an Object of Emulation.'° The movement o( Muqtada al-Sadr seems likely to survive this minor schism, and it continued to show, great popular strength through late summer.. Sadrists appear -to have been involved in riots against Marine patrols in Karbala in late July, resulting 66.'Hazim aI-Amin, "Arwiqatal-Hawzah fi at-Najaftadijj bi inqisamat:' [The Halls ofthe Hawzain Najaf are Riven with Divisions"] AI-HaYlJt, June 27,2003. " 67. Hamza Hendawi, "Once Showcased as Example of Peace, Holy Shiite City now Moving in Opposite Direction:' Associated Press, July 15,2003. 68. AI-Amin, "Madina tahkumuha shabakat." 69. "Awj-giri-yi Tanish miyan-i Sadri-ha va Majlis-i A'la:' ["Tensions Peak Between the Sadrists adn SCIRI"] Baztab, July 13, 2003122 Tir 1384 at index.asp?ID=9120&Subject=News 70. IIInshi 'ab darSadriha," ["SplitAmong the Sadris"] Bazrab, July 16, 2003/25 "lir 13~4 at: http:/ Iwww.baztab.comlindex.asp?ID=9299&Subject=News; theYa'qubi schism, which began last spring, is also reported bya)-Amini ,cMadina," andjournalist NirRosen in Najafkindly sent me an unpublished report he had done on aI-Fadila. I am also grateful to Trudy Rubin of the Philadelphia Inquirer for sharing inSights from her 3-week trip to Najafand other Shiite sites in May-June, 2093. - 1tlJ&'2OO3. 4:00 PM " ~ I,L 564*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL in one dead and nine wounded when the Marines replied to gunfire and shot into the crowd. In a Friday sermon in early August, Muqtada called on the IVJ;arines to be tried for murder in accordance with the sharia. Sadrists were definitely involved in major riots in Basra the weekend of Augus~ 9-10.. Followers of Muqtada have significant power in Basra, and are said to hold a third of the seats on the current city council. On August 15, Shi'ites in East Baghdad rioted against the United States because a military helicopter had blown a Shi'ite banner off a telecom tower. The banner invoked the promised one of Shi'ite.Islam, the Imam Mahdi, and appears to have been placed on the tower by Sadrists who believe he is· about to come back. Muqtada had announced that he would begin recruiting a militia called the "Mahdi Army," though he pledged it would be non-violent. Some 10,000 young men are ,said to have joined, and the banners put up in East Baghdad may have been in part celebrating the militia's formation. Muqtada continued to call for an immediate withdrawal from Iraq of American and British troops. When Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir aI-Hakim was killed along with nearly 100 others in a huge truck bomb in Najaf on August 29, SCIRI leaders began demanding an immediate US military withdrawal, as well.'Because of religious sensitivities about close Marines patrols in Najaf, after the bombing the US civil administrator Paul Bremer winked at the emergence of armed par~militaries in Najaf, including Badr Corps fighters trained by the Revolutionary Guards in Iran and members of Muqtada's· .Army of the Mahdi. The US military had been dead ,set against such paramilitaries appearing in public with arms, and indicated that it would not be tolerated for long. The bombing brought SCIRI and the Sadrists closer in their position on the Coalition military forces. It also removed an important rival to Muqtada, though Muhammad Baqir ai-Hakim never had the young al-Sadr's widespread popularity, in any case. Muqtada's enemies among the Sunnis accused him of blaming them for the bombing and of provoking Shiites to expropriate their religious sites., The Sadr movement remains significant in Iraqi street politics despite ·its exclusion from the Americanappointed Interim Governing Council and the new cabinet appointed in early September. 71 Observers on the ground rep9rt that the Sadr Movement controls the major mosques, Shi'ite community centers, hospitals and soup kitchens in East Baghdad, Kufa and Samarra', and has a strong presence in Najaf, Karbala and Basra, as well. Jt is highly networked, and its preachers have taken a strong rhetorical line against. what they view as an Anglo-American occupation. It is sectarian both in its demographic base (poor, urban and young) and its dedication to the themes of difference, antagonism and separation. Politically, jt must be seen as a movement of the populist Right, seeking to impose rellgious authority on the public, to. institute corporate techniques of control, to -reduce women to second class citizens, to exclude foreign influence, and to subordinate ihe minority Sunnis to Shi'ite religious leadership. -71.Acontinuingchronicle ofShi'itemovements in contemporary Iraq, with citations, may be found at; for these points, see theAugust and September2003 archives.} 10J8r'2003. 4:00 PM Tr-- , .. ,~ A• -<fr . IL ~I THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*565 Sadr Movement adherents differentiate themselves from middle class and wealthier, more secular Iraqis of the sort who controlled Iraq politically for most of the twentieth century. They decry the wearing of Western-made clothes, patronizing movie theaters that show Western films, drinking alcohol, and the appearance in pub-. lic of unveiled women. They insist on the necessity of holding and attending Friday prayers at mosques. They also represent themselves as more socially conscious and caring than is the Westernized and individualistic Iraqi'middle class. Their militias provided security to millions of Shi'ites in the spring and summer of 2003, at a time when the Iraqi police force had collapsed and the Anglo-American forces were too small to provide $ecurity. Sadrist clergymen fought looting and insisted on the return oflooted merchandise. Adherents also specialize in providing food and medical aid to poor neighborhoods, seeking thereby to build a political base when elections come., They appear to have gained some Iranian patronage for these efforts. Sadrists are antagonistic to other social forces and often attempt to keep themselves separate from them. They denounce the Anglo-American presence in Iraq as a form of imperialism, insist that the occupiers leave immediately, and say that the US treatment of the Sadr Movement leaders they have occasionally arrested and released has been "worse than Saddam's.~' They accuse Western troops of using night vision goggles to see through women's clothes, and of distributing pornography to children in the form of candy wrappers. Some have called for the assassination of any Iraqi woman who forms a liaison with a Western soldier. Muqtada says that since the US is opposed to the erection of a Shi'ite state, he expects nothing good of i~ state-building efforts in Iraq. They attack the supposed influence of Jews andof israel.. The repertoires of social action to which they have resorted include large rallies in neighborhoods or downtown Baghdad, Najaf and Basra, orchestrated by the Friday prayers leaders at mosques. They also engage in social displays of power, as with their armed miiitia patrols,- though the US is attempting to outlaw the carrying of weapons in public. - Their antagonism to the secular middle class values of. the Iraqi political and economic elite is often extreme, and has sometimes been expressed in the form of firebombing cinema houses and liquor shops, or at least threaten,ing owners in an effort to make them close., Not only is the Sadr movement antagonistic to the Coalition and to secularist Iraqis, but it is hostile to other Shi'ite religious forces. The Sadrists insist that no Object of Emulation is acceptable who does not stand in the shadow of Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr. They thus break' with the mainstream tradition ofUsuli Shi'ism, which recognizes plural authorities and leaves it up to the individual believer to choose his or her ObjectofEmulation. They reject the leadership of Grand Ayatollah Sistani and the Najaf establishment, on the grounds that it i~ foreign and politically timid. They insist on having an Iraqi Object of Emulation, and one who speaks out rather th~n one who keeps silent, and some of them tried to force Sistani out of Najaf altogether. They have brought into question his right to appoint prayer leaders in other cities. The Sadr Movement attempte4 to exclude the Badr Brigade from East Baghdad, and is locked in a struggle with SCIRI for control ofthe shrine of Imam 4Ali in Najaf., In Karbala, they are battling supporters of Sistani for control of IrIL +. S66*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL the mosque attached to the shrine ofImam Husayn. They have separated their congregation from the one led by Sistani's appointee. Their antagonism to these other groups is in part rooted in their attempt to monopolize sacred space in Iraq. Can the Sadrists maintain their political momentum? If the Defense Department scenario comes to fruition, and Iraq holds relatively free and fair elections~ in late 2004 or early 2005, the Sadr Movement's political" power may be diluted in a new Iraqi parliament that. they cannot hope to· dominate. Assuming they agree to field ~andidates, they could only hope to play in it the sort ofrole that the Lebanese Hizbullah does in the Lebanese parliament, where the radical party is often forced to cooperate with the Maronite Christians and other forces.. If, on the other hand, Iraq begins to collapse into insecurity and angry urban crowds seek an early exit ofCoalition forces, the Sadr Movement networks and militias will stand them in good stead in asserting power in East Baghdad and the south. It seems clear that the future of Iraq is intimately wrought up with the fortunes of the Sadr Movement. II 568. +. IrALL INFORMATION CONTAII~D HEREIN IS UlJCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/!sg ! , t'll 1 o 42. Th,e. Iranian Hand UNCLASSIFIED o UNCLASSIFIED Michael Ledeen, Wall Street Journal, 16 April2Q04, Page A14 Much is being made about the irony of an Iranian envoy arriving in Iraq to help negotiate a solution to the U.S. standoff with radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr. How could,we al~owa charter member of President Bush's"Axis of Evil" ~o negotiate a "peace" with the thuggish Sadr and his band of fanatical militants? Indeed, the irony is as thick as Sadr's own beard. But the fact that Iran holds sway over him and other Shiite militants in Iraq should surprise no one. Despite. repeated denials by the State. Department, it is an open secret throughout the Middle East that Sadr has b~en receiving support - if not precise orders -from the mullahs in Iran for some time now. That the. war.being waged by Shiite militants throughout Iraq is not just a domestic "insurgency" has been documented by the, Italian Military Intelligence Sendce. (Sismi). In a report prepared before the current wave of violence, Sismi predicted "a simultaneous attack by Saddam loyalists" allover the country, along with a series of Shiite revolts. The Italians knew that these actions were not just par~ of an Iraqi civil war, nor a response, to recent actions taken by the Coalition Provisional Authority against the forces of Sadr. According to Italian intelligence, the, actions were, used as a pretext by local leaders of the, factions tied to an Iran-based ayatQIlah, Kazem al-Haeri, who was "guided in his political and strategic choices by ultraconservative Iranian ayatollahs in order to unleash a long planned general revolt.II The. strategic. goal of this revolt, .says Sismi, was "the, establishment of an Islamic government of Khomeinist inspirati~n."The Italian intelligence agency noted that "the presence of Iranian agents of influence and military insmtctors has b~en reported for s,ome. time.Ii Our own governm~ntwill not say as much publicly, but Dona\d'Rumsfeld and Gen. John Abizaid, the commanderof U.S. force.s in Iraq, have/recently spoken of "unhelpful actions" by Iran (and Syria). / The Lonq.on-based Al-Hayat reported on April 6 that the Iraqi Governing Council was actiyely discussing lithe major Iranian role in the events that took place in the. Iraqi Shiite cities,'· noting that the Iranians ,were. the predominant financiers of Sadr. Another London newspaper, Al Sharq Al-Awsat', quoted a recent Iranian intelligence defector that Iranian infiltration of Iraq started well before Operation Iraqi Freedom. Hundreds of intelligence agents were sent into Iraq through the north. After the fall'of Saddam, greater numbers came across the uncontrolled border, masquerading as students, derics and journalists -- and· \ as religious pilgrims to the now-accessible holy cities of Najaf and Karbala. ./\ r ~'-ttu~ G5R-wr-~G~ts:-~C&~ mlL . - ·. bo· t e UNCLASSIFIEjD o / The editor of the Kuwaiti newspaper Al Seyassah ~ecent1y ~ote a front-. page editorial saying ~at Hezbollah and Hamas were working with Sadr, "backed by th~ ruling religious fundamentalists in Tehran and the. nationalist Baathists ill Damascus.1I No classified information was required for that claim, sinceSadr himself has publicly proclaimed that his militia is the fighting arm of both Hezbollah and Harnas. Nonetpeless, the State Department still doesn't believe - or won't admit publicly - that there's a co~ection between Sadr's uprising and Iran's mullahs. Just last week, State's dep~ty spokesman, Adam Ereli; told reporters that "We've seen reports of Iranian involvement, c9llusion, provocation, coordinaqon, etc., etc. But I think there's a dearth of hard facts to back these"things up.." Iraq cannot be peaceful and secure. so long as Tehran sends its terrorist cadres across the border.. Naturally, our troops will engage -- and kill-- any infiltrators they encounter. But we·can be sure that ~here will be others to take th~ir place~ The only way to end Tehran's continual sponsorship of terror is to 1;>ring about, the demise of the. present Iranian regime. And as it ;happel19i we have an excellent opportunity to achieve. this objective, without the direct use of military power against Iran. There is a critical mass of pro-democracy citizens there, who woulp1ike nothing more than to rid themselves of .their oppressors. They ne~d help;fbut they neither need nor desire to be liberated ~y force of arms. Above all, they want to hear our leaders state clearly and rep.eatedly -- as Ronald Reagan did with the "Evil EmRire" -- that regime change in ,Iran is the goal of American policy. Thus far, they have heard conflicting statements and mealy-;mouthed half truths of the sort presented by Mr. EreH, along with astonishing procl~ations,such as the one by Deputy Secretary of State Richard UNCLASSIFIED ,I . Armitage, in which he averred that Iran is Ita democracy.II (One wonders whether he will liken Muqtada aI-Sadr to Patrick Henry.) , Mr. Armitage notwithstanding, we can reach the'Iranian people by providing support to the several Farsi-language radio and TV stations in this country, all currently scrambling for funds to broadcast a couple of hours a day. We can encourage Brivate foundations and individuals to support the Iranian democracy movement. The current leadership of the AFL-CIO has regrettably abandoned that organization's traditional role of supporting free trade unions inside tyrannical countries, but there are some individual unions that' could do it. I e UNCLASSIFIED o t This sort of political campaign aimed at toppling the Iranian regime -allied to firm punitive. action wi~l).in Iraq against terrorists of all stripes -- will make our task in Iraq manifestly less dangerous. Ultimately, security in.Iraq will come in large. measure from freedom and reform in Iran (as well as in Syria and Saudi Arabia). This is a truth thatwe should not hide from, nor be fearful to take on. Mr. Ledeen, resident scholar at the. American Enterprise Institute, is the author of titheWar Against the. Tert"or Masters" (St Martinis, 2003). ,, UNCLASSIFIED ,', 0, .... Priht Q ~:~ ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HERE IN IS UNCLASS I FIED /!!\. ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 6032~baW/SabJlsg Page 1 ofl Print Window I crose yti!laow Document 4 of 522 Copyright 2004 Natlonwl~e News pty Limited PNG Post-Courier April 19,2004 Monday SECTION: FLARE UP IN IRAQi Pg. 15 LENGTH: 237 words HEADLINE: US policies to blame BODY: ~ TEHRAN: Iran yesterday said Americas iron-fisted policies and the lack of security undermined Iranian efforts to bring calm to Iraq. And that It would no longer co-operate with Washington In such efforts. Iran had sent a diplomatic delegation to Iraq In an effort to Improve security but Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefl said the team did not make the contacts It had hoped, and blamed the Americans. The latest setback to Iranian efforts came after an Iranian diplomat was killed in Baghdad on Thursday, causing Iran to distance Itself from mediation efforts to end a standoff between Iraqi mllitlas,loyal to anti-US cleric Moqtada al-Sadr and US forces. From the very beginning of the crisis, Iran tried to help ease tension but Washington s employment of an Iron-fist policy further complicated the situation" Mr Asefi said., He was referring to the Increasing use of force by the US military, which laid siege to FaliuJah last week after the killing and mutilation of four US civilians. Mr Asefl also said America s policies caused the failure of the mission of an Iranian diplomatic delegation to Iraq last week. He said Hossein Sadeghi, a top Iranian Foreign Ministry official, failed to meet with al-Sadr and Grand Ayatollah All al-Husselnl ai- ,Slstanl, Iraq s most powerful Shi Ite cleric. ' We couldn t meet Sadr or Ayatollah Sistani becaus~ of lack of security, Mr Asefi said. LOAD-DATE: April 19, 2004 I , ~ . -. t ' .. s TUESDAY, APRIL 2,1, 2,00+ C3 Did Michael Rubin, left, write the warning about conditions In Baghdad? He isn't saying. Washington. 11lesky is'notfalling" in. Iraq; he wrote early this month for National Review Oliline. In his articles andbiography, Rubin' says he served as a CPApolitical officer for nine months and previouslyworked on Iraq andIranissues while onDefense Secretary Donald ~feld's staH. N~tiona1 Review Online desCribes Rubin as the onlyCPA politi,cal officerin Baghdad "who lived outside the Americansecurity bubble." 'Thememo, ~ch ~ mentions continuingelectrical outagesand . "frequentexplosions, many ofwhich are not. reported in the mainstream media," faults U.s. officials for their isolationfrom ordinary Iraqis. . Rubin wouldn'tconfinn or deny that he wrote • the memo. Lastweekhe told an AEI spokeswo~ he didn'twantto talk about it, ~d he didn't return our canyesterday. . . Att HI;FORHATION CONTAlNED '. ~IN IS UNCLASSIFIED' 0' ~ 07,29-2010 BY 60324UC baw/s~~ ~ Speak, Memger "Tb.coerirrucpotrirounp,"tiodnecislaoreusr . a remarkably candid insider's assessment ofalleged kickbacks, patronage and otherwoes pJaguingthe U.5.-selected provisional govenunent in Iraq. 'The leaked memo haSforeign policywOnks playinga guessing game: Whois the importantIraqi officW desch1>ed asa'1tappydnmk"? Who is theKurdish politician who seems to be actingoutapart in' 11leGodfather"? . Pennedbya Pentagon adviser attached to the Coalition Provisional Authority, the chatty March memo offersa series of observationsand suggeStions after several months in Iraq as the· ' . author heads into non-goVernment life. "Despite the progress evident in the streets ofBaghdad,much of whichhappens despite us rather than because Baghdadishave an uneasysense that they are , heading toward civil war," the memo reports. Peopleare stoekPiliJ)gguns, the'author saYs, ..and"CPAis ironicalJy driVing the • • Iraqi police sell . their19st'U~S.-6Upplied Weapo~ on th~ black market; tJterare promptly resupplied."· • The~was.thesubject ofa storYdistributed lastwee1Cbythe AssociationofAlternative' Newsweeklies ( While the nameS of certain IraqifigUres andthe memo's"recipient were redacted, the missingname that Prompted the mostspeculationWas thai of the auth'or. Three ~urces tell us Pte ciitiquewas ~tten by Michael ,Rubin, a thirty-somethingneOcon intellectualwho • promptly became ascholar atthe~kiSh American Enterprise Institute~t re~to t~ By GARR~ TRUDEAU • • ......!!!II!I!II!.....---....... ~SOUBOB --- .~ ,By RichardLeiby ". '. t, . ALL INFOR!1ATION'CONTAINED ~. . H . hlEREIN IS UNCLASSI~ OqIme New.: our: IraqIs to be Sent I(Je? -- May 4, 199tATE 07-29-2010 EY~24 uc baw/sab/lsg ~,,~ I ·1 I" . t I' ~age 1of5 ONLINE FOCUS BACK TO IRAQ? May 4, 1998 T/~C New.~Hollr "'illl Jim Lehrer Trnllsc~iQt After bringing them to America, the u.s. government has decided that six Iraqis pose a security risk and must return home. However, the government won't say how they present a risk to national security; tlra! information is classified. JEFFREY KAYE: Imprisoned in a federal detention center south ofLos Angeles, six men·from Iraq face deportation. Although the United States brought them here, the goverpment now considers them national security risks. the case has attracted attention because its t:elian~e on c~assified evidence has prevented the six from rebutting accusations a ainst them. That, ~ccording to Rabih Aridi ofthe human rights p:: ~ ~{t~":. #~~~~~'% ~ group Amnesty International, violates basic ," "". ':~;~ :L standards ofjustice. ~ - "RABIH ARIDI: We believe they have been denied ~ ;, due process because they were not allowed to examine the evidence that was used against them. Nor were their lawyers. We are talking about a right that is clearly stated in the Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights and that-is the right to a fair trial. JEFFREY KAYE: The INS, the immigration & Naturalization Service, maintains the men are not entitled to classified information. Paul Virtue is INS general counsel. A Constitutional question: h~s due process been provided or denied to these men? PAUL VIRTUE, INS: We believe that full due .~ process has been provided to the extent we're required to do so under the Constitution. JEFfREY KAYE: The plen say they bel~nged to U.S.~backed Iraqi opposition groups formed after the 1991 GulfWar. In 1996, opposition members and thousands of other refugees fled to the border \vith Turkey after the Iraqi army attacked rebel strongholds in Northe~ Iraq. The U.S. flew 6,500 Iraqi refugees to the U.S. .I~land ofGuam'in the PaCific. The evacuees included som~ 600 opposition ' • A RealAudio version of this segment is available. NEWSHOUR LINKS: April 28, 1,998 Amb. Butler discusses efforts to verify the destruction of Iraqi weapons. Apri/27,1998 lm..qi exiles search for an alternative to Saddam Hussein. March 13, 1998 A panel of experts debate whether it is time to lift ,SJInctiC?na on Iraq.-. Online Forum Noam Chomsky and James. Wool~ debate U.S. - foreign polley. March 4, 1998 An interview with U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan. March 2, 1998 An interview with Iraq's Ambassador to the U.N. NizatHamdoon. February 20, 1998 A' panel of experts examine the crisis from the Iraqi Rerspective. o Page20f5 February 27, 1998 Congressional vi~w~ .of the U.N_. deal with ltag. February 24, 1998 James Baker and William Perry discuss the deal's impact on U.S. foreign p-oI1cy. ZALMAYKHLILZAD:. They had worked with us closely. They had put their lives at risk. And also it's possible that they would have been killed or jailed, and if they had gone all over the Middle East, I don't· II: ~ know who would have been able to provide them a 1I2.'I!·~~}'~1 ;. . " safe haven, since the Turks were unwilling. "They had worke~ "'lith us closely. They had put their lives at risk.II • Online NewsHour: Iraqis to be Sent ~e? - May 4, 1998 ~ members and their families., Thegovernment felt a moral obligation to • provide a haven, says fonner Defense DepartmentOfficial Zalmay Khlilzad, now with the policy research institute, Rand. January 14, 1998 Iraq's U.N. Ambassador, Mizar Hamdoon, defends his country's actions. February 9, 1998 Regional commentators give local perspectives on the growing crisis with Iraq. January 13, 1998 Amb. Butler discusses the latest disagreement With' Iraq. November 13, 1997 Newsmaker interview with Deputy PM Aziz who defends his country's expulsion of U.N. weapons inspectors. Online Forum: What's the be~t way to ~e~1 with Iraq? SAFA AL-BATAT: (speaking through interpreter) I've been fighting the Iraqi government since 1991. And the evidence Qfthat is apparent in my body-evidence, not words--traces ofthe bullets and shrapnel. An4 even now I suffer frolp the effect of Thallium, which is still present in my body._ JEFFREY KAYE: The 2.5 refugees were flown to California and placed in detention. After hearings, some eventually received asylum. Of. the six still detained in LA as security risks, two are doctors; three deserted the Iraqi military to join the opposition; and one fonner soldier, Safa Batat, says he was shot and bOlnbed by Saddam Hussein's troops, and poisoned by one ofhis agents. PAUL VIRTUE: The U.S. Government has had some concerns that because we had to evacuate people fairly quickly, without an opportunity to vet them overseas, as we mentioned, that people within the evacuee group might, in fact, have also been involved with the Iraq government and working on behalfofthe Iraqi government. February 19, 1998 An exploration of.Rublic . JEFFREY KAYE: Evacuees stayed on Guam for five months while INS and §J!RPJUl for the use of force FBI agents investigated their applications for political asylum~ The vast in 'raq as compared to past majority ofrefugees were settled in America, but government investigators conflicts. concluded that 25 didn't qualify for asylum. Frustration from h'!ving classified evidence presented behind closed dOl;~S. -:J•:~. ." ,....~;.u,.'..~~~(;.::-A'i-a., .,..";.."~ '~~JEI..".,.F,REYKAYE : In'Imm.Igrat.ion court i)!~~~~~'~:=~~~}~'~~ hearings held b~hind c!osed doors, the INS .~. mr:i~~.Ji;'~~~~?1f~~ pl:esented claSSified eVld~nce and secret . ~.,~ ~r.~iJ~J>~~~~)~~:~; t ~~ \Vltnesses. In March, the Judge ruled the men ~ .;~~~~~:~f:ri:::~ .:!; "pose security risks to the United States." Her ~)1j:~~'i~Vki1~($;f~ f~; ~~ public report cited inconsistencies in the men's ~t\'=;:;:::=!~ !~1: sto~ies. Aseparate, 92-pa~e classified decision .J \,::.·.'~~t,;o·~~·~·,,,·.,;;':·'.;l·~rehe~ mostly on secret-evidence. The·men . testifie'd, but the' fact they couldn't respond to !he classified evidence agains~ November 12, 1997 UN Ambassador Bill Richardson discusses the Security Council's vote to impose stricter sanctions on Iraq. November 10, 1997 pefense Sec. Cohen discusses the situation with Iraq. Browse the NewsHour's cov~:age of the Middle. ,.,.,. -r- Page 3 of5 Irag~ArabNet. The United Nations. - . East and the United Nations. OUTSIDE LINK:S: NEILS·FRENZEN: If,sOlneone told us we suspect Mr. X ofbeing a foreign intelligence officer, or we suspect Mr. Yof being a foreign intelligence agent, -we could respond to that perhaps by guessing. But nothing has been ruled ou't. We have simply had these- ivague generalities ofnational security that have been ."~.... ..ra....aaIIlll directed in our direction, with no idea ofwhat the eviden~e is. And so our case has been one of guesswork... 'the use of secret eyidence in a situation where one's life Qepends on it, and where one's life depencJs on being able to respond to that secret evid~nce;there's no place for it in the American legal system. oipine NewsHour:.Iraqis to be Senthe?•• May 4, 1998 ~ them fru~trated their lawyer, N~Ffenzen. PAUL VIRTUE: I think we have to ptit1this in context. I think the use ofclassified infonnation in immigration court proceedings is very rare. We've usedli~ a couple of dozen tinles in the last two.years, during which immigration courts considered about four hun4red thousand cases, so we're talking a very minuscule percentage. Jl~FFREY KAVB: To get the classified evidenc~ in case, the legal team brought fn R.. Jatnes Woolsey, the man on the left. As a former head ofthe CIA, Woolsey was privy to the nation'$ top secrets. rIe still holds a security clearance. In March, he came from Washington to meet with the Iraqis and to criticize the government he once served. R. James Woolsey: "This case at this point stands as really, I think a stain oli the honor of,the United States.II R. JAMES WOOLSEY~ This case at this poiptstands as really, I think a stain on the honor ofthe United States. JEFFREY KAYB: Woolsey signed on as the Iraqis' co-counsel, and filed a motion to obtain the classified evidence.. - R. JAMES WOOLSEY: I believe. whether it's me or someone else, that an attorney with security clearances, in order for fairness to be done, ought to be able to review this material on behalf of these men. If the government doesn't,want to share the classified information \vith counsel who are cleared, it would be my very strong suspici~n it's because the governmenthas made some serious mistakes and has something to hide. - JEFFREY KAYB: Virtue says the INS has n~ intention ofproviding Woolsey with a classified document because his clients have no legal standing in this country. PAUL VIRTUE: These are people who are seeking admission to t4e United States..Essentially they're knocking at the door, asking for the United ~tates to protect them as refugees. The due process requirements are different for someone who has not been lawfj.tlly admitted to the United States. ~'&~"~~~~~~::~.:l ~~?f.,s~~tJ~mR. JAME~ WOOLSEY: They were brought to Guam, a t~rrit9rial possession ;.~: 3;~.:· ,~' ~,~. "n},~' of the United States, by the U.S. Government, and they were taken fro~ ,~ r~\1.~' ,', • ~ , ~, Guam to California by the U.S~ Government. And $e INS is maintaining this .'.. legal position that they have not been admitted to the United States, so it ~,;~~~:~~~~~:~.~:~~~~~~ won't have to grant them any rights ofthe sort that an individual ~,~~~~~ ...~~ does-·have ifhe's.been admitted bu! ~et:l ~~ i~ r~s~ ofbe~~g deported,: •• } "II! • II ;... - - ........ - - ...... OlJ1ine NewsHour: Iraqis to be Sent!he?-- May 4, J 998 0 Page 4 of5 ;\ JE~REY KAYE: The detainees say t!tey are victims ofmisunderstandings by INS investigators, as well as the,.factional in-fighting amo~g I~qi_s. D~. Adil Hadi Awac!h, Who joined tJIe oppositi~n in 1996, after deserting from a military hospital,says Saddam Hussein fostered a culitire of suspicion in order to undermine his foes. DR. ADIL HADI AWADH: We've been living among the~e accusations since a long time in Iraq. So it's a very ~xpected thing to be regarded as a traitor in Iraq simply because ofjust the revenge purposes. JEFFREY KAYE: The detainees say on Quam rivals unjustly fingered them. The .refugees included men once ousted from the opposition who denounced the detainees., according to MQhanuned Tuma, a deserter from the Iraqi army. MOHAMMED TUMf\: (speaking through interpreter) No doubt; they were trying to get back at those who expelled them from the opposition. And the responsible parties in Guam listened to them and~~didn't listen to us. And I don't know why. PAUL VIRTUE: I d011't believe that simply a disagreement or some problems between the factions would have led to this--would have led to people continuing detained in this circumstance. JEFFREY KAYB: The decision was based on more substantive information? PAUL VIRTUE: I believe so, yes. ~ ii' ';-$":" ~t~~~ · . . JEFFREY KAYE: But Virtue said he could not disclose that information. However, ;~ • '. ".. ~~on~ man with intimate knowledge ofthe Iraqi Qpposition says at least two ofthe ~ ." mf~~~ detainees are who they claim to be. Warren Marik is a retired CIA case officer. In ~tI<.".:....:". ~ 1994 an$! '95, h.e and other U.S. ag.ents worked out ofthis house in the city ofIrbii , ~___ _ < ~.iw :JJ.. in Northern Iraq. Guarded by rebel militia, the'CIA team assisted the opposition • . ,., ~~~ nlovement. Marik says he worked with two ofthe detainees. One was Safa Batat ,vhom Marik .says arranged for the Americans. to debrief Iraqi army defectors. In London, Batat publicly denounced Saddam Hussein for trying to poison him. WARREN MARIK: I do-n't believe that Safa Batat is an Iraqi agent because ofhis activities in London. JEFFREY KAYB: How do you know Dr. Ali? WARREN MARIK: Dr. Ali treated me and members ofmy team in Northern Iraq. I EilElI1i had a terrible case of bronchitis. And he gave me medicine. He treated a couple people in my teams and-·and they didn't die. Thilt's-that's--(Iaughs)--rnle number one. And rule number two ,vas, you know, they--they were cured. mFFREY KAYB: So the fact that he didn't kill these people demonstrates to you that he could not be an·agent of Saddam? ' WARREN MARIK: Partially. You get into a good question. JEFFREY KAYB: Marik says that while Saddam's agents did infil~ate the opposition, he knows ofno .evidence that implicates the detainees. The U.S. Government did not make ~arik availaBle to testify in the Iraqis' case. One man who did t~stify on their behalf is Ahmed Chalabi, the head ofthe Iraqi National Congress, or INC, a nmin opposition group. - IIHW~~I~:~t~~~AJ·IMED..CHALABI:,Lhav~119J~~id~~ge ~~ ~~ s~~ no ~a~ t~at t~es~ ~e~ple_are_ f"~"""'~~"'" .. ' .-' -- . - - - -. ,--;--------- i On}in,.e NewsHbur: Iraqis to be Senthe? -;- May'4, 1998 ~ I .~ agents o~ddam Hussein. They' are not agentS .of~dam Hussein. I JEFFREY KAYB:, Does that mean you can persoJially vouch for them? ·Page SofS· AHMED CHALABI: 1kJIO\V three ofthem personally.,The three people who belong to thelNC, I mow them personally. A bleak future if th~ men are forced to return tQ Iraq. JEFFREY KAYE:. The detainees say ifforced backto I~q, they will be killed. MOHAMMpD AL-AMMARY.: (speaking through interpreter) Theverdict ofthe~·II'iI~.~ judge is a death ~entence. All that is left is for the verdict to be Baghdad. That's all that's left. JEFFREY KAYB: The INS says if the men are eventually deported, they could try to fin~ refuge in another country, besides Iraq. But in any event, both the government and .the Iraqis' lawYers expect a protracted legal battle over the use of classified evidence. .........-._------~----------------- honus IIQV.1JlOur index search forwn polilicahwap lette... eaays&dJalogu.s offcUlora ~11.1C~vS~lO!!rJnde~ ,I ie~rch I forum Jpol!~ical wrap Ilette!S Iessays & dialogues Copyright © 2004 MacNeillLehrer Productions. All Rights Reserved. I II t' I! II 1)- - ADM 111e NewsHour is funded, in part, by: CiI ··~·' . ~ • • - ... .. , - I - I -.·m • A ~.~ .. ~' ~., t .~n~..DteaJ4riirJg OfTehran The Nation April 12, 2004 Pg. 16 Q ALL FBI INFOPMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg Still Dreaming OfTehran By Robert Dreyfuss and Laura Rozen The Bush Administration's hawks and their neoconservative allies at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and The Weekly Standard are engaged in a high-risk and high-stakes effort to restore their fading power in Washington by pressing for a confrontation with Iran. It's no secret that the neocons' star has fallen since the war with Iraq. The intelligence scandal plaguing the White House and the ongoing crisis in Iraq itselfcan both be laid at their doorstep, and it's widely believed that President Bush's re-election team would deariy like to extricate the President from the Iraqi tar baby., But the neocons aren't giving up, and they are trying to pull the White House in even deeper. Not only are they undeterred by the chaos in Iraq, but they are pressing ahead to advance their regional strategy, one that calls for regime change in Iran, then Syria and Saudi Arabia. Says Chas Freeman, who served as US Ambassador to Saudi Arabia during the first GulfWar and a leading foe ofthe neocons, "It shows that they possess a level offanaticism, or depth ofconviction, that is truly awesome. There is no cognitive dissonance there." What makes the neocon strategy on Iran especially risky is that with Iraq teetering on the brink ofcivil war, neighboring Iran has significant clout inside Iraq, including ties to various Iraqi Shiite factions and a growing paramilitary and intelligence presence. If Iran chooses, it can help ease the daunting task that the United States faces in trying to put together a sovereign Iraqi government. But if it seeks confrontation, it can help spark an anti-US revolt in southern Iraq, home to most ofIraq's Shiite majority. In that case., nearly all analysts agree, the American occupation could be overwhelmed. Leading the charge against Iran is AEI's Michael Ledeen, perhaps best known for setting in motion the US-Israeli arms deal with Iran in the mid-1980s that became known as Iran/contra. Supporting Ledeen's position are two other AEI fellows: Richard Perle, the ringleader ofthe neocons and a former member of the Pentagon's Defense Policy Board, and David From, a Weekly Standard contributing editor and the former White House speechwriter who coined the phrase "axis ofevil." In their new book, An End to Evil, Perle and Frum call for a covert operation to "overthrow the terrorist mullahs ofIran." Speaking to retired US intelligence officers in McLean, Virginia, in January, Ledeen called Iran the "throbbing heart ofterrorismll and urged the Bush Administration to support revolutionary change. "Tehran," he said, "is a city just waiting for us." Ledeen is viewed skeptically by many experts, including at the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency. "Ledeen doesn't know anything about Iran," says Juan Cole, a professor at the University ofMichigan who is an expert on the Shiites ofIran and Iraq. "He doesn't speak Persian, and I believe he has never been there." But Ledeen does have connections in the Iranian exile community. For the past two years, he has maintained a relationship with Manucher Ghorbanifar, the Iranian wheeler-dealer who worked closely with him in Iran/contra. Ledeen introduced Ghorbanifar to a key neoconservative official, Harold Rhode, a longtime Pentagon staffer who speaks Arabic, Farsi, Turkish 10f3 413012004 5:03 PM e o 2of3 and Hebrew and who until recently served in Iraq as between the Defense Department and Ahmad Chalabi. Rhode and another Pentagonofficial, Larry Franklin, have been talking to Ghorbanifar about options for regime change in Tehran. "They were looking at getting introduced to alleged sources. inside Iran, who could give them some inside information on the struggles in Iran," said Vince Cannistraro, a former CIA counterterrorism chief. Ghorbanifar, he said, was spinning tall tales about alleged (but unsubstantiated) transfers ofIraqi uranium to Iran's nuclear weapons program. Rhode and Franklin were critical players in the campaign for war against Iraq. In 2002 they helped organize the Pentagon's Office ofSpecial Plans, the Iraq war-planning unit whose intelligence staffers ar~ now under investigation by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence for allegedly manipulating evidence about Iraq's nonexistent weapons ofmass destruction and ties to terrorism. Both the OSP and the Rhode-Franklin effort on Iran were run out ofthe office ofDouglas Feith, the Under Secretary of . Defense for:Policy and a key neocon ally. Their initiative on Iran reportedly drew a sharp protest from the State Department. Newsday quoted a US official who said that the entire effort was designed to "antagonize Iran so that they get frustrated and then by their reactions harden US policy against them." There is widespread disagreement about both Iran's intentions in Iraq and the extent ofi~ capability to cause mischief there. But there is a consensus that Iran can exercise significant power. It has close ties to the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, whose Badr Brigade paramilitary force ofabout 10,000 was trained by Iran's Revolutionary Guard, and to the forces ofMuqtada al-Sadr, a 30-year-old Shiite firebrand. "There are thousands ofIranian intelligence agents and operational agents inside Iraq today, and the border is completely op~n," says Amatzia Baram, an Israeli expert on Iraq. So far, analysts say, Iran has chosen to playa waiting game. Ken Katzman ofthe Congressional Research Service says that Iran "views its interest to play it low-key, to keep a low profile'and continue to promote a cohesive Shiite bloc in Iraq in order to be in a position to become dominant once the United States leaves." The "realists!' inside the Bush Administration, led by Secretary ofState Colin Powell and Coalition Provisional Authority head Paul Bremer in Iraq, are well aware that Iran could deal a fatal blow to the already faltering US efforts. Partly as a result, they've engaged in·a quiet dialogue with Tehran. According to the Financial Times, last May Iran offered a "road map" for normalizing US-Iranian relations. Since then, Powell and his allies have sent assistance after the devastating earthquake in southeast Iran, and offered to send a delegation led by Senator Elizabeth Dole. They've also supported efforts by Germany, France and Britain to work a deal with Iran over its nuclear weapons program. (Germany's intelligence service also brokered a prisoner exchange between Israel and Hezbollah, which is close to Iran.) But oflate, some ofthose conciliatory efforts have stalled. Aplanned Congressional staff delegation to Tehran, the first since the rise ofAyatollah Khomeini's regime in 1979, was canceled by the Iranians, according to the office ofSenator Arlen Specter, whose staffwas to participate. And after the·initial harmony, signs are emerging ofa serious split between Washington and Europe over Iran's nuclear program, with echoes ofthe US-Europe split over Iraqi WMD. How the differing approaches--the neocons' war cries and the realists' more conciliatory strategy-·are viewed by Iran's leadership is anybody's guess. But there are at least several factors that might push the Iranian ruling elite in the direction ofthe confrontation the neocons want. First, the hard-line clergy are in the midst ofa crisis with the so-called reformists. In the past, the mullahs have used anti-US rhetoric, and even militant actions, to trump liberal and reformist rivals. Second, while Iran welcomes the rise of Shiite power in Iraq, it is at the same time uneasy about losing influence to the mullahs in Najafand Karbala. According to several experts on Shiism, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani is now the leading Shiite cleric in the wod.d, whi<?h could make him a rival to Iran's less prestigious clerics. Though Sistani 4/3012004 5:03 PM e o has foiled US policy in Iraq by insisting on direct elections,.he has refusea to denounce the US occupation and may cooperate with a UN-brokered compromise for creating an Iraqi government. IISistani is a double-edged sword for Iran," says Juan Cole. And third, there is the Bush factor. Some neoconservative strategists argue that Iran will act decisively in order to prevent Bush from being re-elected. R~Ymond Tanter, a scholar at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, a pro-Israel think tank, predicts, IIThey are going to launch a political-military campaign in an effort to defeat President Bush, because they believe that ifBush is re-elected, he will do to them what he did to Iraq." -l§tlu D~iRg OfTehran ..t' It's unclear that Iran would risk a confrontation with the United States in Iraq even if the mullahs do believe that they are next on Bush's invasion list. But the mullahs are famous for misunderstanding US politics, just as Americans have failed repeatedly to understand Iran's. In a way, the neocons' Iran project is very similar to the early phase ofthe~r Iraq one. It includes a steady drumbeat ofthreats and warnings, Washington lobbying, a media offensive and support for exile groups--in Iran's case a mishmash that combines supporters ofKhomeini's grandson; Reza Pahlavi, the son ofthe fallen Shah,and the Iranian monarchists; and the Mujaheddin e-Khalq (MEK), a 3,800-strong exile force based in Iraq. In one ofthe strangest events ever to occur at a Washington think tank, last September Khomeini's grandson--dressed in rough-hewn black and brown robes and crowned by a turban, with dark brooding eyes like his grandfather's--took the podium at AEI, introduced by Michael Ledeen, to call for US assistance to overthrow the Iranian government. He even welcomed an alliance with the Pahlavi monarchists. Many analysts view the prospects ofa Pahlavi-Khomeini-MEK alliance with exceeding skepticism. And they note that the neocons, having bungled Iraq, don't have a lot ofcredibility left on Middle East policy. But it,would be wrong to count them out. A former CIA officer, who took part in the debate over Iraq policy in the 1990s recalls how the neocons.ultimately prevailed. liThe neocons had this idea ofworking with the Iraqi opposition to arm and train them and to overthrow Saddam Husseili, and people like me said, 'That is really stupid,'" he says. "But you get people to think about it, you get the President engaged, then options expand and then when opportunities come along, you seize them. That's what they did. They got people to buy in. Before September 11, people told them, 'It's never going to happen.' Come September 12, the rules An explosion in Iraq, and some Iranian mischief there, and the rules could change again. Robert Dreyfuss is a contributing editor o/The Nation. Laura Rozen is ajournalist who covers national security issuesfrom Washington. .30f3 413012004 5:03PM o o NO. iSS l- _, ••• II' ALL INFOP~TION CO~rrAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED • DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc ba1IT/seb/1sg ..4 . ~Vlr ''\tiMtdi'" q""~~~':~"I:d~"..:.d!,"~I4~"::':' .. :~..:to.Itt:'''::':'''.-a.:::''.::, •• .A.I.~':'::':: .. '!":.t:~JiIr:. ...,..·J.A,..1.\~~:a.""lbiiiiM~~diiJIl_""'. J:)OCtJMlDrl IDa an2142""S , DOCS'f1 - ~ LANtmAfDI DcaLISB VENDOK. J)%ALOCI »tmN»mz .. ~C OR%CJDATJh 20010112' POBLISBRI acwr II. S'l'AltL1l'1'cm 7:ELBNOI· 4' A'CTHOR I late, eli j •. DORa 30030.1. 'I'ORa" 124.128 I 'D!raLMs:rnBD , 'l'X'l'LB. Pew Good MoD - The sGuell !O2:' SY%'ian l:tberala. TOPL:DTSS. B11 a. Lake 1. tba State 1)epartll\e2).t a02:r.8p~t for 'tn'dte4 pre•• mt.a=at10Zla1. 'l'BX'r1 311 a. Iaak. 1•.tha Stat. Deputment co~resp~nclent fo): tJnited pl'eS8 XDcenat.lou1. It ••emae! like a match mada in Deocon heaven. L... than ODe weeJc aftu t:h.e 'Dnitecl Statell aoouse4 syz:ia' of allowing' tenoJ:1sts to enter :tra; an4 Sadd•• Hussein'.~ b.enalmlen .to leave- it, ••1:£4 Gba4¥y informally UDve11ecl hi. l.efozm Jlazoty of Syxola. H. uae4 the ocsClulcm of. the American BDtazprla. tDatitutel ••aa0n4 co lase. weekly briefing on x~aq~ ~a 8~ie8 tha .illllt:i.t:uee o=tgazUlle4 to ·ooinoide with the- wu--to go public- with hi. oppo8it1ozs .£fO:l:t8. Ghac!zy--who plans to azmcnmce a Syzoima gove=ment in exil. iD the aonWIS mcmthll·-asJc.ec1 thea panel o~ WaabiDgt= -hawks', from the auc1i8Da~, th8 ,quG.tion on 8VeryOl1e" m.1D41 'WhAt about zoeg1ma ~e foZ" Sp1a'· Ghacl:ry'. t!.m!.Dg va. poe!. ~ weak befor., Se=etazy of Defens. !d)com_a.lcll.wufe1cl JW:l aeDt ~. W12.1te HoUse a "Roacl Map for BYz'ian_-~ a lUValy pmitlve pol1ay opt1cm8 8pun:ec1 ))y the :PeDt:agoft.'. assessment. -that .a.m~1:'iean .olcti.e~. we~e enc!aDgerG4 :by SY%'ials open-J.:)o:4e: policy d1u"1rlg the wax". Thea -memoI. pxoposal., Tha Mew Reptml1a has lea=ed, inCludadoc:1dJ:ig Ul~ai:r:cZ'a£t cU:l:i.i: within Syrian tU~itoria1 waterSl, ua!ng prox1.. t.o ·unde!:mi216 Sy2iian ,intel-ligenc:a agata wide L~, inte%'diot1ng' :l:rwan fligbt. to Helllbollah p08itiOl18 .in LebanoD, &Dc! .enclinsr AIne!.CWlforGes ove~ the sYz':l.m boZ'cler in llhot p=,uitn or: .enio%' I~aq1 off~aia.1•• MeanWh11e, CongJ:8SSl waa aeveloping a set of new ,8nClcioft8 agaiDat J)ama8ou.a that were tougher than the limited -J:)anl on weapons and othor item. ~ UDited States has al%8&4? pa88a4. COUld ~a be a better moment foZ' the SyziaD Ahmec1 Cbalabl to emeqe? -pufo,.-tunat:*ly, :!~g _ libU'al cIi••ic1eAt. with a base of 8UPPO~t 1D sy¥1a makes ·finc:1inS ,1ibG1:'al 4l&J8ic1cmt. wlth a bas. of aup»o:tt in x:raq looJc .ally. The S?rian oPpo81ti= 1- OY.ftl1a~lypopulated by fundamentalist••- And Syr1u l~aral. have Virtually DO public p:r:o~ile outslcle of ,Wash!.ll51ton. The .iml1arit1e. betw8eA GhaQry and ChalaJ)l; ·Qo..foundu of! the I2:aqt Matlcmal Cong1:8SJI, seem .t~iJd.nS. Ghad%y, like Chalab1, baa hac! his sbare of bad. clays in buSi!1e.8. Whi-1. Chalabi fled .1'o:t:dan·:I.D. 1981 afteJ: Petra Bank, Which he set "'PI oollap&Jec1 -amidst. a11egat:LoIJ:8 of :fi~a:la1 f~auc1" OhaQ:r:y. owne.d Hamubal ' _, Cof~.a Co., a chain of Ama~laan Goffe. .hops that: wen1: })azikX'UPt in 1196. LiJca Chalabi, Ghadzoy walk•. and-· talks the languaseof :Libe~al damoc:Z'acy. Hi. pazotY',8 .website boa.sts paperl on refomins s?:ria'SI 1 • _I I ! '\ o NO. iSS PI3 omm.pz-.a.t .OCNZi~y ••mcee, wb!cb U'••imtlU :lD acme :l:e~peGt. to %%'aq'l f~ Baath luty a~atWl, and on 8steb118hing ~epJ:eaentative sr~~•.TM ..foal Pa~ty of Syria haa even ckafte4 & modal ccmatlt\ltloD tMt: would .8:=iu no~ cm1y "81a zoight:8 of apeach, u.embly. life, aDd pzocpezty but allo lnOJ:le i4ea1!st:La goal', suah as a pol1utiOA-fZ'.. ttIl'ri=mnent, fa12: la]:)o~ practice.,. uel aesc... to health cu.. Gbacby allO aupport. peace with %8rael. "Why 40 ~ have to be e ••• with QUI' lSeighbcZ'?1I he uu, that he :baa ~een impt'a,uIK :by :t8:r..l'. UIIIO':&CSY' ADd viJ=ant. a1vil "oaiety on business visits to the countzy. CIbacIzy, aaccmJ..hingly enough, i. eYeD • merabu of the AmeZ'icaD %axaal ~:Lia At~a1r. Committe•• Oth~ anti-gOYUllUDt axila. bav." .taRed to amuga .. well. on Ap~il 24, 120 Syrian exiles of all " ideologiG&l .t~1p••, ranging' iZ'om c:ommUDiata to Alaw1te :bus:LDesuJmeD, sa:Lgned. an open lett.Z' in Al-Hayat, a leading ~ab new8pape~ puhl1shed. :I.D LcmdcD, to Baabu' Assaad, Gall1q cm.h11ll 1:0 allow exiled. dissident. to ntum to tu CQUUC2:Y. to aboli8h m11itaxy-t~. oo=ta, and to c!ismaJltle put of tU atat..'. s.c:n.u:ity ••:rIie... "'rhea Iraqi wazo p:a:ovad thea 8ocw:1ty .uvio.. aazmot defend the .tnd.eptmdanaa, aovU'e:L91'tyt ancl cUgD1ty 0:1: ~i.,a ~!4. ~~. _I". limited. .:Lgna that ~.~o:a:met'. -.y ~ SZ'owiDg :boJ.daz within 8~ia u well. ':r:10zo 1:0 • ol"ackc!cwn in II\1d-2001 agaiut. aivil .ooiety o:r:ganizat:Lcmll, Sy:aiaD8 ba4 bea ~oming!.mall gZ'oups . that opeD1y c:U..c:wlluad polit:1a., pJ:eviously a ~u. oo~eno•• Some of that. fum&Dt remaw. In &.%'&2:8 interview last mcmth with SyZ'ian ~afo=a:. in Damuwa, Haticma1 Iublia Ra41o'. JCa.t.8 Seelye found sevexal people to publicly .peale cut against the political zoep:a:ession pez:vadinSJ the ClO1mt::ry. But, 4e8pita tb1. miner thaw, J\meZ'iaaa. of:!1a!a111 axe deeply pessimistic that 8~ia acmtaizul t:ha type of leade the tm1tacS State. :I.. lookinS' fo~••We have done lloth1ng eo tJUltivat. Or enaow:age •• , cppoait:Lcm (to Sy~1.'8 :reg:Lme) e1theZ' abroac!oZ' 1zl the count:y, a ,ay. ODe pentas= o!fioial. AocozocSiJlg to 21raDk J\ndeX'SOD., the CD,'. fome Hea%' BaIt CIhi.f, the DD:Lted atat•• -thought: about GbaDging' gova=manta 1A %Z'aD., %J:aq, aDd Libya, wt in SY2='ia we d.ea:l.da4 that ~ of the opt:Lona wa~a more .t.I:~aat1ve than the inCN!l\1)ent.8.· Xn faot, seve:ral :Am8:riGaD off1a1a1. Jcnowled;eable ahou~ Syria lIay that Assad'.. moat liberal OPPOlUmt. haw DO J:ea1 pol:Lt:Lcal J)aakiDg. 'or Syzo1m l~eZ'al. to cZ'eate Itany meazUDgfuJ. poltt:Laal opposition 1,. ridiaulO\l', I say. a !OI'meZO AmuicaA ambassador to· Syria. After dec:ac:1es of being closely l:LDked. to Leb&nCZl, aay Am.ex'iclA official., many Sy~:l.a.D8 have coma to associate pxo-W••te= l:U:leal. with Leban••• Ch:I:;;L8I18, who mq.y SY~UDa :blame foZ' oppressing **lim. !D LeJ)anou anc! for b.~ evpporta4 by :r.rael. the 8~iaJl libeZ'al.' lack of • POWU" base, llumsteld.'. policy memo c1id not advoaat•••ekiDs' out. Sy:iaD exile. and. diSlideDt. for an OPP08:l.t1= lDO'VamaDt, a. the PeDtagOD did :I.D the Wa..t BaDJc aDd. Ciaza aft.xcba p~e.i4ent'. apaedh la.~ ~ Galling fo~ & newPaleatiDian lea4eZ'.bip. HOJ: did .'!Jft\.fll1c1' a plu aet a81~ l\JDc!.iq fo~ cSi••idtmt.. w:Lda Sy:a:ia, .a Jl'entagOll oiriliaDa advocate fOX' the intemal opponents of Iran'. W1:LDg' mullaha. , Ghacb:y :LlluatZ'at.. tha point. His oZ'gaDizat:LOD. i8 ODly now g8t.t!ng of! Ue g:round. ADcl a Syr:Lan who belong.. to em. of %8X'.el" ma:J.n lobby:I.Dg 9:a:ouP. i. DOt exactly a st%'ODS polit1cal candidate in a aount2:Y that :remain. 011. of the most: ~ab:Lc!1y anti-:l:8~ael in the zoegi=. At Ghadty himself admit., -'1'M S;v:c'ian8 are not ready foZ' someone who WaDt. to make peaoe with I.rae1.· A.,ad', moat. powerful opponct, admit. one en Jage 2 \ MAR~24'.2004 2:2aPM 0, tDTaLUI:E.:EBD P.4 .'.~ ..,'"....', ecmaultmt with extaaiva ~wlec!gG of Syx"ia, ia the tbeoaJ:'atia M\Jlll:1.m ''&8 cmly' oppos1t:1on J: know 01: 1n 'p:La i8 t~ MWl1im B~o~hood,· apo... fa:r:mezo Assistant Secretary of Hear Bastem .u:ail:. Iclwuel Walke. %Ddee4, aaco~cU.Z1g' to Youssef M. %brahim, a fOnl8Z Middle IUt Ipa1a11at at the caunail = :ae1ati0D8, Aslsacl baa ·g:a:cwn so . f.~ful o! tU D'otheJ:h004'1I ah111¢Y to, 8P~ ~ad:Laa1 Xslam that he hag ;begun uJciDg tpMohe. 4en1gratizlg nl!giou8 extremism.aa4. ohast:Lsing' Th.e :r.lam:L.t-iAfl1aC011d mec1iaal m.ixin£.l scie-nce an-d. ::t.lam. B:r:otba:r:hoocl--wh:Lch AaaadI8 :eathe:r:, Hafel, banned.... 08 cough ah&rac:t82:8. III. 1112, 1:Ile1~ Sy2:ian b~antJh laUlltJhed a bloody :LDtifada,against tb.8 %'egtma that 1nolw!84 :r:ULC!OlIlly usuabatiDglQGmbo%'& of the nlill9' Alita. ·What'_ mo:r:., they chum out. a ataa4y atme of anti-, 18:r:ae1 and anti-U'-S. :r:hato:ria. JIveD wo:c••, Newsweek bae reported. that Ame:r:icaD aDd. German inv••t:Lgato:r:. kaaliava that: ~embe:r:. of the S~ian MIl.lim B%othe~boo4playad o:r:it::Loal rolu ill ,uppoJ:t:Lng anc! :reezuit:1ng the HambUX'S'~baBec1 lea4ers ot! the A1 aa.s& cell. that. CU't'ied cut th8 Septembezo 11 attaaka. roJ:' the . t:Lme be:LDg, Buh .ami ai .t=at:1cm hawJc8 W&ft1: eo !~1:heZ' :l.801at:. Aallaa mel thWlp~••aw:a him to ahange. '.t'hey b.liaw tbi. pr••• will, lead mo1:e SyzoiAZl. di••idlme. 1:0·acme out o~ t~ woodwozk. seoretuy of state COlin lowell'. raCl*4t to Damascue may uncie:r:i1co:r:e tb1. strategyl By infomilll b:Lm that the United States could tum the scr:ewa em. Sy:ia, lowell! Aggad,. like Yui2: ~a!at: beF02:8 last. JUne'" ..peach, a final oppoZ'~UDity to ahcge. trl1fo~tuna.tely, i£ AsSac! 40.8. not aome U'oun4, wulUngton JhI¥ di8coveJ: :Lt aannot 'f:Lnd UyODe .it. likes to J:eplace him. (COp~ight. :2003, 'I'M Hew Republ:Lo) . .... '., ..~. , _ tDTCLASSZJI%ID_ \ , .., -~-,,--"-.. -,...,..-.""....~-."-.,,.-,----:-;---;- - ~. ----,-.-.-,.-.---:::---:-- MAR~24:2e04 ,2:21PM I" ... "'" ......... .. .~" .. ~o~_mi J)OCSTI LMlGUAGB. vmmoI.i JtmNAMBI Olu:GnA'1'B I PtJBLISHR. PtlBHO,' 'Ita3NO. AlJ'l'HOR.: . DOll. 'l'OR.: CLASS. ~'a TOJL%NBli can'i'1'7C23 ~ .DGL%8B DDS I < 1••":1.215 ,)aJ.,w..'wo~ic! cem-m..'unloat1on., Ina. ~- .. ," •• -rHJI DSHDlCll'ml TIMB8 2.••'111' 210300' ._ mtCLU8:t1'%BD 'u~.CIJwbP QCCUPA~~' i'J:8Ii1i4iaDt u.s ,o~~, ·Ccmpas.-Id.ddta ·B~t· Wi~e ~an'iaa BD'l'HDAY oc:CtJPA~OX :PJ:••!~t ad .~~, Compail."Nic:1ch•.But w~~. S~ce BD.'1'BDAY a.m. 18, 1'541 HOMB1'OW!I W~~g~, D•.~. ~~.IJ'1UU' ~~ecl" f~' oh!lc1ru S~V-PoR~ '1'h~e .more ~lleniilig ~e ~p1), the bett.~. the pel'i~2:IW1C:8 .MO'rTO The~.k¥'. ~.l1m£t· .. ~ ... ~ Mrr'1'I' :r~u~. 1l4C!iq in an. :r1. GO" :tNs:p.IiA'r~oar - '- .. ..... - ~ - - .... - ... ,. ... ~... I -.... -... - - -... , ~ + - ,..., ..... - . mtOz.u8:r:'XB· »al~ 1 ~- "'-"" - - tY""'~.-:a. ...... - ........ __ ~ ...._ ... I .. ",..~~ _ ... JI ....~ ... __ .......... __ ..... __ -. _ .... ~~~ ~ , .P~6 , " .," ------... .No'.·155' ............~ ..~ ,., '''A·'' "',. : Mali. ~t2l, ~ fatbaz' .of! caplt.Ai·:L~, a=.,~:L g'Z'QAt.-P!i~l. wha haye iG~t . • oma~ f= b'mlni ty. ' . ,... Va-. ~..... _TlST nai'- SUPPORiq ~. ~~n,'9'e in a\1a_i& aDd 'Clie pOeI' in W~h1llgt~" . ,JW) DeI'll Ca= ~t '!~:. I.~ the .•ama m1~take tw;l.cse ~ • .. Pm- PUVJI8 C:Lguette emote HoDY ." Cu, raatng ~ apOl:t c(ara LumRY:":DlrDnm , 'b.o~; yo~ lW~ticuS' ~1tDnc'Oll'WD1'B Petru. 11.~,. capp~aino rAWR%'l'I :JUI8~ AUX' :B~u.x .~. ~~%PR ~IO'I ':_t.UlY cummrCJ I~.· G!02:S':Lo~.~. '1!Vn6G~ 1Satu. .i:~Jlsr'G· ·DCHe~.1I ~ CA!l :at GAR..vA1 1"2 Ne2:cadea BOOKS: A'1J Bl:D8ml ul!J:ualc .Jaaa, BlaCJlc. H~t~ ~y ~':'H1ng Chu LU'1' WOR!)S ac:a~t"li~ mwtt .live.· ClRAl'HIC i %lluat?~~tiOD, 110, '~OH _.. _-... ................ _...).~. - _.- -...- ~-~~'! ..~- ~- ......- -- ........ l• - -- , . MAR. 24. 2004 2: 22PM o NO.1~ t'. ( . . ,., "~. ,.-. - ., , ~ v" -¢..{l i'~ t 't' .;. ... .- 'I' ""... let ' .-, Juan Cole .'" .;:0. ..-~ .n.~ Uriit~d StateS and '8hi'ite R~ligious Post-Ba'thi~tIraq :'1~Po.~t-s"addam llusayn Iraq, Sm'l,e mqiti?z$ r..apidly e!tablished their authori.ty ,i~ Eas( Baghdt¢andother urban neighb.or1)oo(Js a/the south. Amongthe. various Ill"" .... ,. '\. ......- 'Hgroups which emerged, the Sadr Movement staritlS'out-as militantand cohesive• :?The'sectarian, anti-American Salirists wislz,td u;,pose apuritanical, Khoniein.'ist ':~~~if,n oli Iraq. :Their P?iitico..(influ~~~is potentially much gre~te~ th4n their' ,.';21wuiers.lncorporaiing them'intoademocratic Iraq while ensuringt1UJt they do 'Y:~iconi~ todoinidate it'posis.tQ severe chailenge to the US Administration. ... t' ;~. .. - ·1 • " • : I -. .. 'f.... ~.,'" vh:(; . " .~ '. • ~E~t~~in,.~~ w~ ~~..~q~~t!l~·.A~~ri~;~fense Dep~~n~. ~d'in!elligeJl~ orgaq~~9~~ ap~a(tp-~~V~~! ~n~~~~!Jia~~JJ.~o!ls ofIraqi~~~:ite~ ha(Uoir~ a" militant"and' "iJritanicaI 'movemenf~Cieajcaiea~ to' the.eStablishment"of·an mm-st Ie Isl~~;R~' ~~1i&~iii iia~~~~~veri ~ih~J8)1~di~~d~v~io"iii~~ts bad been detaiieJ infu~ . ~bi~ianPualle'books~a,~6'le~ioh~rir~#~!~&~i2003':'De~ U Sec~(t . oftit. ~'tf"f'r'¥_.g g.,. ", 4'....: .. "'~......,. ,,"·.... ~.,I' ~ ~~.. ~.-.. ~.... ,...~ !.....P ty -. ~ fense Paul Wolfowitz:' ~e aiiJiiieiView on:.Nanoiiai PUblic.RadiO in which he main- ' .....~...~ •••.,t.... . , • ~ ;,,' .. , ';. ." ::y..~~. -,' ..-":-"' ' '. • • - • /_ ~~~.»i~t ''!I1e.Iia~i~,~":~ ~~by.~~',~~guJ~~,s~jJ!~.~ey ~~~~be~rigl~ SI]!;~!,1}fchIS dlffe~n! fro~ the W8hapls :9ft#!~,pe~n~ula, and they,dc;m't bnng the se,nsi(~ii of h.aving' ~e· hoJy ~ities of.Isl~·¥ing .9,n .their te¢tofy~'1 Even more di~rniIY:'this quote sh~w~ thatWOlfoWiJ;qid hot realize.that religious Iraqi Shi'ites • are~tl;mely sensitive about foreigners inthe~shrine cities such as Najafand Karbala, Ju: uJ s:"", "'f .. ... ... ~~ , "'''. ~ ,. .. • ~ 0f~~a!..t. hc!s~ citi~s are,religious power ~nters of great symbolic potenC?y.· ~.~:~.•}lS pefense. Dep~e.!1t leaders such as ~ecretaJ:Y ofDefense Dona!d Rumsfel~ aR!!Jus. ~~pu~es, W~lfo~tz ~d· Douglas F~itbt mistalCeq!y thought that ~e rnUJdle and lower strata of.the:Bafth bureauCla9'. wHee, and army w0!11d .smyive the war, and'that they.c'ould·simply~~hand it over to secular expatriate-figure i\hmad'ChaJabl and hIS Iraqi NatiQ~~ <;oiigfess. Although ~m a 8hilite bac~ground, Ch~abi' '?laS largely unkDowp:in'Iqlq.~d.:was wanted in Iordan on embezzlement charges. Th~ ciAand'the State Department broke with chalabi late in 2002 when be proved unable :.;J!~ t." . ~~. .. - • " . , :-;-'1.• - y... • ~-~ .... ., .;t{~ \: A .f • .. ..~. .'"' ... a:. ~ . I • ,.... .....".~ • ,.,,~nf. . ..-, ". .. • . '. luanCole is ProfesScirofModciiMiddlc Eastern and South Asian Histol)' at the UniversityofMichigan. He'is 'editor of the Intematio~'~Jouma1 of Middle East StUdics. and author of numerous bOOks aDd aiticJ~. His recent ~rbfriciude~Modemity and1M Millennium (NewYork: Columbia University Press, i998) and Sacre"d Space and HI,11 War: 1MPoliticl. ~ulture and Hillary ofShi'itt: Islam (London:I.B. • .' • 1 ~,.~. • rauriS. 2002). <' ~•••~':: j ;" ~ 1. "Deputy SecretarY-'\~~lf~tzIntcrview with National Public Radio," February 19.2003 at http:! IwWw.wash~gto~le.n~~~!fcbIFeb21IEURS09.HTM. MJOOLEEASTJOURNAL*vOWMSS7.NO.4.Aurt1MN2003 ~ ~.. M J , tit" .... ~ ,. , ..\ .... ...., .....: -, - .I; !! , i if I \; I I I,};. .j~ ... I i , ! t ! ... t I ~ I .' t iO.... j • I .:btl r f ''No fthe ,.:~ ,~ f.!.r N' f}t .I J"~" ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED ~ HEREIN IS TlNCLASSIFIED Doc,uinent Results . 1"'""'----0; ~__DAT:_E-,,! 07-29-l:'".)010 BY 60324 uc~Vab/lSg ,selrch Wit~in Results: I I ~ Page"! of2 Edit Search I New Search - 'fdnt I DoWnload. View: J.jSt I Full < ~ Document 2 of 4 ~ > :..w Tag for Print & Download i3l!Ii&Il r Copyright 2003 U.P.1. United Press International April 8, 2003 Tuesday LENGTH: 670 words HEAOLJ;NE: Senator asks $50M to aid Iran dissidents BVLINE: By MARK BENJAMIN AND ELI LAKE DATELINE: WASHINGTON, AprilS (UPI) BODY: A leading member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee plans to introduce legislation Wednesday authorizing $50 million a year to aid democratic activists inside Iran seeking a peaceful end to that country's regime. . A copy of an amendment to be offered by Sen. Sam Brownback, R,:,Kansas, obtained by ~nited Press International, says, lilt shall be the policy of the United States to support efforts to achieve democratic reform inside I~ari, including support for the thousands of protesteJ1> who have expressed a desire for the government to, hold a referendum vote that could permit Iran to move toward a secular, democratic government that resp.ects human ,rights and dC?es not seek to possess weapons of mass destruction.n The senator plans to attach the legislation to a bill authorizing next year's foreign assistance budget for the State Department. .' • Andy Fisher, a spokesman for Senate Foreign Relations Com'mittee Chairman Richard Lugar, R-Ind., said Lugar suppo~ efforts to establish a friendly democracy in Iran. It is unclear if Lugar supports the .proposal. "There is an opportunity in,Iran to make some differences and take advantage of dramatic demographic shifts hi the country," Fisher said. A spokeswoman for the American Israel Public Affairs Committee told UPI her organization supports the amendment. The move comes at a critical moment in U.S. relations with the Islamic world. President Bush in his 2002 State of the Union address identified Iran, along with Iraq and North Korea, as- part of an "axis of evil!' As the United States moves to mop up r~sistance in Baghdad, the Bush administration is hoping to confront ~he twin challenges of Installing a new government there ~nd convlnclng,the Islamic wo~rld the invasion of Iraq does not signal a new e'ra of American occupation In the region. . I:-ast month, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld threatened to treat Iranian proxies that moved. Into Iraq as ~nemy corr-bataQts in pperati~n, Iraqi Freedom. ,On March 24, U.S. intelligence issued a report detailing minutes of the Islamic RepUblic's National Security Council where the leaderShip of the country decided on a strategy to send in irregular fighting units to five large Iraqi cities. In Iranian local elections earlier this year, few Persians took to the polls, with voter turnout in the single'digits. Iranian stude'nts, union workers and intellectuals have intermittently over the past year taken to the streets in the capital and large cities demanding a political referendum on the current regime. While Iranians are allowed to vote for the president, they may not elect the country's supreme leader who'oversees Iran's militC!ry and'security services and appoints religious clerics as judges for the courts. Under Brownback's proposed legislation, the State ,Department would allocate $~O million annually to an Iran Democra~ foundati9tl. T~ p_u.rpose of the fo~ndati~n ~s t~ support "pr~·democracy broadcasting to Iran,II such as the satellite television and radio stations b~sed irf~os Angeles'that many Iranians watch and~listen to already;~suppor:t: training for the"If~uiian;;Americ~ncommunity to,reach out to:Iranian dissidents; and fund h~m~n rights ~,I}~ ~iVii soc!eo/ -' I I '0 - I'".. .' Do~Q.m~nt Results. g{o~P.$ ~orking'i11s{de Ir:an. The proposal Is very sfmTiar to' ideas pro'posed iast'June by Pen.tagon staffers In the~Bush administration's Iran policy' review discus~lons.·But c:onsensus was never reache,d ins.i~e the QQvernment. The amend~ent does not c~1I for regime change', but It.does state, "Del1locratic change within Iran ~ould . contribute greatly to Increasing the stability of the entire region and would serve as a beacon to·the p'eople of Iraq and Saudi Arabia to als~ seek der'!'l0cratic reform from within." . . This language hi the amendr:nent is very sim!lar to the'Iraq Liberation Act, Congress, pa~sed in 1998. That legislation first enshrined regime change as' an .open policy goal for. the UniteCi States in Iraq.· Sen. Brownback was an early supporter and a~thor of the legislation. ~ . . LOAD-DATE: April 9, 2003 Vlew:-.L§.t .I. Full < Rrev Document 2 of 4 !l!tltt. > Edit Search f New Search .' ~ I pownload About lexisNexis I Terms and Condjtions I PrivaCy policY .Co~yright 2~04 Lexis~exls, acllvision"of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved• ...... _.......- ............. - .... _.,.. ...... _oT _ - .,,-... -- .~ - ... -- - ---~ ,.- -........-. - C?SNews., C~labi Tipped Iran To Cf1f Break IJune 1, 2004 21:39:57 Page 1 of2 0 .. Ghalabl Tipped Iran To C'o1le Break ALL INFORHATION CONTAHIED ' . .t_ . " HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED . June 1, 2004 DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg ~ U.S. Intel Passed To Iran? (Photo: CBSJAP) Ahmad Chalabi displays a family photo he says was smashed during the May 20 raid on his home. (Photo: AP) U.S. troops outside Chalabi's home during May 20 raid. (Photo: AP) Stories: • The Latest Interactives: • Hostages Held - Fallen Heroes •WMD Fallout - Daily Photos Attacks Map: -The Postwar Insurgency Videos: (CBS/AP) CBS News has learned new details involving the Iran espionage allegations against Ahmad Chalabi, the Iraqi exile leader who was one touted as a possible president to lead Iraq in thepost-Saddam transition. " On May 20, Iraqi police backed by American soldiers raided the Baghdad home and offices of Chalabi. Chalabi is a controversial figure who provided the Bush administration with prewar intelligence on supposed weapons of mass destruction in Iraq - including the now-discredited information about mobile labs whose true use is still a matter of debate. After the raid, 60 Minutes Correspondent Lesley Stahl reported that the U.S. had evidence Chalabi has been passing highly-classified U.S. intelligence to Iran. CBS News has since leamed that Chalabi recently told an Iranian intelligence official the U.S. has cracked Iranian codes, allowing it to read communications on everything from Iran's sponsorship of terrorists to its covert operations inside Iraq CBS has also been told FBI agents are questioning Defense Department officials about who gave such top secret U.S. information to Chalabi in the first place. Chalabi is still active and visible on the scene in Iraq where he is a member of the handpicked Iraqi Governing Council. Over the Memorial Day weekel)d, Chalabi was reportedly involved in negotiations to maintain a falter cease fire in the city of Kufa-between U.S. military and radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr. Chalabi and other Shiite leaders met with al-Sadr ,representatives and declared there was "a momentum for peace." But Chalabi's star has definitely fallen in U.S. eyes. Despite his seat on the Iraqi Governing Council. it seems the Bush. administration is going out of its way to ensure that the man who made a career get rid of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein has no American-backed political future in Iraq. Other tense situations in recent months between the Bush administration and Chalabi include: ("Iv ')LI'Qr~Cl1 0;~'\l>r-~Slt;, -Alee; c~. _. -- ----------------------------------------- ~BSNews IChalabi Tipped Iran To ~Break IJune 1, 2004 21 :39:57 oVideo Archive • AmeWlt officials have complained (_ privately that Chalabi was interfering 11 r with an inquiry into money skimmed .~~~;~~~ Down Saddam from the U.N. oil-for-food program. • Chalabi has recently accused the U.S.-led coalition of not going far enough to give Iraqis sovereignty. He also fiercely resisted U.S. military commanders' recent decision to soften rules blocking former members of Saddam's ruling party from government jobs. Chalabi still has strong supporters in Washington, and the Pentagon continued to pay for intelligence provided by his organization until recently. Danielle Pletka, 'a vice president at the conservative American Enterprise Institute. after the May 20 raid that she believed the raid was likely "political manipulation in order to disable somebody who has been a thorn in the side of the CPA." 'We need the United Nations right now, and Chalabi is the prime mover behind the investigation in the oil-for-food program/, Pletka said. o P~ge2 of2 Print iiiii -~ /1 ALL INFORHATION CONTAII~D HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 B¥ 6~ uc baw/sab/lsg Page 1 of2 Print Window I C1~se W~ndow Document 41 of S4 Copyright 2004 The New York Times Company The New York Times June 2, 2004 Wednesday late Edition - Final SECTION: Section A; Column 3; Foreign Desk; THE REACH OF WAR: :THE OFFENSE; Pg. 1 LENGTH: 1178 words I:IEADUNE: Chalabi Reportedly Told Iran That U.S. Had Code BYLINE: By JAMES RISEN and DAVID JOHNSTON DATELINE: WASHINGTON, June 1 BODY: Ahmad Chalabi, the Iraqi leader and former ally of the Bush administration, disclosed to an Iranian official that the United States had broken the secret communications code of Iran's Intelligence service, betraying one of Washington's most valuable sources of . Information about Iran, according to United States Intel,ligence officials. The general charge that Mr. Chalabi provided Iran with critical American intelligence secrets was Widely reported last month after the Bush administration cut off financial aid to Mr. Chalabl's organization, the Iraqi National Congress, and American and Iraqi security forces raided his Baghdad headquarters. The Bush administration, citing national security concerns, asked The New York Times and other news organizations not to publish details of the case. The Times agreed to hold off publication of some specific Information that top Intelligence officials said would compromise a vital, continuing Intelligence operation. The administration Withdrew Its request on Tuesday, saying Information about the code-breaking was starting to appear in news accounts• .Mr. Chalabi and his aides have said he knew of no secret Information related to Iran' and therefore could not have communicated any Intel1lgence to Tehran. ~ American officials said that about six weeks ago, Mr. Chalabl told the Baghdad statton chief of Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and ® Security that the United States was reading the communications traffic of the Iranian spy service, one of the most sophisticated InD~A V ~ the Middle East. Pi"\~ According to American officials, the Iranian official In Baghdad, possibly not believing Mr•. Chalabl's account, sent a cable to Tehran detailing his conversation with Mr. Chalabi, using the broken code. That encrypted cable, Intercepted and read by the United States, tipped off American officials to the fact that Mr. Chalabi had betrayed the code-breaking operation, the American officials said. American officials reported that in the cable to Tehran, the Iranian official recounted how Mr. Chalabi had said that one of "themll -a reference to an American .-, had revealed the code-breaking operation, the officials said. The Iranian reported that Mr. Chalabi said the American was drunk. The Iranians sent what American Intelligence regarded as a test message, which mentioned a cache of weapons Inside Iraq, belieVing that if the code had been broken, United States military forces would be qUickly dispatched to the specified site. But there was no such action. ' The account of Mr. Chalabi's actions has been confirmed by several senior American officials, who said the leak contributed to the White House decision to break with him. It could not be learned exactly how the United States broke the code. But Intelligence sources said that In the past, the United States has broken Into the embassies of foreign governments, Including those of Iran, to steal Information, Including codes. t1 The F.B.I. has opened' an espionage Investigation seeking to determine exactly what information Mr. Chalabi turned over to the A-' Iranians as well as who told Mr. Chalabi that the Iranian code had been broken, government officials said. The Inquiry, stili In an early'phase, Is focused. o~ a verY. small number of people who were close to Mr. Chalabi and also had access to the highly restricted inf~rmatlon about the Iran code. . . _ 6S\t,,\\lf-~<"3t5- /Je..-, ~f~fW~ ~-- ~~c o o Page 2 of2 t Sdme of the people the F.B.I. expects to Interview are civilians at the Pentagon who were among Mr. Chalabi's strongest supporters anC,i served as his main point of contact with the government, the officials said. So far, no one has been accused of any wrongdoing. Print In a television Interview on May 23, Mr. Chalabi said on CNN's "Late Edition" that he met In Tehran In December with the Iranian supreme leader, Ayatollah All Khamenel, and the Iranian president, Mohammad Khataml. He also said he had met with Iran's minister of information. Mr. Chalabi attacked the C.I.A. and the director of central Intelligence, George J. Tenet, saying the agency was behind what Mr. Chalabi asserted was an effort to smear him. "I have never passed any classified Information to Iran or have done anything •• participated In any scheme of Intelligence against the United States," Mr. Chalabi said on "Fox News Sunday." IIThis charge Is false. I have never seen a U.S•. classified document, and I have never seen •• had a U.S. classified briefing." Mr. Chalabi, a member of the Iraqi Governing Council, said, "We meet people from the Iranian Embassy In Baghdad regularly," but said that was to be expected of Iraqi officials like himself. Some defenders of Mr. Chalabi In the United States say American officials had encouraged him In his dealings with Iran, urging him to open an office In Tehran In hopes of improving relations between Iran and Washington. Those defen·ders also say they'do not believe that his relationship with Iran Involved any exchange of Intelligence. Mr. Chalabi's allies in Washington also saw the Bush administration's decision to sever Its ties with Mr. Chalabl and his group as a cynical effort Instigated,by the C.I.A. and longtime Chalabi critics at the State Department. They believe those agencies want to blame him for mistaken estimates and incorrect Information about Iraq before the war, like whether Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction. One of those who has defended Mr. Chalabi is Richard N. Perle, the former chairman of the Defense Polley Board. ''The C.I.A. has disliked him passionately for a long time and has mounted a campaign against him with some considerable success," Mr. Perle said Tuesday. "rve seen no evidence of Improper behavior on his part. No evidence whatsoever." Mr. Perle said he thought the C.I.A. had turned against Mr. Chalabi because he refused to be the agency's "puppet." Mr. Chalabi "has a mind of his own'" Mr. Perle said. American Intelligence officials said the F.B.I. investlgatlon Into the Intelligence leak to Iran did not extend to any charges that Mr. Chalabi provided the United States with Incorrect Information, or any allegations of corruption. . American officials said· the leak about the Iranian codes was a serious loss because the Iranian Intelligence service's highly encrypted cable traffic was a crucial source of information, supplying Washington with information about Iranian operations Inside Iraq, where Tehran's agents have become increasingly active. It also helped the United States keep track of Iranian Intelligence operations around the world. Until last month, the Iraqi National Congress had a lucrative contract with the Defense Intelligence Agency to provide Information about Iraq. Before the United States Invasion last year, the group arranged for Iraqi defectors to prOVide the Pentagon with Information about Saddam Hussein's government, particularly evidence purporting to show that Baghdad had active programs to develop weapons of mass destruction. Today, the American Intelligence community believes that much of the Information passed by the defectors was either wrong or fabricated. URL: LOAD-DATE: June 2,2004 War and Piece: June 2004 Archives ~L INFOrotA.TION CONTAUJED ~ ! l"" Hr IS UNCLASSIFIED 0 : '-- 0'1-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/ l:1une 02, 2004 Page 1ofl Can we expect to see Richard Perle start to def~nd Chalabi's leaks of the most sensitive US intelligence to the Iranian . terror masters?·Ledeen? Harold Rhode? Michael·Rubin? I hear Larry Franklil) isn't defending Chalabi any more. There are only two defenses I can see: it's not true (seems the evidence is overwhelmingly in favor of, it's true). Or, it's okay that Chalabi did it. Or, there's a third. How about, WE WERE WRONG. We were fQ.QJs, and dupes. But none. of these people seem to have the moral capacity to admit they were wrong. What kind of blindness,. what kind of pathological arrogance, prevents these people from ever admitting they are wrong? MORE: A friend says Chalabi supporters may also use the defense, ChaJabl was framed by Iranians who wanted him to be politically neutralized In Iraq. [As if he even needed to b,e neutralized by outside forces!] That the two Iranians who were detected in an intercept to be discussing what Chalabi ~upposedly gave them ~o~ld have been trying to frame him. I find this deeply unconv.incing. [Remember how each shred of bogus intel about ties between al Qaeda and Saddam these very same neocons clung to as the holy grail? This Is that In reverse]. A question. Is Chalabi simply believed to have conversationally told'an Iranian source that the US had broken XYZ communications code? Or is he actually believed to have had physical access to some sort. of code breaking technology itself? Why does this matter? Because the. number of US officials who might have known the formerls certainly greater than the latter. Even a civilian Pentagon official known to be very close to Chalabi and who believes himself a huge expert on Iran and the Middle East might have heard the_latter and"passed it on to Chalabi. Posted by Laura at 10:56 AM War and.Piece 1+.L1 INFORMATION CONTAINED 4 Page 1 ~f31 ~·~;·==-=·========~~~~~~~F~ -'.' '6_~~_~'~"~_=__.~__~_~_~'=~~~~~~ ~ ~1~ UI ~~-~u~o ~1 ou~~~ ac ~awjs~~ Warand Pi ec~l~n_e1_4-,--,:-2_0_04_"-----.-;;... ABOUT WAR AN-D' PIECE War and Piece is written by Laura Rozen, a journalist who report~ on national security and foreig n policy issues from Washington, D.C. (Mo,re) Reunion after the Sarajevo Siege. Photograph by Roger Richards, 1996. SEARCH Search this site: RECENT ARTICLES "Chalabi Sm~ckdown,-" The AmeriCan Prospect Online" May 201, 2004. ."y'e at L~ttle Feith,"_The American Prospect, May 18, 2004. J1m.~itI~:h!OO!tt~I 2002 torture mgmo the Justice Department Office of Legal Counsel prepared at Jdhft ~el5bftfl1tfe9Nbite!f~eS9~~.D. Cdmtb~d\Q~its!2r14R!t~q1dttbcgenmmt.tb.edf JtJbVkecOeiibetrluat1b:emepart~lsawnlaW~e~~at th@ff~Jet~$b€SWhbJ.~.sscfiltbf;)ewash;ngtoa &.H got ahold of it and P-9sted it'here.{note: .pdf IirN$iW~~l!mst~n,~me~iM;'tq~if Qm~~tB~I.~e\~teJa~S~~~slte~~uGhraib began alerting.senior US military officers in November 2003 to Mtiaa~EtheHWld9trerJ~J!§IttIaSEmsmaf1ilmit)Of mU~~§~iabSJtr~tS~¢ttfl.nGtl~rbegahe alet:l1itsg samlbaQJ1f9an;Utary officers in November 2003 to the abuse!, This contradicts what senior military cJ'nWirJjlli~ h9V~cs§\tH4k~~~dldnot learn of the abuse until January. June 13, 2004 Posted by Laura at 05_: 2? ~~ Here's a~ interesting February 2001.~ on the J'iltit90J.'3;n!OO4es to INC intelligence chief Aras Kareem. Here's an interesting February 2001 ~on the. pJA~Lig8,f~~~1hg tie~~~l~~IIgWNle ~Q~ger K~\Dn. Notice ttl~ aa¥e Q{ ~evBPIlf6rll{Rg 6$~J~~ber 11th. administration will revamp U.S. Iraq policy, Pentagon officials began meeting IntbisetafaJb~ittntbtalhiqf~OPEttatiBoslfor aetlni~a 0fn~mJiSJfa$lt:trG~uPs pcHfnWJAsntaberi~Natibe9a6ongetlrig... this week. with the chief of operations for t~rBfu~PeRarsfTr8q'i"imiQfaX~al-'6ups krfOWni<AsrMesfh~",rwa£?>Ya%;'CYnijtess. ! • intelligence. circles' tha~ his cousin, Ali A~rkaret~ -sosghbra~~, detained in cOll~dlifttttnia>j(1iJrigEP'aO'sljecalSeof t)is '·iii~rit:ii~irddl;lttrat·hi8I"(bmdrf~stJiweek ALL INFOIU·1ATION CONTAINED ,"d"'- ~:'B Y NOdAEI b ~ K . k ki HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED. SlaI1 mg y our R an y v'>D. Wlat ows DATE 07-29-2010 BY 0'1 uc bawlseb/1sg Home I About I Cqlumnists I 810g I Subscribe I Donate Standing By Your NRO and AEI by Karen K,viatko,vski by Karen Kwiatkowski GeSAVETHIS C!IS2JEMAIL THIS <!~PRINTTHIS eilMOSTPOPULAR Michael Rubin is moaning, lamenting and harmonizing about'how criticism of neoconservative war planning and occupation strategies in Iraq is part ofa vast allpowerful conspiracy. It would make a great country song. Rubin didn't say the conspiracy was great or right-wing. But he poignantly captures ~e pain and panic ofthe neoconservatives these days. Like a poor wife standing by her man, Michael Rubin sings Tammy Wynette. His article in the National Review Online is mostly.about me. Interestingly, in the fourth paragraph, he writes that he met me. He sure knows a lot about me, though! Well, Mike Rubin knows a lot about a lot ofthings. ---- ------ Page 1of3 According to his AEI C..V., he is an Iran and Iraq expert who spent two years with the Office ofSecretary ofDefe~seworking Iran and Iraq issues. He also advised Mr. Jerry Bremer and th.e Coalition Provisional Authority. Let me get this straight He was the advisor to the guy who invaded Iraq on false premises, and to the other guy who is running ,Iraq more·than a year later. If it were I, I'm not sure I'd include that information on my resume. Ofcourse, it's not his fault; he's just a consultant. When Rubin was part ofthe Office ofSpecial Plans, many ofus, especially in uniform, saw the pooch get prepped for screwing, and then the actual screwing of the pooch. It wasn't pretty. We saws guys like Rubin running around promoting a war because Saddam had a lot ofviable WMDs. I'm sure it wasn't Michael Rubin pushing that claim, and that these fantasy WMDs only existed in the minds ofthe OTHER Iraq war liber-strategists. Not Michael. We saw intelligence get watered down when it didn't prove the liber-strategists' preconceived_notions about Iraq, and we watched while Kool-A,id was added to the weak bits ofunsubstantiated data that seemed to. I'm sure RubiIi never drank that particular Kool-Aid. Although in his Tammy Wynette role, he may have served it up. We saw a guy named Doug Feith, a lobbyist for Israel in his law firm who espoused extremely pro-Likud views, be confirmed by the Congress as the Under Secretary for Defense Policy with his like-minded consultants. We watch as Feith then . focused his attention on developing a Middle East war/policy. We observ:ed as he made a huge mess of it. ~~IJ' le Z,lffM But ofcourse, Michael had nothing to do with that. He was just standing by his man. l.V~l - - -. '. e~\\)~~W':,'II'" .~"""\"'-~( - ~\L..rtft''L-: StlliidmgBy Your NRO·lind AEI byOnKwiatkowski 0 When Jon Stewart at the-Comedy. Chapnel cQffi!ll~~ts on-the Gi~t M~ss-0':'P9t~ia, he's not kidding. Somehow, I see a sweaty Michael Rubin ~ack in the kitchen .. wiping his hands on ~is stained apron. No, Mighael, the damned spot won't come out. Trust me. Rubin's NRO tirade thematically centers on the presumed "Kwiatkowski-LaRouchegrand- conspiracy-to-pick-on-neoconservatives-and-make- them-look-like-reallyfoolish- blunderers-by-getting-us-int9-an-u~ecessary-war~killing-more-than-750American- soldiers- and-suggesting-the horror!-that-some-neoconservatives-~re..; even-war-criminals.II His article is in key ways factually incorrect, wrong, and in some ways, a little bit stupid. But-smears usually are, aren't they? Some key mistakes include the old AEI charge that I have something to'do with LaRo~che, that I didn't know where the asp offices were loca~ed, that I left the Pentagon because I felt others had gotten promotions and I didn't, that I said L!!!!y.. Franklin used his wheelchair-bound wife as a cover· for galliyanting atounaihe_ worm: on secret missions,.analliat rliave a fringe ideology, among others. 'For the t'ecord, no on LaRouche, yes on the.location ofthe asp spaces, no on the promotion question (I never even stayed long enough to meet my first 0-6 board), no on Larry Franklin and his wife and secret missions, and I'm not sure on the nfringe171eology." Rubin never really explains what fringe id~ology he's talking about. I can only say with a high confidence that it isn't the same fringe ideology embraced by the National Review and the American Enterprise"Institute these days. When Mfcha~l Rubin says he knows something about sOplethil1g, it seems he really doesn't know much. The little he knows appears not to be supported by either facts or evidence, and is somewhat hope-based: Whether he is advising the Pentagon on Iraq and Iran, or,trying to smear me, Rubin gets it wrong, again and again. Like Tammy Wynette's h~roine, he's going onfaith,in and love for the neocon agenda, and loyalty to his neocon friends. Faith and love and loyalty are wonderful things, but Micha~l, dear, it's hard sometimes, isn't-it? All ~atabuse, and people giving you a har4 time, saying you made bad choices, all those reasons to leave but you just can't do" it. I think Tammy says it best: Sometimes it's hard to be a woman Givin' all your love to just on~ man You'll have bad times and he'll have good times Doin' things that ,you don't understand J3ut ifyou love him, you'll forgive him Even though he's hard to understand And ifyou love him, oh be proud ofhim 'Cause after all he's just a man May 19, 2004 -Page 2 of3 Karen Kwiatkowski [send her mail] is a retired USAF lieutenant colonel, who spent herfinal four anda halfyears i~ u.niform working at [he 'Pentqgon. She now lives with her SHlhdingBy Yo~r NRO and AEI by ranKwiatkowski 0 freedom-iovingfamily in the Shenandoah Valley, and writes_ a bi-w~ekly column on defense issues with a libertarian perspective for Copyright 0 2004 Karen Kwiatkowski Archives Back to Home·Page Page 3 of3 ~ -- . - ...... ~ - ~ -- --- ,....-~.,.. ?ods (Jerusalem) Force, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC - Pasdaran~ Intelligence Agencies Page 1of4 FA~ I I~telligence'l WoQAgencies IIran 11I11 IndJrI Search IJoinFAS t .' 't ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED Qods (Jerusalem) Force DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Iranian Revolutio~aryGuard Corps (IRGC - Pas4arane Inqilab) While the Constitution ofIran entrusts the military with guarding Iran's territorial integrity and political independence,. it gives the Revolutionary Guard [pasdaran] the responsibility ofguardi~gthe Revolution itself. Established under a decree issued by Khomeini on May 5, 1979, the Pasdaran was intended to guard the Revolution and to assist the ruling clerics in the day-to-day enforcement ofthe government's Islamic codes and morality. The Revolution also needed to rely on a force ofits own rather than borrowing the previous regime's tainted units. By 1986 the Pasdaran consisted of 350,000 personnel organized in battalion-size units that operated either independently or with units ofthe regular anned forces. In 1986 the Pasdaran acquired small naval and air elements. By 1996 the ground and naval forces were reported to number 100,000 and 20,000, respectively. Domestic Operations The Pasdaran has maintained an intelligence branch to monitor the regime's domestic adversaries and to participate in their arrests and trials. Khomeiili implied Pasdaran involvement in intelligence when he congratulated the Pasdaran on the arrest ofIranian communist Tudeh leaders. The Baseej (volunteers) come under the control ofthe ReYolutionary Guards. In 1995, up to 900,000 baseej were moQilized. The Baseej allegedly also monitor the activities of citizens, and harass or arrest women whose clothing does not cover the hair and all ofthe 1Jody except hands and face, or those who wear makeup. During the year ending in June 1995, they reportedly "notified 907,246 people,verbally and issued 370,079 written notices against 'social corruption' and arrested 86,190 people, and also broke up 542 'corrupt gangs', arresting their 2,618 members, -and seized 86,591 indecent videocassette_~ alld pQ9tqgraphs. http://fas.orglirp/world/iranlqods/ 6/15/04 Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Irani,an Revo~onary Guard Corps (IRGC - Pasdaran~ Intelligence Agencies Page 2 of4 the Ashura Brigades force W reportedly created in 1993 h!ler anti:'government riots e;upted iri various Iranian cities and it consists of 17,000 Isla~ic militia men and women. The Ashura Brigades are reportedly composed of elements ofthe Revolutionary Guards (Pasdaran) and the Baseej volunteer-militia In August 1994, some Pasdaran units, rushed to quell riots in the city of Ghazvin, 150 km. west ofTehran, reportedly refused orders from the Interior Minister to intervene in the clashes, which left more than 30 people dead, 400 wounded ~nd over 1,000 arrested. Subsequently, senior officers in the army, air force and the usually loyal Islamic Revolutionary Guard reportedly stated that they would no longer order thei.r troops into battle to quell civil disorder. A Pasdaran commander was among four senior army officers who are said to have sent a letter to the country's political leadership, warning the clerical rulers against "using the armed forces to crush civilian unrest and internal conflicts.II In a communique sent to Ayatollah Ali Khameini, stated that "the role ofthe country's armed forces is to defend its borders and to repel foreign enemies from its soil, not to control the internal situation or to strengthen one political faction above another." They· are said to have then recommended the use ofBaseej volunteers for this purpose. In a move believed to indicate a shift in the trust ofthe ruling clerics from the Pasdaran to the Baseej volunteer force, on 17 April 1995 Ayatollah Ali Khameini reportedly promoted a civilian, veterinary surgeon Hassan Firuzabadi, to the rank offull general, placing him above both Brigadier-General Mohsen Rezai, commander-in-chiefofthe Pasdaran and Brigadier General Ali Shahbazi ofthe regular armed forces. Foreign Operations The foreign operations by the Guardians, which also encompass the activities of Hizballah and Islamic Jihad - are usually carried out through the Committee on Foreign Intelligence Abroad and the Committee on Implementation of Actio~sAbroad. As with agents ofMinistry ofIntelligence, Pasdaran personnel operate through front companies and non-governmental organizations, employees or officials oftrading companies, banks, 'cultural centers or as representatives ofthe Foundation"ofthe Oppressed and Dispossessed (Bonyade-e- Mostafazan), or the·Martyrs 'Foundation. The Qods (Jerusalem) Force ofthe Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) is responsible for extraterritorial operations, including terrorist operations. A primary focus for the Qods Force is training Islamic fundamentalist terrorist groups. Currently, the Qods Force conducts training activities in Iran and in Sudan. The Qods Force is also responsible for gathering information required for targeting and attack planning. The Pasdaran has contacts with underground movements in the Gulfregion, and Pasdaran members are assigned to Iranian diplomatic missions, where, in the course ofroutine intelligence activities they monitor dissidents. Pasdaran influence has been particularly . http://fas.orglirp/worldliranlqods/ 6/15/04 --- ----- ?OdS (Jerusal~m) Force, ~ranian ReV~lutiona~ ?uard ~orps (IROC - pas~aran~n Intelligence Agencies Page 3 of4 Important In KuwaIt, BahrAdthe Umted Arab EmIrate~ The·largest branch ofPasdaran foreign operations consists ofapproximately 12,000 Arabic speaking Iranians, Afghans, Iraqis, Lebanese shi'ites and North Africans who trained in Iran or received training in Afghanistan during the Afghan war years. Presently these foreign operatives receive training in Iran, Sudan and Lebanon, and include the Hizballah ["Party ofAllah"] intelligence, logistics and operational units in Lebanon [Hizballah is primarily a·social and political rather than military organization]. The second largest Pasdaran foreign operations relates to the Kurds (particularly Iraqi Kurds), while the third largest relates to the Kashmiri's, the Balouchi's and the Afghans. The Pasdaran has also supported the establishment ofHizballah branches in Lebanon, Iraqi Kurdistan, Jordan and Palestine, and the Islamic Jihad in many other Moslem countries including Egypt~ Turkey, Chechnya and in Caucasia. Hizballah has been implicated in the counterfeiting ofU.S. dollars and European currencies, both to finance its operations and to disrupt Western economies by impairing international trade and tourism. The Office of Liberation Movements has established a Gulf Section tasked with forming a GulfBattalion as part ofthe Jerusalem Forces. In April 1995 a number of international organizations linked to· international terrorism --including the Japanese Red Army, the Armenian Secret Army, and the Kurdistan Workers' Party -- were reported to have met in Beirut with representatives ofthe Iraqi Da'wah Party, the Islamic Front for the Liberation ofBahrain, Hizballah, Iran's "Office ofLiberation Movements," and Iran's Guardians ofthe Revolution. Tehran's objective was to destabilize Arab Gulfstates by supporting fundamentalists with military, financial, and logistical support. Members of these and other organizations receive military training at a Guardians ofthe Revolution facility some 100 kilometers south ofTehran. A variety ofoftraining courses are qonducted at the facility for fundamentalists from· the Gulfstates, Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, and Lebanon, including naval operations, mines, and diving operations in a special camp near the Orontes River. Sources and Methods • SPECIALAND IRREGULAR~D FORCES_ in JRA1'1-_A C0UD:t!y Stu~y Library of Congress Federal Research Division • "ISLAMIC REPUBLIC" OF IRAN EXPORT OF REVOLUTION FLAG OF - -- - - - - FREEDOM ORGANIZATION OF IRAN (FFO) SPECIAL REPORT August 12, 1997 • Counterfe~t U.~._ Currency Abro~d:_ Issues a~d U.S. Deterrenc~ Eff,?rts (GAO Letter Report, 02/26/96, GAO/GGD-.96-11) • "Alleged Extremist Plans To Destabilize Gulf' FBIS-NES-95-092 : 10 Feb 1995 [Source: Paris ~-WAT~N AL-'ARABI, 10 Feb 95 pp 14-1.6.] --- 6/15/04 Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC - PasdaranlJlan Intelligence.Agencies Page 4 of4 . ,: <;;) ~ ..~ . • FAS I Int_elligence I.W~rld Ag~nci~s I Iran 11111 Inde~ ISear~h I Join FA~ http://www~fas. org/irp/world/iran/qodsl Created by John Pike Maintained by ~teyen __Aftergo_od Updated Friday, August 21, 1998 8:56:03 AM http://fas.orglirp/worldliranlqodsl 6/15/04 Iran Liberation ----~- - ----- - ALL INFORMATION CONTAIlmD HEREIN IS UNC~IFIED ~ 0 • ~ DATE 07-29-20llJ,;lY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsq r-' _-, t~PUblicationL ~~ Page 1 of5 No. 170 April 7, 2003 Tehran Poised to Attack Mojahedin, Sieze Iraqi Territory Contrary to the consecutive denials and reiterations that it does not intend to interfere in Iraq, the clerical regime is poised fully to take advantage of the developments in the region and attack the Mojahedin and capture parts of Iraqi territory. To this end, the People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran issued a statement on April 1, exposing parts of the activities of the regime which are as follows: 1. The regime has stationed a total of 46 brigades and an assortment of weapons, equipment and missiles in the border region. The following activities have been undertaken in the past 10 days: 2. Transferring the 3rd Brigade ofthe 21st Hamzeh Division from Marand to Chehel Zari (along the border region in Kermanshah Province); :..I.,r..i,il U" t.i..i.i..atfOn, ~.."..",- ,J1~"(11~! . .p.tevi~~sfJ~f~~ lVl1omen' ... ~ .... ~ I .... i!.!~;i~~I!~' ,'vfOus:15suei. ,. ... ........ ..,. ".' ~.. ~ • ..., .. tI' ,,!!qf1.&~~.~q I tievi issue .i!~~f~~~~~u~~ I 6/15/04 Iran Liberation " 3:.Transferring partQf the 28th · Sanandaj Diyision to the city of \, Mehran (a border town in Ilam Province); 4. Transferring part of the Guards Corps 10th Division to Mehran; 5. Transferring parts of the 16th Qazvin Armored Division to Sar-polZahab (in the border region in Kermanshah Province); 6. Transferring 1st and 2nd brigades of 81st Kermanshah Division from Kermanshah and IslaIlJ.-Abad to the border region and deploying five tank battalions along Qasr-e Shirin; 7. Transferring the 35th Commando Brigade from Kermanshah to Mehran and Gilan-e Gharb; 8. Transferring parts of the 55th Airborne Brigade from Shiraz to Sarpol- Zahab; 9. Transferring the 2nd Brigade of the 84th Division from Khorramabad to Bostan; 10. Transferring part of the 64th Orumieh Division to Abadan (south of Khuzistan Province, oPPQsite Basra); 11. Transferring the 45th Commando Brigade from Shushtar to Khorramshahr and Bostan; 12. Transferring the 2nd Brigade of the Revolutionary. Guards- 7th Valio Page 2 of5 6/15104 Iran Liberation, Division fromQehbahan to · Sousangerd (in the border region in ~ Khuzistan Province); 13. Transferring part of the 2nd Brigade of the Revolutionary Guards 4th Division from Ilam to Mehran; 14. Transferring part of the 3rd Brigade of the Revolutionary Guards 4th Division from Hamedan to Qasre Shirin; 15. Transferring parts of the intelligence and operations headquarters of the Revolutionary Guards Divisions from different provinces to· Qasr-e Shirin to assess the situation and order the operational forces of those divisions ifneeded; o Page 3 of5 16. Concentrating the Intelligence Ministry's terrorist groups and forces in the Qasr-e Shirin in order to infiltrate the Iraqi territory and carry out terrorist operational against the Mojahedin in Khanaqin, Jalawla, Baquba and Baghdad; 17. Transferring a part of the 64th AI-Hadid Missile Brigade of the Revolutionary Guards to Howeizeh (border region in Khuzistan Province) to carry out missile attacks with Fajr 3 and 5 missiles; 18. Transferring a part of the 65th Special Airborne Force from Tehran to. the so-called Abuzar in south of Sar-pol-Zahab. The probe and J;ecoI1J:lais~ance units of the brigade - - . http://www.iranncrfac.orgIPagesIPublicationslIL/IL170/pagesrrehran%20poised%20to%20attack%20mojahc... 6/15/04 Iran Liberation • so far carriePout several -. reconnaissance missions on Mojahedin bases in KhosraviKhaneqin and Sumar-Mandali axes. 19. Transferring ammunition and equipment inside Iraq by the Revolutionary Guards Fajr Base (belonging to the extra-territorial terrorist Qods Force) in Ahwaz, in Bostan, Shat-Ali, Howeizeh and Tala'ieh (border region in Khuzistan Province); ~o.. Transferring 40 truck-loads of ammunition from Kermanshah to Iraqi territory through Azgaleh to Maydan and Darbandikhan by the Revolutionary Guards Zafar Garrison; 21. Redeploying mercenaries of the 9th Badr Corps from Kermanshah to Marivan and Iraqi Kurdistan and from Dezful to Howeizeh as well as . helping groups of them to infiltrate the Iraqi territory in Mandali, Mehran and Howeizeh by the extraterritorial terrorist Qods (Jerusalem) Force. 22. According to the Qods Force's operational scheme, the 9th Badr Corps is planning, similar to 12 years ago, to pour into Basra, Nasseriyah and AI-Amara. Revolutionary Guards Brig. Gen. Ahmad Forouzandeh, in charge of the Iraqi Crisis Headquarters, is currently based in Ahwaz (Khuzistan Province); Page 4 of5 6/15/04 Iran Liberation .. ". 2~.. Commanders ofaQods Force, . • including its commander B~ig. Gen. \ Qassem Soleimani, his deputy Brig. Gen. Iraj Masjedi, Brig. Gen. Hamid Taghavi, Ramezan Garrison's commander of operations, and Brig. Gen. Obeidavi, Fajr Garrison's commander, are making the military and terrorist preparations in Iraqi territory. Occasionally, they use ambulances to enter Iraqi territory; 24. All of the so-called Ashura and Az-Zahra battalions of the Revolutionary Guards paramilitary Bassij forces across the country have been armed to confront the Mojahedin. The Revolutionary Guards Divisions have been put on alert across the country; 25. Eight warplanes in Hamedan's Nojeh air base, eight in Dezful's Vahdati air base, two in Bandar Abbas air base and two in Bushehr air base are on a state of readiness round-the-clock. They are armed' w,ith air-to-air missiles. 26. The clerical regime has so far stationed a total of 46 b~igades with an assortment of weapons, equipment and missiles in hopes of taking advantage of the Iraqi situation and attack the Mojahedin. o Page 5 of5 http://www.iranncrfac.orglPages/Publications/IL/IL170/pagesffehran%20poised%20to%20attack%20mojahc••• 6/15/04 ALL INFORMATION COlrTAINED HEREIN IS lnlCLASSIFIED ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 ~W/Sab/1Sg Document 4 of 24 Copyright 2004 The Conde Nast Publications, Inc. The New Yorker June 28, 2004 SECTION: FACfi Annals Of National Securityi Pg. 54 LENGTH: 5151 words HEADLINE: PLAN Bi As June 30th approaches, Israel looks to the Kurds. BYLINE: SEYMOUR M. HERSH Page 1 of5 P~!_nt ~indow I Close Window BODY: In July, 2003, two months after President Bush declared victory In Iraq, the war, far from winding down, reached a critical point. Israel, which had been -among the war's most enthusiastic supporters, began warning the Administration that the American-led occupation would face a heightened Insurgency-a campaign of bombings and assassinations-later that summer. Israeli Intelligence assets In Iraq were reporting that the Insurgents had the support of Iranian Intelligence operatives and other foreign fighters, who were crossing the unprotected border between Iran and Iraq at will. The Israelis urged the United States to seal the nlne-hundredmile- long border, at whatever cost. The border stayed open, however. liThe Administration wasn't Ignoring the Israeli Intelligence about Iran," Patrick Clawson, who Is the deputy director of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy and has close ties to the White House, explained. "There's no question that we took no steps last summer to c1ose_ the border, but our attitude was that it was more useful fC?r Iraqis to have contacts with ordinary Iranians coming across the border, and thousands were coming across every day':'for Instance, to make pilgrimages'" He added, "The questions we confronted were 'Is the trade-off worth It? Do we want to Isolate the Iraqis?' Our answer was that as long as the Iranians were not picking up guns and shooting at us, It was worth the price." Clawson said, liThe Israelis disagreed quite Vigorously with us last summer. Their concern was very straightforward-that the Iranians would create social and charity organizations In Iraq and use them to recruit people who would engage In armed attacks against Americans.n The warnings of Increased violence proved accurate. By early August, the insurgency against the occupation had exploded, with bombings In Baghdad, at the Jordanian Embassy and the United Nations headquarters, that killed forty-two people. A former Israeli Intelligence officer said that Israel's leadership had·concluded by then that the United States was unwllllng·to confront Irani In terms of salvaging the situation in Iraq" he said" "It doesn't add up. It's over. Not militarily-the United States cannot be defeated militarily In Iraq-but polltlcally." Flynt Leverett, a former C.I.A. analyst who until last year served on the National Security Council and Is now a fellow at the Saban Center for Middle East Polley, told me that late last summer lithe Administration had a chance to turn it around after It was clear that 'Mission Accomplished' n_a reference. to Bush's May.speech-nwas premature. The Bush people could have gone to their allies and got more boots on the ground. But the neocons were. dug in-'We're doing this on our own.'" Leverett went on, liThe President was only belatedly coming to the understanding that he had to either make a strategic change or, If he was going to Insist on unilateral control, get tougher and find the actual insurgency." The Administration then decided, Leverett said, to "deploy the Guantanamo model in Iraqll-to put aside its rules of Interrogation. That decision failed to stop the insurgency and eventually led to the scandal at the Abu Ghralb prison. In early November, the President received a grim assessment from the C.I.A.'s station chief in Baghdad, who filed a special field appraisal, known Internally as an Aardwolf" warning that the security situation in Iraq was nearing collapse. The document, as described by Knight-Ridder, said that "none:of the postwar Iraqi political Institutions and leaders have shown an ability to govern the country" or to hold elections and draft a constitution. A few days later, the Administration, rattled by the violence and the new intelligence, finally attempted to change Its go-It-alone polley, and set June 30th as the date for the handover of sovereignty to an Interim government, which would allow It to bring the United Nations Into the process. "November was one year before the Presidential election," a U.N. consultant who worked on Iraqi Issues told me. "They panicked and decided to share the blame with the U.N. and the Iraqis." A former Administration official who had supported the war completed a discouraging tour of Iraq late last fall. He visited Tel AViv afterward and found that the Israelis he. met with were equally discouraged. As they saw It, their warnings and advice had been Ignored, and the Amerlcan·'war against the. insurgency was continuing to founder•. "I spent hQurs. ~alklng to the. senior' m~m~ers. ~f o ~ Page 2 of5 tile Israeli political and Intelligence community," the former official recalled. "Their concern was IYoulre not going to get It right In ~faq, and shouldn't we be planning for the worst-~ase scenario and how to deal with It?' .. Pant Ehud Barak, the former Israeli Prime MinIster, who supported the Bush Admlnlstrationls Invasion of Iraq, took It upon himself at this point to privately warn Vice-President Dick Cheney that America had lost In.lraqj according to an American close to Barak, he said that Israel I'had learned that there's no way to win an occupation." The only Issue, Barak told Cheney, "was choosing the size of your humlllatlon.'1 Cheney did not re_spond to Barak's assessment. (Cheneyrs office declined to comment.) In a series of Interviews In Europe, the Middle East, and the United States, officIals told me that by the end of last year Israel had concluded that the Bush Administration would not be able to bring stability or democracy to Iraq, and that Israel needed other options. Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's government decided, I was told, to minimize the damage that the war was causing to Israel's strategic position by expanding Its long-standing relationshfp with Iraq's Kurds and establishing a significant presence on the ground In the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Several officials depicted Sharon's decision, which involves a heavy financial commitment, as a potentially reckless move that could create even more chaos and violence as the Insurgency In Iraq continues to grow. Israeli Intelligence and military operatives are now quietly at work in Kurdistan, providing training for Kurdish commando units and, most Important In Israel's view, running covert operations inside Kurdish areas of Iran and Syria. Israel feels particularly threatened by Iran, whose position in, the region has been strengthened by the war. The Israeli operatives Include members of the Mossad, Israel's clandestine foreign-intelligence service, who work undercover In Kurdistan as businessmen and, In some cases, do not carry Israeli passports. Asked to comment, Mark Regev, the spok~sman for ~he Israeli Embassy In Washington, said, "The story Is simply untrue and the relevant governments know it's untrue," Kurdish officials declined to comment, as did a spokesman for the State Department. However, a senior C.I.A. official acknowledged in an interview last week that the Israelis were Indeed 'operatlng In Kurdistan. He told me that the Israelis felt that they had little choice: liThey think they have to be there.'1 Asked whether the Israelis had sought approval from Washington, the official laughed and said, 1100 you know anybody who can tell the Israelis what to do? They're always going to do what Is In their best interest." The C.I.A. official added that the Israeli presence was widely known In the American Intelligence community. The Israeli decision to seek a bigger foothold in Kurdistan-characterized by the former Israeli Intelligence officer as IIPlan BII-has also raised tensions between Israel and Turkey. It has provoked bitter statements from Turkish politicians and, In a major regional shift, a new alliance among Iran, .Syria, and Turkey, all of which have significant Kurdish minorities. In early June, Intel Brief, a privately circulated Intelligence newsletter produced by Vincent Cannistraro, a retired C.I.A. counterterrorism chief, and Philip Glraldl, who served as the C.I.A.·s deputy chief of base In Istanbul in the late nineteen-eighties, said: Turkish sources confidentially report tha~ the Turks are Increasingly concerned by the expanding Israeli presence In Kurdistan and alleged encouragement of Kurdish ambitions to create an independent state~ •.• The Turks note that the large Israeli Intelligence operations In Northern Iraq Incorporate anti-Syrian and anti-Iranian activity, InclUding support to Iranian and Syrian Kurds who are In opposition to their respective governments. In the years since the first Gulf War, Iraq's Kurds, aided by an internationally enforced no-fly zone and by a U.N. mandate providing them with a share of the country·~ 011 revenues, have managed to achieve a large measure of Independence In three northern Iraqi provinces. As far as most Kurds are concerned, however, historic IIKurdistan" extends well beyond Iraq's borders, encompassing parts of Iran, Syria, and Turkey. All three countries fear that Kurdistan, de_spite public pledges to the contrary, will declare Its Independence from the Interim Iraqi 90vernment if conditions don't improve after June 30th. Israeli Involvement In Kurdistan is not new. T.hroughout the ,nineteen-sixties and seventies, Israel actively supported a Kurdish rebellion against Iraq, as part of its strategic. policy of seeking alliances with non-Arabs In the Middle East. In 1975, the Kurds were betrayed by the United States, when Washington went along with a decision by the Shah of Iran to stop supporting Kurdish aspirations for autonomy In Iraq. Betrayal and violence became the_ norm in the next two decades. Inside Iraq, the Kurds were brutally repressed by Saddam Hussein, who used afrpower and chemical weapons against them. In 1984, the Kurdistan Workers Party, or P.K.K., Initiated a campaign of separatist Violence in Turkey that lasted fifteen yearsj more than thirty thousand people, most of them Kurds, were killed. The Turkish government ruthle_ssly crushed the. separatists, and eventually captured the P.K.K.'s leader; Abdullah Ocalan. Last month, the P.K.K., now known as the Kongra-Gel,. announced that it was ending a five-year unilateral ceasefire and would begin targeting Turkish citizens once again. The Iraqi Kurdish leadership was furious when, early this month, the United _States acceded to a U.N. resolution on the restoration of Iraqi sovereignty that did not affirm the interim constitution that granted the minority Kurds veto power In any permanent constitution. Kurdish leaders Immediately warned PreSident Bush in a letter that they would not participate in a new ShIIte-controlled government unless they were assured that their rights under the interim constitution were preserved. liThe people of Kurdistan will no longer accept second-class citizenship in Iraq,," the letter said, There are fears that the Kurds will move ~o seize the_ city of Kirkuk, together with the substantial oil reserves In the surrounding region. Klrkuk Is dominated by Arab Iraqis, many of whom were relocated there, beginning in the nineteen-seventies, as part of Saddam Husseinls campaign to "Arabi~~" the region" ~ut the Kurds consider Kirkuk and its oil part of their historic homeland. IIIf Klrkuk is threatened by the Kurds" the Sunnllnsurgents will move in there~ arong with the Turkoinen; and there will be a bloodbath," Print o o Page 3 of5 al) American military expert who is studying Iraq told me. "And, even if the Kurds do take Klrkuk, they can't transport the 011 out of tHe country, since all of the_ pipelines. run through ~he Sunnl-Arab heartland." A top German national-security official said In an interview that "an independent Kurdistan with sufficient 011 would have enormous consequences for Syria, Iran, and Turkey" and would lead to continuing Instability In the Middle East-no matter what the outcome In Iraq Is. There Is also a widespread belief" another senior German official said, that some elements Inside the Bush Administration-he referred specifically to the faction headed by Deputy .Secretary of Defense Paol Wolfowltz-would tolerate an Independent Kurdistan. This, the German argued, would be. a mistake. "It would be a new Israel-a pariah state In the middle of hostile nations.II A declaration of independence would trigger a Turkish response-and possibly a war-and also derail what has been an Important alliance for Israel. Turkey and Israel have become strong diplomatic and economic partners In the past decade. Thousands of Israelis travel to Turkey every year as ~ourists. Turkish opposition to the Iraq war has strained the relationship; stili, Turkey remains oriented toward the West and" despite the victory of an Islamic party In national elections in 2002, relatively secular. It Is now vying for acceptance In the European Union. In contrast" Turkey and Syria have been at odds for years,at times coming close to open confrontation, and Turkey and Iran have long been ,regional rivals. One area of tension between them Is the conflict between Turkey's pro-Western_stand and Jran·s rigid theocracy. But their mutual wariness of the Kurds has transcended these divisions. A European foreign minister, in a conversation last month, said that the "blowing Up" of Israel's alliance with Turkey would be a major setback for the region. He went on, "To avoid chaos, you need the neighbors to work as one common entlty.1I The Israelis, however, view the neighborhood, with the. exception of. Kurdistan, as hostile. Israel Is convinced that Iran Is on the verge of developing nuclear weapons, and that" with .Syria's help, it_ is planning to bolster Palestinian terrorism as Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip. Iraqi Shiite militia leaders like Moqtada al-Sadr, the former American Intelligence official said, ~re seen by the Israeli leadership as "stalking horses" for Iran-owing much of their success in defying.the American-led coalition to logistical and communications support and training prOVided by Iran. The former intelligence official said, "We began to see telltale signs of organizational training last summer. But the White House. didn't want to hear it: 'We canlt take on another problem right now. We can't afford to push Iran to the point where we've got to have a Showdown.~ II Last summer, according to a document I obtained, th~ Bush Administration directed the Marines to draft a detailed plan, called Operation Stuart, for the arrest and, if necessary,. assassination of .Sadr. But 'the operation was cancelled, the former Intelligence official told me, after it became clear tha~ Sadr had been "tipped ofr' about the plan•.Seven months later, after Sadr spent the winter building support for his movement, the American-led coalition ,Shut down his newspaper, provoking a crisis that Sadr survived with his status enhanced, thus insuring ~ha~ he will playa major, and unwelcome, role In the political and military machinations after June 30th. .' , "Israel's Immediate goal after June 3Qth Is to build up the Kurdish commando units to balance the .Shiite militias-especially those which would be hostile to the kind of order in southern Iraq that Israel would like to see," the former senior Intelligence official said. "Of course, If a fanatic Sunni Baathis~ militia took control-one as hostil~ to Israel as Saddam Hussein was-Israel would unleash the Kurds on It, too.II The Kurdish armed forces" known as the peshmerga, number an estimated seventy-five thousand troops, a total that far exceeds the known Sunni and .Shiite militias. The former Israeli Intelligence officer acknowledged that .slnce late. last year Israel has been training Kurdish commando units to operate In the same manner and with the_ same effectiveness as Israel's most secretive commando units, the Mlstaravlm. The Initial goal of the Israeli assistance to the Kurds, ~he former officer ,Said, was to allow them to do what American commando units had been unable to do-penetrate, gather Intelligenc~ on, and then kill off the leadership of the Shiite and Suno,l insurgencies In Iraq. (I was unable to learn whether any such mission had yet. taken place.) "The feeling was that this was a more effective way to get at the Insurgency," the former officer .sard. "But the growing Kurdish-Israeli relationst,ip began upsetting the Turks no end. Their Issue Is that the very same Kurdish commandos trained for Iraq could infiltrate and attack In Turkev." • The Kurdish-Israeli-collaboration inevitably expanded, the Israeli said. Some Israeli operatives have crossed the border Into Iran, accompanied by Kurdish commandos, to install sensors and other sensitive devices that primarily target suspected Iranian nuclear facilities. The former officer said, "Look" Israel has always supported the Kurds in a Machiavellian way-as balance against Saddam. It's Realpolitik." He added,. IIBy aligning with the Kurds, Israel gains eyes and ears in Iran, Iraq, and Syria." He went on, "What Israel was doing with the Kurds \yas not so unacceptabl~ In the. Bush Administration." Senior German officials told me, With ala(.ffi, that their Intelligence community also has evidence that Israel is using Its new leverage Inside Kurdistan, and within the Kurdi~h communities in Iran and .Syria, for Intelligence and operational purposes. Syrian and Lebanese officials believe that Israeli intelligence. played a role. in a series of violent protests In Syria in mid-March In which Syrian Kurdish dissidents and .Syrian troops clashed" leaving at least thirty peopl~ dead. (There are nearly two million Kurds living In Syria, which has a population of seventeen million.) Much of the fighting took place In cities along Syria's borders with Turkey and Kurdish-controlled Iraq. Michel ,Samaha" th~ Lebanese Minister of Information, told me that while the disturbances amounted to an uprising by the Kurds against the leadership of ~ashirAssad" ,the .Syrian President, his government had evidence that Israel was "preparing the Kurds to fight all around Iraq, In Syria" Turkey, and Iran., They're being programmed to do commando operations." The top German national-security official told me that h~ believes that the Bush Administration continually misread Iran••IThe Iranla~s waJlted~to k~ep America tied down In Iraq, and to keep it busy there" but t~ey didn't want chaos,1I he said. One of the . senior German officials told me, )-The critical question is 'What will the behavior of Iran be-if there is an Independent Kurdistan with _ o G Page 4 of5 close ties to Israel?' Iran does not want an Israeli land-based aircraft carrier"-that Is, a military stronghold-"on its border." Jfl Another senior European official said, liThe Iranians wouid do something positive In "the south of Iraq If they get'somethlng positive' In return, but Washington won't do it. The Bush, Administration won't ask the Iranians for help, and can't ask the Syrians. Who Is going to save the United States?" He added that, at the. start of the American Invasion of Iraq, s~veral top European officials had told their counterparts In Iran, ")'00 will be the wlnner~ In the region.II Proint Israel Is not alone in believing that Iran, despite Its protestations, is secretly hard at work on a nuclear bomb. Early this month, the International Atomic Energy Agency" which, is re_sponsible for monitoring nuclear,prollferation, issued Its fifth quarterly report In a row stating that Iran was continuing to misrepresent its into materials that could be used for the production of nuclear weapons. Much of the concern centers on an underground enrichment facility at Natanz, two hundred and fifty miles from the IranIraq border, which, during previous I.A.E.A., Inspections, was discovered to contain centrifuges showing traces of weapons-grade uranium. The huge complex, which is still under construction, i~ said to total nearly erght hundred thousand square feet, and It will be sheltered In a few months by a roof whose design allows it to be covered with sand. Once the work Is completed, the complex "will be blind to satellites". and the Iranians could add additional floors underground," an I.A.E.A. official told me. liThe question Is, will the Israelis hit Iran?1I Mohamed ElBaradel, the I.A.E.A. director, has repeatedly stat~d that his agency ha~ not IIseen concrete proof of a military program, so It's premature to make a judgment on that." David Albright" a former U.N. weapons inspector who is an expert on nuclear proliferation, buttre.ssed the I.A.f;.A. claim. "The United States has ,no concrete evidence of a nuclear-weapons program,II Albright told me. "It·S just an inference. There's,no smoking gun." (Last. Friday" at a meeting In Vienna, the I.A.E.A. passed a resolution that, while acknowledging some progress" complained that Iran had yet to be as open as It should be, and urgently called upon It to resolve a list of outstanding que_stions.) The I.A.E.A. official told me. that the. I.A.E.A. leadership has been privately warned by Foreign Ministry officials in Iran that they are "having a hard time getting Information" from th~ hard-line. religious and military leaders who run the country. liThe Iranian Foreign Ministry tells us, 'We're just diplomats" and we don't know whether we're getting the whole. story from our own people,' n the official said. He noted that the Bush Administration has repeatedly advised the I.A.E.A. that there are secret nuclear facilities In Iran that have not been declared. The Administration will not say more, apparently worried that the information could get back to Iran. Patrick Clawson, of the Institute for Near east Policy, provided another explanation for the reluctance of the Bush Admlnlstratlonto hand over specific intelligence. "If we wer~ to identify a site," ,he told me, "it's conceivable that It could be qUickly disassembled and the I.A.E.A. Inspectors would arrive"-international inspections often take weeks to organlze-"and find nothing." The American Intelligence community, already discredited because of its faulty reporting on Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, would be criticized anew. "It's much better," Clawson said, ,lito have the I.A.E.A. figure out' on its own that there's a site and then find evidence that there had been enriched material there." Clawson told me that Israel's overwh~lmingnational-security cOl'lcern must be Iran. Given that a presence In Kurdlstan would give Israel a way to monitor the. Iranian nuclear effort" he. said" "it would be. negligent for the Israelis not to be there. n At the moment, the former American .senior Intelligence official said, the Israelis' tie. to Kurdistan "would be. of greater value than their growing alliance with Turkey. 'We. love Turkey but got to keep the pressure on Iran..' "The former. Israeli Intelligence officer said, "The Kurds were the last surviving group clos~ to tl)e. United States with any say in Iraq. The only question was how to square It with Turkey." There may be no way to square. It with Turkey. Over breakfa~t in Ankara, a senior Turkish official explained, "Before the war, Israel was active in Kurdistan, and now it i~ active .agaln. This is very dangerous for us, and for them, too. We do not wa",t to see Iraq diVided, and we will not ignore it." Then, citing a popular Turkish proverb-"We will burn a blanket to kill a f1eall-he said, "We have told the Kurds, 'We are not afraid of you, but you ~hould be afraid of os." II (A Turkish diplomat I spoke to later was more direct: "We tell our Israeli and Kurdish friend~ that Turkey's good will lies in keeping Iraq together. We. will not support alternative solutions.") "If you end up with a divided Iraq, It will bring.more blood, tears, and pain to the Middle East, and you will be blamed," the senior Turkish official said. "From Me.xico to Russia, everybody will claim that the United States had a secret agenda In Iraq: you came there to break up Iraq. If Iraq Is diVided, America cannot explain this to the world." The official compared the situation to the breakup of Yugoslavia" bu~ added, "In the Balkans, you did not have oil." He said, "The lesson of Yugoslavia is that when you give one country Independence everybody will want it." If that happens, he said, "Kirkuk will be. the. Sarajevo of Iraq. If something happens there, It will be 'impossible. to contain the crisis." In Ankara, another senior Turkish official explained that his government had "openly shared its worries" about the Israeli military activities inside Kurdistan with the.Jsraeli Foreign Ministry. "They deny the training and the purchase of property and claim It's not official but done by private persons. ObViouslyI, our intelligence" community Is aware that it was not so. This polley Is not good for America, Iraq, or Israel and the Jews.i\ Turkey's Increasingly emphatic ,and public. complaints about Israel's missile attacks on the Hamas leadership In the Gaza Strip Is another factor In the growing tensions between the. allies. On May 26th, Turkey's Foreign Minister, Abdullah Gul, announced at a news conference in Ankara that the Turkish government was bringing its Ambassador in Israel home for consultations on how to revive the Middle East peace, He also told the Turkish pafliament that the government was planning to strengthen Its ties to the Palestinian Authority, and" rn conver~ations with, Middle. Eastern diplomats in the past month, he expressed grave concern about Israel. In one such .talk,.one diploma~ lold me, G~I d~scribed Israeli activities, and the. possibility of an Independent Kurdistan, as!nting us ~i~h a_c~oi~e that is not ,a real choice·b~tweeri su"rvival and alliance-;" - o PageS of5 \ A,thirdTurklsh official told me that. the Israelis were "talking to us I~ Qrder to appease our concern. They say, 'We aren't doing anything In Kurdistan to undermine. your interests. Don't worry.' "The officiai added, "If it goes out pUblicly what they've been doing, It will put your government and our government. in a difficul~ position. We can tolerate 'Kurdistan' if Iraq Is Intact, but nobody knows the future-not even th~ Americans." Pant A former White House official depict~d ~he Administration as eager-almost desperate-late this spring to Install an acceptable new Interim government in Iraq before President. BuSh~s declared June .30th deadline for the transfer of sovereignty. The,Administratlon turned to lakhdar Brahimi, the U,nited" Nations special envoy, to "put together something by June 30th-just something that could stand Upll through the Presidential election, th~ former official said. Brahlml was given the task of selecting, with Washington's public approval, the thirty-one. members of Iraq's ,interim government. Nevertheless" according to press reports, the choice of Iyad Allawl as Interim Prime Minister was a disappo.lotment to Br~hjmi. The White House has yet to deal with. AlIawi's past. His credentials as a neurologist,'and his involvement during the past two decades In anti-Saddam activities, as the founder of th~ British-based Iraqi National. Accord, have been widely reported. But his role as a Baath Party operative while Saddam struggled for control, in the nineteen-sixties and seventles-Saddam became President In 1979-ls much less well known. "Allawi helped Saddam get to power," an American intelligence officer told me. "He was a very effective operator and a true. believer." Reuel Marc, a former C.I.A. case officer who served In the Middle East, added, "Two facts stand out about Allawi. One" , to think of himself as a man of ideas; and, two, his strongest virtue Is that he's a thug.1I Early this year, one. of Allawi's former medical-school c1assmate.s, Dr. Haifa al-Azawl, published an essay In an Arable newspaper In London raising questions about his character and his.medical bona fides. ,She depicted Allawi as a "big husky man ••• who carried a gun on his belt and frequently brandished it, terrorizing the medical.students." Allawi's medical degree, she wrote, "was conferred upon him by the Baath party." Allawl moved to London in 197.1, ostensibly to continue his medical education; there he was In charge of the European operations of th~ Baath ,Party organization and the local activities of the Mukhabarat, Its intelligence agency, until 1975. "If you're asking me if Allawi has blood on his hands from his days in London, the answer is yes, he does," Vincent Cannlstraro, the former C.I.A. 'officer, said. "He was a paid Mukhabarat agent for the. Iraqis, and he was Involved In dirty stuff." Acabinet-level Middle East diplomat, who was rankled by the U.S. indiffer~nc~ to Allawi'spersonal history, told me early this month that Allawl was Involved With a Mukhabarat "hit team" ~hat sought out, and killed Baath Party dissenters throughout Europe. (Allawl's office did not respond to a request for comment.) At some. point, for reasons that are not. clear, Allawl fell from favor, and the Baathlsts organized a series of attempts on his life. The third attempt, by ,an axe-wielding ,assassin who broke into his home near London In 1978, resulted in a year-long hospital stay. ' . The Saban Center's Flynt Leverett said of the. transfer of sovereignty, "If it doesn't work, there is no faliback-nothlng.1I The former senior American intelligence officJal told me, similarly,. that "the. neocons .stlll think they can pull the rabbit out of the hat" In Iraq. "What's the plan? They sayI. "We don't need it. Democracy is .strong enough. We'll work it out.' " Middle East diplomats and former C.I.A. operatJve.s who now consult in Baghdad have told me that many wealthy Iraqi businessmen and their families have deserted Baghdad in recent weeks in anticipation of continued, and perhaps heightened, suicide attacks and terror bombings after June ,30th."We'U $~e. Christians" .Shiites, and Sunnis getting out," Michel Samaha, the Lebanese Minister of . Information, reported. "What the resistance is doing is targeting the'poor people who run the bureaucracy-those who can't afford to pay for private guards. A month agol, tri.ends of mine who are important landowners in Iraq came to Baghdad to do business. The cost of one day'S security was about ,twetve thousand dollars.'\ Whitley Bruner, a retired Intelligence officer who was a senior member of the C.I.A.·s task force on Iraq a decade ago, said that the new Interim government. in Iraq is urgently seeking ways to provide affordable security for second-tier officials-the men and women who make the government work., In early.June, two such officials-Kamal Jarrah, an Education Ministry official, and Bassam Sallh KUbba, who was serving as deputy foreign minister..were assassinated by unidentified gunmen outside their homes. Neither had hired private guards. Bruner, who returned from Baghdad earlier this month, said that he was now working to help organize Iraqi companies that could provide high-quality security that Iraqis could afford. "It's going to be. a hot summer," Bruner said. itA lot of people have decided to get to Lebanon, Jordan" or the Gulf and wait this one out." . . LOAD-DATE: June 28, 2004 ,- fMSNBC - And Now a Mole?0 , )~ MSN Home I My MSN I Hotmail I Shopping I Mon~y 'I People 8i Chat [f,Sign In.~·l Page 1 of7 Web Search: I ALL INFOR}lATION CONTAI1VED HEREIN IS UNCLASStFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/3ab/lsg I-~ '(..,(;.~ MSNBC J L!1J1J:dJJl~ News ' 8/30/2004 Print I Email I Alerts And Now a Mole? -In the Pentagon, a suspected spy allegedly passes secrets, to Israel Weather Local News Health Opinions Travel Multimedia Tech I Science Entertainment Sports Business News Newsweek Periscope National News campaign 2004 World News The War in Iraq Business Enterprise Tech & Sdence Health Olympics SocietY Entertainment TIp Sheet Columnists letters & live Talk International Ed. Multimedia Search Newsweek ...~ ~"",~ ... ...._~~f;;J·;.J.,:~~~=.,.:::JI,.....u_ __... -'t_ _ .Ii ;':r::~.. :,,'.~_A~... ...~ ...~tt Peterson I Getty Images •• jlt.. ~lot"" "'t...'t.~ A show of force: Iran dis$lays1!fs military might: .":i • "'-a\: ,& By Michael Isikoff And ~'~k1Hi»sei1'ii~if;'.:". I': ~ ?' ,"'I'~Iio.f~'--I~I"'o'\.'''~~~~",,'j1llt'''~~ Newsweek .~ ~'. ".' • , ' •~ • f:. f k..... "..: ~ .1; .... .....!:l. ... " ... •.. 'l.f·.}~'fi."~lI::H-'ilro~·_·l·,, .. .' . "'" ~~ ~ "..... Sept. 6 issue" It was~~¥~,~~,~~sni#o~t<;>~lun~h-onethat the FBI happened to be monitoring~ .Nearly a year-,and a half ago, agents were monitoring a conve]~ation between·~9jl.sraell Embassy official anq a lobbyi~t ~of~A:merlcan IsraetR~4~IJc_ Affairs Committee, or AIPAC, as"'"pai-rbf a 'probein~o possible Israeli spying. Suddenly, ~nd~%!~ff&\$nexp'~~~edlY~ in the description-of one intelligence offiCiC!r,.@..i)Olh.f!f Ameri~ap.:'l.l~alked In" to the lunc out of the blue. Agentjj~.t\first·dldn~e·kn6~Ytho the man was. They were stunned to...Qiscover he was LarrV,'.Franklin, a desk ..,... ~. .'.~. "'t, . " ~..:~ :...~:t- 't t tsf~'~li ~ t~~·:,~ .,,~~ . Il :;; http://www.msnbc.msn.comlidl58S3706/site/n~~~W~.~E??..·~~f~'" .......;4$~\~::,;~~~~ •.\.." ..:~ .oW • • ~ \.I¥, ,I .... _ ~ .. ~ ~ • \ 8/3012004- -- Page 4 of7 1 ••t..,~~,. "l'tl ~ .. '.;.''''.'.,,,,", I'" ".".."".,f't." · :¥;.}(" 6....~ ( \~·l ~ ~ , -i,'. :~, <:,1<1 ''iJ.Vv~, 't~,l . '''~. :;;' ..~,••~~ •._ 1":,,... ', Q ,f.~....)~• •,\, "t i , ~ ';l'~/l;. ••, •••~ :-It' :. 1Io Of f' ~M_j . " .: \<. ,.... • -the Pentagon's No. '3,:wa~a sometime c8~~tant'for'Likud, Israeli Prime Mi?is~er Ariel :~~~'~ ~~!!~ica) e~~-.Pffi~fars say they have no evidence that either Feith or Lutl had any knowledge of Franklin's dis~ussf~l}s:wfml~fb~~rsta:.qlt~\·:- " • I "· .,·~~«.~·t~:*'·:'''7 Franklin has also be~tt~fflirng"ttl~sb6je~r~~f a .separ:ate probe being conducted by t~~:{S~nate intellfgerj:~~~c;fm"1ittee. Part of that investiga,tion con£.ef;{~.~U~g~q ~~ro~~~ii~int~lIigenCe activities by Fei~h's staff. Among1t~~s,~¥lg\y'i~'~~)$~~>a ~er!es o~ meetings that Franklin and on~: ~~;H;~~?Q~l~~~)U~~~l~arold Rhode, had In Paris In late 2001 wI~h Mangfi~~~.t~~~~~91.(~~;~~~~~·ShadOWYIranian arms dealer l')1ade infar:n,Qys.\durmg tht;::~re.Q:,contra scandal of the 1980s. One purpose Of;..~~9~e meetings w:~s;t9.. explore a scheme for overthrowing the mlliiahs In Iran, thoCi9h'~'Rumsfeldlater said the plan was never sei{lf6~ry..considered :.!§bt~~o far, there Is no evidence that the. Ghqr~~9Jta~~~~ta~~~v;e_.related to the espionage probe. ~~Q~~~~~1s? case suggest that the' political damage ~9~~~tt.C1!Jg ;~h~.:P~n~s~~n may prove to be l1)ore serJQus than fh~~C!~,.rhage to nation~J~~curity.. ~:\):'" ~/' - ~ , r . With Michael Hirsh and.,;,Da'hie/rKlal"dman/fnXW"ashington -and Dan ~ .~,..,~ f'r"Il/: ''''''" ....,"r.. .• Ephron in .Jerusalem '.9~';~~'~', /.::,f,.~:;.~.g ...,,;; ~ . ~f:.".~ '~\", ... ·ri·: ,\ " II .," . © 2004 Newsweek i»~~':;~i\.:.l\,.+, ~),')'~~~J': I , '.'111 ......,~ .... ! "''',,''' .1.. . ";' tW~l' " "r M ,L. ~'!~' ,1- a-PRINT THiSARncL~i!.~'·~-_.. I§-E~~i~~His "A'RTICLe ••_----_.._--~~.'.- ·__w._ '-'-1r"--- ._.. ~_._- _.- . "' ....,~ 1 J~ . ,~ .. '.ti j m!iMORE FROM NEWSy;1'@jfNATtONACN"E'v.1~~U' I I . ....t~C!t.~.:J~.:!r·t~·~~~·'"" ,Ne~t~~_ The Ro~~~~~~~~~o~v~,;:d;~~~~~ ,It ... -f~"" . "-, , • 'l. ~~of..~ ..;. h\~ ~' 1 ~' ..... ~,',;.~,. r~-(X" '. ~ .":II.. " ~ • And Now a Mole?i :;(~~~jrI' ,. ~ ":{-~t"1.1"" • The Road to'ResoWe~~~ , , • ,\..., -.,1,"0. • 'rve L.earned to BeiPa'tient' d'. H .-. ,:.,~-,/),;, 'r'~~' (11" .~ ~ 'UI 4"'U1' I> .,.. , •• • The Reluctant Camp'a~gnEii? :":/~t~~lq~~::~~ +,,~~ ~ .... _ "I..t \. ... , ~ ~,,' f • • In the Driver's Se~p' ~~ ..;, ~ ','....:.~ I;.. ~., .. .. .. •• ,,, 'to. I .... ' •. t-' • Th~ Man in the M~~q!!~j, f ;'r~.~ Jw ,,;, a ' , ~t" >': I,. j, t l"\, J. I • Star Power 'f. ;'J"'~ . • ,," _ :t , • .;t..... , • " : ••:. • Newsweek Natlonal~~~~s Section Front· ...; 'j"-,! ..... R.,.-,; '.~l'" ' .. : ..-: .:Jt ,; t, , .... _........ M"-_ - -_...... - .. -- -. -- 'tf...,.;-, ~ - .. -. -- -..... t::'-- "''7- .':.'1'"....,.... ';I'..... t - ....., .............~;.y ~~~~~~~~ '. - . ~SNBC .. And Now a Mole? <:> f , \\flYW. Ii aa rctz. to Di Last update - Q1:57 29/08120Q~ http://www.ha8r~tz~cqIDlhaser¥obje~iSipageslPrintArtlcl. .. ALL INFORMATION C~INED HEPEIN IS UlJCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 UG baw/sab/1sg . "'. ....... Order was out - no ~pying on U.S., says former Mossad chief By "t1IJ~ ~\l't"(t~Gide~n Alan and Nathan Guttman A fonner head·ofthe Mossad and military secretary to former defense minister and p~e minister Yitzhak Rabin says an unequivocal order tQ the in~~lligence Community prohibits illegal activity in the U.S. and operating a person to collect infonnation. "I hope the infotl11ation is false and thete are no gro~ds for suspic"io.n," rviKDanny Yatom (Labor), who was Mossad chief from 1996 fof ayear and Ii half, stUd. " Accord~g to Yatom, in spite ofthe prohibition, the U.S. !l~~~!~tqtt~o~; ~pCi=~!~HY !h~' !tt!eHigen~ ~ntm~.ityl ~~9~ ~tr~~g suspicions of Israel being involved in intelligence-gathering activities. Th~ tUn ~Xt~nto.(d.l~ sqJpi~io~ WQ$ ~y~led ill J9?7 wh~ VIS! media p!lbJisl!eQ repQrts QfFDJ i)\v~tJgl\tlQ»s Qtt9 a)legatioflS tl);tt ~ Mossad agent was involved in running an intelligence agent within the admiriistnltioii. As a result, tHen-CIA chiefGeorge Tenet asked Danny Yatom for cbirifications in both a phone call and in writing. A letter that Yatom ~nt to' Tenet containirigclariftcations di~ not Satisfy the Americans, and Yatom had to fly to Washington tor a meeting with Tenet. When it eventually became clear that the alleg~tionwas false, Tenet wrote Yatom a·letter ofapology• It subaequelltly tum6d out that thQ fBI, which listens in Oil all home and office p1)one calls oflSraelj djplomats, bad ihtercepted a cal' between two Mossad officiais stationed in the U.S., Yoram Hassel, head ofdie Mossad miSsion, ~d anotlier individual, involved in the workings ofTevel, an intelligence unit responsible for liaison with the CIA and other ~tel1igence organizationS. The two spoke in code and mentioned the word "mega... Unaware that "mega" was th~.Mos~'s c,ode word for the CIA, the U.S. thought mega was an agent run by the Mossad. Cf.ta!nnan ofthe Knc;sset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee MK Yuval Steinitz told Haaretz yesterday, "I am certain !hat this story is groundless. This is certainly not a case ofPollard II.~'· Steinitz sai~ that ~ sj!1~ ~e P~II~4 !lfffl!r, J~~l ~~ J!~t 9~~F!t~ ~p'j~ ~'!!lS~ tIl~ U.~:, and that there were gooCi relations in the area ofintelligence between ls.rael, the u.S., and other Western countries against terror - and no need to resort to spying. ' "I would be very surprised jf in the flnal analysis it turned out that there is any basis to this story," Steinitz said."fAt most, W.s possibl~ that certain people may have said things t~ey were not authorized to say, but I ~ say with certainty that evt?Jl ifsomeone passed i' oft 'rri~t ~~.. '/# ~~ .'Q~ f- ...... #, " '". ,infotm~~orfabout.WinteHouSe poli~y. on Ute Irania4 isSue, th~ ~as iio~ '~~n~, ~ ~,:" ~~~sf .~f ~~eJ or <?~.!f:te ~~!~ative 9!~y oJtlcJ~~ figure iri Israel:~' MK,Ehud.Yatoni ~ikud) a member ofthe sub-coiittnittee for,the .s~peI:vision.ot:~ecret'services said yester~ay, "It is inC9nceivable t!lat lsrael~ which enjoys an excellent intelligence relationship with'its idly, the U.S:,-w~ul~ sPY'on the American·Defense DePartment.~ " ~ccO~~gt9 Yatom; ifthe,FBI has d~~vered.'some~ing, he hoped it 'would turn oUt to be an ulptec~~ initiative on the part bfa U.S. official.. The Israeli Embassy in Washington cat~gorically denied accusations ofan Isra~li molein the·P~ntagon. '!The \.I.s.. is ISl1lo'·s most a~prec~died~allY," etiiti~sy s~dltesmiiii DaVid Segal said yesterday. .,iWehave so~d a on~ini woridtiB rei~ionsi:!,ip at aU ieveis and in no way woul4 Israel do anything ~o Impair this rel~~onship" Segal said. lhasenlObjectsipagesIPrin~cleEn.jhtml?itemt-!0=4704.10 26£.2 ............. Haaretz ~ ~ews http://www.haarefz.comlJiasenlpages!AtticleNew"s.jlitri}I?:... E.>ALL INFOPnTION CONI'AlNED 0 HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED I . . DATE 07-29-2010 BY' 60324 uc baW<Sab/1sg ~.IHpmepage Search sIte I m News Updates Tue., Augu4it 31, 2Q04.EluI14, 576<t Israel Tim~ J)f);~1 (OMT+3) Tiffqfi F29t! • oppression or radical (slC!.m? Israel and world Jewry: Are ties at. breaking point? Ma~e Your Point debates Truth or Bias: Israel In the media What you think When the truth comes out, it will be quite evident that these charges are nothing but politically motivated. ~ -Iew§, w.e h@v~ we ~~n il~d Qf ~\lpj loyabt!m ~I~ ~Q beginn!nO of ~!.: ~~!1W" ~~. Wl!y ~~, ~~ ~~~ ~i!d ~*n~ twO ~y"ti1~ ~t 9n~ conside.. home .. ~specfany.W11en by.alarge majority. both of theSe CO~tries share the same values and interests? Seth Cohen, Miam!, United States 0;America 1here is a~lutely ~o danger of ba!=fdasf! against American Jews~ This s~ndal makes AIPAC and the Ukud look slimy. The bigger question is: When will Israel become poli,Deslry and ~conomically Jnd~pendent of the U.S.? II is beco~ing IncreaSingly cles! that tlie current conjOined·twin lilatlonship between the two is a one-way street that offers no benefits for the U.S. Michelle Ruth, San Francisco, United States ofAmerica If the allegations are proven, the affair could do untold hann to Israel's relations with WQ3l1ingtqn. Qut even if the allegetic)Os are baseless. as Israel and AlPAO maintain, the ctII$~ "breilthel nf:W lifil il1to tfl, a3ertiQn that lfiraeli and nQt Americari intereats led tQ the war in Iraq," wrote Haaretz Correspondent Nathan Gutbnan. lilt revives the old charge that Israel is not an ally but a treacherous country, and the old saw that American JewS have a 'divided loyally' problem in their preference for Israen overAmerican interests." The probe of Pentagon desk officer Larry Franklin also recalls a nadir in Israel's relaHons with its closest ally, the case of naval analyst Jonathan Pallai'd, jailed since the 1980$ for spying for Israel. Do charges of "dual loyalty" or divided allegiance endanger American Jews? What of the contentions that neo-conservatlve Jews an~ the Rro-Israellobby exercise undue influence over American paJicymaklng? Will the issue have a bearing on the.p~idential elections? . Will tbe Pentagon spy charges harm U.S. Jewry' and Israel? WftalQver the ~Ipabirity of 1~l1el .. a,nd there is eVQry ~a$on fqr th~ Ume beirig t9ljelieve the government's prqtestatlons of Innocence .. lobbylpg groups like AIPAC shou~ be scruUn~ed. 1l1ey form avirtual "fOUrth branch- of government that can easily abuse their Influence. I would like to see some of the layers of the onion peeled away so that A1PAC's actual Influence over Congress 800 the .administration can be determined. They have disproportionate Influence on our policies toward Israel and Palestine. and their bl~~nt pro.ukud views are neither balanced nor beneficial to the U.S. or Israers long-term securit}'•. David Ehrens, NewBedford, United States ofAmerica Click here to ' . m~k~ YQur PQin~' .'~ Hdlff«ZT9S«YQS the II(;tt ro «1, \ The headlines are explosive~ The FBI suspects comments torconlDnt andlohD1h. Ii Pftptagon analyst has passed classified information to Israel via the AJPAC lobbying group_ Another Israeli medal ByVoss, Sarld G~I(I ~tiU donn't get it By Avraham Tal Needid: Agreat soul By Vael Esteron Slim chances of dl~n9agem~n~ Br Danny Rubinstein Editorial &0r:»-Eds Show the proof editorial Making a mountain into a molehill By Aklva Eldar •Related Unks 1r Analvsis: A cord wind blowing from the CIA JZe'e" §S!if! Or Analysis~ Biting the feeding hand I Yossi Merman .. Analysis: 'Oualloyaltv' charge returns to haunt American Jews I Nathan ~ Or Analysis~ Undercurrents of ,susp!ci0!l' Alu! Benr:' .. AnalYsis: The Franklin affair will damage Israel's image I AlufBenn ' 1··of6 _. n 8/30/2004-5:47 PM •1Q ,~ ThIS scandal won' hurt Israel unless Israel sticks too,closely to AIPAC. ii' Peter Ross, Los Angeles. United States ofAmerica . http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/pages/ArticleNews.jhtml?... O· Iwortc;~ Qn CapitQlHili fQf five yePnt. AIPAC is aespfsed lOOre fof jJus~liig ~emb~rs of c;ongress at'C!und. 00 you think that all these resolutions of $Upport indicate that Congress cares about Ismel? They don'- They just indicate how easily Congress can be intimidated. e, • o 'Haaretz - News •q " 9 'L'" w My boss was Jewish and cared deeply about Israel. He despises AIPAC for using Israel for its own ends. I called him today to ask how he feels about the ~py ~11.d;lI: tf~ ~id tflat !lmaybe noyI tsra!!



    tis¥till un.4~"tpfla that ~IP~Q hJJris them badlY up here. You can't win friends or keep friends through intimidation. Uml~1 ia at GrAlt any ofAii'llttica but I WOuld ltewr trust AIPAC and, you knoW ~at. I'd.guess t1!at !JQQ of the 435 H9use me~bers feel the sar:ne '!iay I do. ~t is the most unpopUlar lobby in town. This scandal won't hurt Israel unless Israel slicks too dosely to AIPAC. It should throw them to the wolves." Peter Ross, Los Angel.. United Ststes ofAmerica The Lebanon withdrawal If anything waws ever mentioned about a fraction of U.S. espionage activities, Mr. Franklin's sneakel}' would pale to nonexistence. Gllma Ramirez, Canu/el, Israel If the allegation is true. and even if it is false, it will raise the canard ofdual loyalty. AIPAe. may los~ ii~ t~ e~empt ~tatU$, ilild the U.S. CQogress may ~vofd the organization. It's troubling that Palestinian groups in the U.S. could laurich a ~~S~Qqp9P !\Ilt ~!i~ ~~~p th!; i~~\1e ~liY~. 11l~ '~it ~~Id contend tfiit since fUndS WUf8 cut for Arab organlZ.aUO~f lik~ for Israel or its 'pro" lobby. Ricardo Arias, Houston, United States ofAmerica With both major Al11erf~n.political parties st~n9 to outdo o~e another in slavish devotion to Israel. I cannot see Utat this affair is memly something sQll'lttUJing ctlQked \fA by mllepl}ten~ trvipg tQ lfl1~r ih~ BUIll administration•. J~" IIC1tfo,;lgI(:; Edgewiferi FI;, tinned stat. ofAriicmm The publication of the affair might serve the U.S. administration in appeasing voters ~!fii~ 6y lh8 Close ie!8tioiiSf!ip 68tween lfii l!.S. ana Ii"!,!. It may elJso be trying lc) atten~ ita failure to aChieve progress In the IsraeliIPalestinian conflict. and hence find a pretext to distance itselffrom Sharon, who isn't rewarding It at a time when It could use a boost. whether there is any merit.fn the anegations, either of these tactics will harm. U.S.-Israel relations.. The timing of the allegations and the paucitY. of findings revealed so far appear to be a calculated move to counter this administration"s reorganization efforts of tI!~ Vjl(ioq~ (nte!lig,"ce gptp,rjng ;lgftflcjes. In the process, allegiances of Jewisll office holders rriay be qiJestioned. I. Gat, Los Angeles, Unlteil StSfes ofAmerica It ~pp~", th~t !h~ -"fl!ir- i! m91lJ f'fI1"Y f!I![1 fgct, !~ t~ timf}i~g gf t~ r~,~,S! 9! t~~! inf9nn~~lon is ~1gf\1y !~,p~ ~!'~ p'01!~~11y !,,!qpv~!~~. Am~~?n Jews ha~G n~thln9 to filar: there a.r~ no targets on th~l~ baCkS, nO.Whlsp6.fS Of traitor when they leave the roam. Haaretz feeds Into this paranoia by asking this fool~ Qutl$tIQrI. lion $/gurw; Miami. lIaiti:d State# ofAmerica The 'new antl-Sem.itlsm' Je'Wisli e'idiemlsm: HOwiealthe threat? Tho West Bank separation·'-nce Contrary to the popUlar and ii: UnfQrtpnately. ttl, Iflternts of misinfonned belief that Jewish lobbies the U.S. and Israel don't always and neo-conservative Jews in the coincide. ". Pe!"fagon -c;ontrQl f9!elgn P.O~g': q!tf¥! Jail PieterVerhey, Huizen, The U.S. in the Middle East, the facts tell a Nethellands' different st0'Y~ ItJS the CI1s~s.l~ the ..' .• . • non~emocratic Arab wol1d. Islamic terrorism. as well as rampant anti~emitlc incitement agafnsi Israel and Jews. Thai forces the u.s. to be invoived there in Wf~ fp Y4llch it st~'Il·t \y@!!l tCJ ~~ illVQ!v~4 t91!egin yAtI1~ Before 9111. th~ B~h gov~rnmen~ aim~ at coQ~ntrating on dOm~UC affairs and it was Bin Laden who basically took control of the U.S. agenda for the Middle East. And had the Palestinians radically renounced all violent struggle 8/30/2004 ?:47 PM "~9thI~g ~!I ~!1g! flI' nllltl~nshfp ~.l\YCS friends. They need each other ~il~ i~~!! ~!l99~~4l!j ~P.tb WhOwant to huttthl ,reiationship wlii find thai they. ~aI'-l:iiio:c.ldilW til"Ir fieadS toDie ".'c' 9 ••, ... ,. .. " ". Haaretz - News ,__ 30f6 http://wWw.ha~e~.comlhasen/pagesAlrticle~ews.jhtm1?... O~J . - against Israel and chosen the path of non-violent resistance, a final seWement could have been reached already long ago. The Arabs might want to lobby in the U.S. for such non-violent struggle and take Martin lUther King aOd Gt1andi as their heroes and martyrs, instead of suicidal terrorists. As long .as this doesn't. happen, Israel might need some spies around to know the true agenda of countries like Iran that develop nudearWMO and support antJ.lsrael terrorists groups. Unfortunately, the interests of the U.S. ancflsrael don't always coincide. Jan P/eter Vedle}', Hulzen, The Netherlands After thousands of years, the woltd Is stiD persecuting Jews. albeit disguised in different ways. The way the Unitect Nations view Israeli actions in the OcCupied Territories as compared to how they view Palestinian suicide bOl11.bers is a prime example. I just cannot fathom why the UNwillingly condemn legitimate Israeli actions against Palestinian militants but only give Palestinians a light slap on' ,their wrists with regard to PalestlnJan suicide bombers who wantonly blow up innocent Israeli women, Children, old folk and men. It seems that even the U.S. media has Joined in this madness with reg~rd to the • Lany Franklin affair. The FBI has not even conduded their investigations and we already see the U.S. media portraying Israel as the culprit. I would like to appeal to all to wait for the official condusion before making your judgement. Please note that it is also election season in U.S. now ~nd some unscrupulous American pofitlcal supporters might want to lea~ some bias~d news to boost their hidden agenda. Gabriel Ho, Singapore, Singapore For all Intents and purposes, Israel has secured effective control over.U.S. ,foreign policy in the Middle East. through various sophisticated means, iQduding AIPAC's lobbying. as well as placfng at the top decision.making echelonS right..wing Zionists who view Israers Interests· from a"Ukud perspective, of course - as far more relevant than American interests, when the two do not converge. . 0 • . The Franklin affair has the potential of announcing the begiooing of the end of this unquestionable control Israel has enjoyed for many years nOW. OmarBarghoutl, Acre, ~srael ' . °w..e are living with this -dualloyalism • ~n ute tiJl1e·1llj~11\ what an{l.~",ites, out of fresh accusations or smearS auain~~ ~ ~~'h fioyre in PC?Ii~~. revert to. The difference is that Jews no longer feei the need to defend their 1000ltY'tQ A"!f:lica 3nd ttteir s:arq !o.r J~rAg,: Np~ino Yrl'! ett'~rigft \h9 relationitiip betWeen me tWO friends. Batya Dagan, Los Angeles. They need each other and they'lIIm ujl!~ ~I:f~ of Ml+ric]f each other and scamiats ~nCQ~ by .,' people who want to hurt the relationship will find that they are knocking their rieads to'the wall. . Batya Dagan, Los A!'gcles, United States ofAmerica If its tn.te. to bite the hand that is feeding us shows arrogance and contempt for our friends, as well as the rest of the world. This is why the resentment to rsrael' is justified and not juSt another case of anti-Semitism, as many Jews would have' it. When I was young I saw Israel as morally right but now 1m not so sure. ~on,!ie Wolman, Toronto, canada- ' Of COUISG it will badly harm the relations Israel has with the USA. Worse, ail the allegations of the Arab World that the U.S. is govemed by the "Zionist Lobby" WIll be proven correct. to their satisfaction. 00 Jews of the dlaspora and Israel needs this? . , 0 ,ClaUde Myriam Hasson. Sao Paulo, Brazil The damage has been done by Israel. They denied the Jonathan Pollard story for 13 years. They still deny their involvement in the NeW Zealand Passport story. The Sharon government and the rest of their group are not the friend of 'Unit~.States but an open enemy, and very soon it will be proved before the November eledions. , . 8/30/2004<5:47 PM' -Haaretz - News .. o http://www.haar~tz.comlhasen/pag~s/ArticleNews.jhtml?..~ OJ 4.of~ Sal Azam, Chicago, United states ofAmerica To love America and care for Israel's security is not dual loyalty. Afew people made some mistakes. that does not represent all of Americas Jews. Gabriel G, San Francisco, United States 01America Ped1aps history and the events ofWW2 have convinced some Jews that their fate can never again rest in tIM; hands of the -Goyim- but it would be very • careless of Israel to saaific:e the good will ofthe American people by treating them With arrogance. presuming that Israel knows whars best for both of them. Dan McAllnden, Los Angeles, United States ofAmerica From the timing atone one can jtt From the timing alone one can conclude this Is a political ploy either of conClude thIS Is a Political plot the CIA - which has a weakened eitherofthe CIA or a Democrat U connection to Israel according to AI Stein, Mendocino. United Haaretz today- or much more likely to States ofAmerica the Oe!"Qqat who ~s the anony-mous . _• 0 0 • SQurce ofthe leak. There are aWhole bunch Qf Americans who never got oYer letting Jews into their countly dubs who now and again dabble in the latest fann ofJew6iitfng YmiCii iiiW lakes tfi8 fomi of lYing 860m JdWiifi spies; AI Stein, Mendocino, United States ofAmerica 75% ofAmerican Jews are reported to be voting for sen. Kelly In the upcoming election, the AIPAC so leaning towards the Ukud. hardly represent American Jewry and should take this blame and not share it with people they do NOT represent. Johanes Franzen, Stockholm, Sweden If the spy case against Franklin is true. all it does is serve ~o reinforce the opinions of the Arabs. who suspect the Jews ofdesiring world dominion. the antJ.Semites. who claim the Jews control the government. and the mainstream. who distrust the Jews but choose to hide it when it's unpopular.,The Arabs already believe Israel perpetrated 9-11. Iraq, and many other horrors. The spy case Is simply'fodder for analready·loaded cannon, pointed at the Jews for3ooo years. Jorr:lan Hirsch, Dallas, United States ofAmerica The so-called ·spy affair" should be reported more carefully In the media. Joumalist should reassess their responsibility in reporting such matters. Mr. Franklin Is still innocent until proven guilty, At this point It appears to be a matter of inappropriate handling of classified documents a charge that even sandy Berger has to face. Unfortunately. the damage has been done and it fuels the hate-propaganda of all those believing In the •Jewish-Zionist" world conspiracy. Bernd Wollschlaeger, Miami, United States ofAmerica The spy story was invented to blame the Iraq war on Jews. just as Jews have always been blamed throughout history for major problems and mistakes made by Gentiles. We were blamed for the black plague. Gen:.nany's loss in World War I. we are blamed for the Arab world's InCC!mpetence and cruelty, and now we are being blamed for the war in Iraq. The result will harm U.S. Jews. Within the next few hundred years discrimination and violence against Jews In America wil increase drastfcally. It will get to the point where every U.S. JewIs either dead or In Israel. BISayetta, San Francisco, United States ofAmerica It is time for Israel to divest itself of Its ~i I' Is tlpte for Israel to d,,1 with ,,~t~_'!Stlip- ~~lpAg. A:lPAC .. ItseIf· theu.s:fJO!cin",~ tao '..~ ~ _ a rogue operation dedicated to the government notthrough AlPAC, aOQtaDditAlfU!1U ofAIPAC. It ii not '!falem ~ ~omm~~ .1!n~, @ .... p~l~el. It Is pro-AIP~C ....~1I~ve ~8 ~e!1.nDw, da'!Qe~us. ., U. that the neo~nservative AIPAC types Art Rabinowitz. Brooklyn, United ~t th~ Q~p'a(trnefll Qf QQf@(lt!8 g~'lg ~f!~~ ~J Afrlen~ !nfC)iIp~qqn tq A~~MI !li1~ If!i!~PAC tooK it to impi"d18 1M Idraelii oftfieir iJflpdrtahdd, I do not tielieVe fiiraal wail runnlnq this operation. Ehud Y!I!.Om is right. So Is Shara~s~. Israel Is Innocent but the power mangers at AIPAC and the wannangers at ~elthis operation are guilty as sin. I hope AIPAC Is this anjj we American Jews can 8/30/2004 5:47 PM Haaretz - News :,.. ~~ :" .. .50f6 O· replace it With a truly pro-Israel opeiation. one that Is not on a powertrfp. I just hope that AIPAC's shenanigans do not hurt Israel. As Rabin suggested in 1992. it Is time for Israel to deal with the U.S. government to government not through AIPAC. which Is both outmoded and. as we see now, dangerous. Arl Rabinowitz, Brooklyn, United States ofAmerica On the contrary. the Pentagon spy scandal will greatly benefit U.S. Jews and Israel. By drawing attention to AIPAC, the organization will be exposed as the pompous, propagandistic fraud Ulat it is. Thus. U.S. Jews will be more likely to think rationally and humanely about the Israel-Palestinian conflict. They Will listen more closely to the uplifting message of Jewish peace and justice groups. Israel. with dIminished U.S. support for its outrageous and Immoral conduct: will also benefit. The greatest gift the world can give to Israel is to Insist that the nation bring peace and justice to Palestinians. First step: End the OCQIpation and bring all the sewers home. David Howard, Olal, California, United States ofAmerica There is somethIng smelly about the -franklinlAIPAC" affair. Govem~ents and their security agencies by rule do not go pubrlC in matters of ·sples· until they have been nailed and indicted. So far this reeks ofa malicious leak or of capital ineptitude of the FBI. or bothl ~ Egon Lazarus, MORAGA, United States ofAmerica The point about the American spies is good. and so is the point about this incident being set up to blame the Iraq mess on Israel. Wake up people and smell the coffeell think I speak for. lots of people in Canada. the U.S., and Israel when I say that Israel had nothing to do with the war on Iraq. Was it Israel who told Saddam to act like a crazy dictator? It wasn't Israel who told Saddam to fire scuds at Israel, nor to kill Iraqis. No. This spy business is to rehash the theory that Israel set up the war on Iraq. The fact Ulat Israel actuaRy sent spies to bring this upon themselves seems utterly stupid. It is appalling to think that any right minded human being would think otherwlsel Tyrone Nimerowskl, Winnipeg, ClInada Larry Franklin should be viewed as innocent unless found guilty in a court of law. but even if he's convicted of espionage, that wouldn't have a big anti-Jewish backlash In Amedea. MostAmericans now consider Amerlean Jews part ofthe national mainstream. . IfAmedcan Jews' special ties to Israel is -dual loyally,· what about the 30 million or so American Christian Zionists? They are Israel·s strongest bastion of support in America. Yes, most politically consdous Americans befl8V8 by nowthat the Iraq warwas mastenninded by neo-conservatives to ernninate a blUer enemy of Israel. But again. I don't see that spawning much IIf..feellng among Americans against Jews or Israel because of their deep loyalty toward the" Jewish state. What the Israelis may need to wony about is the war's disastrous effect of America. their only real ally In the worfd. The Iraqi quagmire is dramatically • exposing the limits ofAmerica's power and eroding Its dout In the Middle East and the wodd. And it's happening when Israel sbuggles to extricate itselffrom its own quagmire In Gam and the West Bank. Mus""aMalik, Cheverly, Md., United States ofAmerica Nobody in the White House is going to say anything negative about Israel right now. Bush needs some Jewish votes in florida and Ohio, and November's election wall dictate poSey until November. This issue will die quietly and quickly. Paul Mann, Chicago, United States ofAmerica The "macho· attitude which permeates all Israeli soc.iety. does not make this a farfetched possibility. The InvincibUity trait runs high and cORUpts one and an. On an optimist point this may tum to be nothing but a political smoke screen by the GOP to fend off ifs supposedly pro-Israel stand. On a pessimist view. nothing is too stupid to put it beyond any level of Israel's govemment. To advance Israel's advantage (supposedly) then any risk Is worthwhile. Ness/m Dayan, Ashdod, I~I - It is amply clear that Israel and its powerful lobby In Washington were behInd the American invasion and OCQIpation of Iraq last year. Now Israelis trying to get ' the US to invade Iran and is using Jewish Americans to get the job done. Israelis should stop thinking that America plays the role ofmonkey and Israel the organ glinder 8/30/2004 5:47 PM l1ttp://.W\VW.ha~e~'.com/llaseiiJpa:ge~ AJticl~Ne~s.jhiinl? i.~ e'· g: , . ·Kl}aJld SulelmaiJ: :ieniialem, ~sraei: " ... ..... ,Haaretz,-'~ews: This charge smells of political, ,....Why woul~ ~9 ~llealt this tOt ,diversion. Why would the FBlle'ak this' the press before ~rresUng to the press beforearresting Franklin if Franklin Ifthey have kept the they I!~v~ ~eP,t tf!e ~r !ornJ, . year long In~gatl~n quiet _,~ inv~ation quiet before nOW? ,before noW?, ~ ~" Perria~because the U.S.' had a major Usa S~, Michigan. United ~ . defeat in Iraq this week; the economic States of A;,ITI8rica numbers are bleak and the , ~~!'l~frti9M.b~~~ qi, ~us!, ~!PPlllgn @f1~ the §W!tl qo~t ads ~re.beComing clelater•• ~. •• ~ . LIiiii simtItld, ~ICI!lgln, unltdll~ofAmDrit:S During the Pollard affair. Rabin said that he caught"two Americans. spying'In. Olmona and they were politely sent out of the country. So Why this hullabaloo, •when ~e did not even !,oa~ythin9? . .' , richard cohen, U'!1ted Ki~gdom. I highly doubt Israel wOuld risk JeopardiZing relations with the U.S. If it turns out that indeed therewas aspy I doubt relations wOuld be h!lrm~: first because it was not as if an enemy was spYing; and the informatlon on' Iran Is something, Israel should MOW. without having to spy for its surviVal. AlSO relations wiD remain wann bec8use th8 interests. hopes values and destinies of both ·coun~ are completely interwOven. . • , '.' . -. D Vi~nlkov, NY,. United States'ofAm,eric. This is obViously'Part of an eloit ~o blame the'iraq war mess on Israel ahead of the U.s. elections: But AIPAC'stiould knoW better than'to'maintain lobbying • •Contact With bureauaatS in the Department of Defense.1he solution Is to prevent these types of scurrilous charges frOm occurring In the first place as there Isno shortage of people willing to·use these types of Inddents for their own political motives. Contacts of this nature should be between government officials on both sides.'ine' like anY'other independent nation has a foreign ImniCniosntrgyraensds.a d.efe-ns-e,rtme_nt.with-lia-ison.of,ficers fo.r'this. Le. t.AIPAC. lobby 'Henl)' Cittoj1e, ~NeV! Yolk, United S~tes olAmeric.a If this turns outto'be trUe. this is one'of the dumbest things Israel could have done.,HoWon earth could they-haVe"thought thafthis'was a good idea?, • Jackie, HB"a~ Israel' . - - c...... - ........... -... -~ - .................. -.........--- -- 8/30/20'045:47.PM ..rnnt .... 1 ,\ .... o http://www.haaretz.comlhasenlobjectslI QINFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS TlNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg i 0(3 JQi . , - _ "~L A*'- =- ..4=:-*-13 1 0( 4 J( _C:=1C2 Last update· 21:14 30/0812004 Shalom: Mol~ affair is exaggerated 'media nonsense' ByNathan Guttman, Haaretz Correspondent, Haaretz Service and Agencies " Officials confirmed Monday that a senior Israeli diplomat in Washington met several times'with Larry Franklin, a Pentagon analyst being inv~tigated by the FBI on suspicion he passed classified information on Iran to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. However, Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom· 4enying allegations of~spionage• said such meetings are commonplace and the two governments routinely share secrets. "Israel and the United SUites have intimate ties ... arid the infomiation Heing exchanged is milch more classified than any conversation that may have taken place," Shalom told ajoin~ news conference with his German counterpart, Joschka Fischer., • .The Israeli diplomat was identified as Naor Oilon, head ofthe political departm~t at Israel's embassy in Was~ington, and a specialist on n~clear weapons proliferatioll, ~rael says I~ and its nuclear.~bitions pose the greatest threat to the Jewish state. Shalom did not mention GilOD by name, but when asked about contacts between Oilon and Franklin did not deny they had taken place. Astatement issued after the weekly cabinet meeting said that tlin discussing the Larry Franklin affair, he [Shalom] note4 that Foreign Ministry checks have shown that the entire Israeli Embassy acted accordin$ to procedures.tI Shalom said Monday that Israel already receives all'the classified information it needs from the U.S. governnient through shared intelligence. He called the Franklin affair "media-nonsense" that has been taken out ofall proportion, Army Radio reported. "There is no troth whatsoever in the claims that 8/ \ .rnnt .: .' "\ 2of3 o!liasenlobjects/I (;l Israel spi~d or in any way acted against our great friend and aUy, the United States," Shalom told reporters in Jemsalem. "I think the ties between Israel and the United States are intimate. The cooperation and l~vels ofinformation are so close, so intimate, that the information that is exchanged is much mo~ classified that any conversation or. another," he said. The pro-Israel'AIPAC lobby denied serving as a conduit for documents from the analyst connected to U.S. Defens~ Secretary Donald Rumsfeld's office. Newsweek magazine reported on Sunday that the FBI began investigating Franklin after tailing Gilon, the minister ofpolitical affairs at the Israeli embassy in Washington, who met an AIPAC representative for lunch.~Franklinreportedly approached their table and engaged in a warm conversation with them. However, Shalom said any meetings Franklin might have hel4Jwith pro-Israeli officials were simply part ofdiplomatic work, acc~rding to~ Army Radio. IIAmerican embassy offi9ials meet regularly with Israeli goverJ1t11~~t officials," said Shalom. lilt's an accepted thing." The magazine also said Franklin was once posted at the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv when he served in the U.S. Air Force Reserve. Accordirlg to the report, Federal Bureau of Investigation counter~intelligence agents were following Franklin when they saw him attempt to pass a classified policy document on Iran to an unnamed surveillance target. Th~ U.S. adplinistration believes that the FBI will refrain from c~g Franklin with espionage, American media saidSunday. The FBI apparently lacks any evidence thattl!e_ Pentagon data analyst was operated by either Israel or-AlPAC. Franklin, an analyst in the Pentagon's Near East and South Asia Bureau; could be charged with mishandling a classified document. However, the FBI has yet to make an official pronouncement on whether Franklin will be arrest~ an~ what charges he might face. Nevertheless, investigators are .broadening their 8/ .., , ..... / "Th~_ ~an is not a ~py~ he's ~'idio~~' an official. ~ familiar ~ith the investigation told the paper. ~ .. ' ~ .... http://vijlJI.',;'.~aareti,coinihasenlObj~tS/i, , 'li'Q," '. . tiro,be and inteii.:i~g figures at !, '; D.ep~..ent, the State Dep~ent an~ o\u.tsl~e"1. ,i thf~slrlitiOti. \ ' ..., . , The investig~tio~ currently, cen~rs 'Qn f ~mgl~ ~l ,doc'!W~nt ~I~ting t~ adi~c~ssion held~~,~~D1~r administration offic;ials, about U.S. poli~y~on -Ii 111m. Fr8rlk1in is s~speCted of~anding ~~ , document· which was classified'· to AIPAC, 1; whioh conveyed the document orits co'iite1itSJto ' I~me!i gov~metit repre8entatlyes. J ,: .' The ~s Angeles Times reported Sup~y that Franklin may have'conveyed tlie,claSsified:. info~atipn jDnocently, not realizing he w~ ~reaking the"law. ~ .. .. 'I ·--... -l'~nt :: _ _ _ w .. #: ~, ; ;.'. , .... . "J,. Jha~enfobJectalpagesIPrintA~cfeEn.Jhtml?lteinN0=470~86 cJ~se~ndow ---- ......... -- ............. -.... -.: _..- - ..... - - ..... ;~ ......- foot ft .. o www.haaretz.eom . http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/objecis/I ALL INFOPMA<;;tN CONTAINED HEPLIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baTff/sabJlsg lof3 Last update - 01 :5630/08/2004 Analyst at center of $py flap called naive; ardently pro-Isra~1 By Nathan Guttman WASHINGTON -~Frimklin, the Pentagon apalyst slJ.spect~d of.pas~iQg cl~ssified material about Iran to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, has never hidden his unequivooal support ofIsrael. Colleagues from the Near East and South Asia desk at the Defense Department said yes1et~y that his sympathy for Israel was overt and publio • he didn't refrain from praising Israel and he held aggressive vi~ws about several Arab governritents, primarily the ayatollahs' regime in Iran and Saddam Hussein's diotatorship in Iraq. "Everyone knew he was a friend ofIsrael, but he didn't go about it iQ any unusual way,II a Pentagon coworker said. "He was always aocessible to everyone." Franklin's resume describes his ourrent positiQn, whioh h~ h~ held since 2001, as: "Offioe ofthe Secretary ofDefense, Polioy, Near East/South Asia, Iran d~sk an~lyst, Office ofSpecial Plans Iraq. Focus Projeots: Hizb611ah, Islam, Saudi Arabi~." But the., official resume reveals Qnly a few details about the man at the oenter ofthe affair. Franklin, a religious Catholic in his late 50s, lives in Kearneysville, West Virgini~, a 90-minute drive from the Pentagon. Butliving in the distant suburb assured a high quality of life for Franklint his wife Patrioia and their five children, some ofwhom ate college-age. . Franklin has a doctorate in East Asian studies from St. John's Vniversity, a C~tholic Ulliversity in New York City, and speaks Farsi, Arabio, Frepch, Spanish, Russian and Chinese (in ,., 8/ .rnnt .20f3 http://wWw.haaretz.comlhas~rilobjects/I o Q ~dditio~ to English). Oh top ofhis work ~t th~ Pentagon, Franklin teaches history at Shepherd UniversitymW~st Virginia. In conversations about Franklin with his coJleagues, one' ofthe words that com~s up again and again is IInaive.." He is described as an ideologue who believes wholeheartedly in the neo-conservative approach. "Everything by him is black and white," said someone who has worked with Franklin iJ1 the P~lltagon. "He is a very nice person, very conservative, not at all arrogant," said the colleague, adding that one of the reaso~s he was ~rought intQ_ th~ Near East and South Asia desk was his political beliefs. Franklin's political opinions are similar to those ofhis bosses - Douglas Feith, undersecretary of defense, and William Luti, the depu~ undersecretary ofdefense responsible for Near EJ\Stem and South Asian affairs. Like them, Franklin supports the policy ofacting to bring democracy to Arab regimes and,build up pro-American allies in the Middle East. But those who have worked with Frankljn also say he was a bit extreme in his work patterns, attitude and behavior. They occasionally referred to him ~ "Planet Larry">as a way of expressing the extent to which he "lives in a world ofhis own," colleagues said. People who have worked with Franklin believe that it was his ~demartc naivete that got him in trouble, saying Franklin was not aware ofthe severity ofhis activities, and so did not try to hide or mask them. Franklin visited Israel eight times while he served in the U.S. Air Force and wo~ked at the Pen~gon. Most ofbis visits. appear to have Deen related to his reserve duty service as an officer dealing with international c~ntacts. Accord~ng to his resume. Franklili served as a reserve air forCe colonel between 1997 and 2004. worl~ing with Ute p.S. military attache in Tel Aviv. Beforehand he was involved in analyzing counter-intelligen~ in the air force. Had the current accusations not come to light, Franklin's job at the Pentagon would have 8/ .rnnt ~ .~; http://www;haare~~~9m1hasen/objects/l o 'Q depen~~d on the presid~~tial e1t!ctiQD.s, hi$ _,?6wQr~e!"8 ~ai~. I(:pemocra~i6_ candidate John Kerry wins the next electiQn, colleagues said, it's doubtful that F~in will move up'.due to his \veil-known political views. . "He was considered a little s~ge even for the neo-cons," a coworker said. "They're probably saying to themselves - oh, tarry again." '" __ ..=.... _........ ,,;;;- .__.. _=::=£.z:::: __ ., _. __u..- __ ._ ... lhasenlobjects/pagesiPrintArtlcleEn.jhtml?itemNo=470856 close wln,dow .' 8/ -- ...-.... 'l1aaretz - israel News - Mak1ng a mountain into a molehill http://www.haaretz.comlhasenJsp: · 0 ALL IIIFOrolATION COIITAINED' Q HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg I Hqmepage Sear~h site l B SrndbJe·rnai @*S81d resplIIse l'ofS News Updates Mon" August 30,2004 Blull3, 5764 Israel Time: 02:19 (GMT+3) ·Print Edition M$klng a News mountain into a Business molehill Editorial & Op~Ed By Aklva Eldar Features It now looks by all Sports ~ccounts like t.,arry Art & Leisure F~anklin w~II, at w~rst, be Top Articles BOQks tried for mishandling Letters tlen~itive rnateri~l. hi other Chutzpah: words, he'll be charged Class 101 Food & Wine with leakinQinformation to Sarah Tourism th~ p-to·lsr~u~llobby Augerbraun Real Estate AIPAC. "Sensitive" data of knew she this sort, or of an even wasn't In Cartoon more s~nsitlve nature, i~ Florida Friday Magazine routinely conveyed during anymofe meetings between when standIng Week's End Anieri~n officials and In line at h~r Anglo File Israeli diplomats under the local W~ Bank- fence ruling bright lights .of upscale supermarket, Disengagement plan 'resta~rant th h rt f aman tried to S In e e~ 0 cut in front of Arab snapshots Washington, D.C. h. ere "Ire'aII' zed Shopping service T.he real problem I had two - threatening options," Pre~l~u! ~~~~Ions fsraei-U.s. recalls the , Select tI 'relations and the former " .,- Jewl"sh Hebrew ~ teaQfier. "l IBm community does co~ld hav~ J I nQt reside in. this either yelled at small·frY from th~ him or just _ Pentagon and the ign9r~d It." .. cll;lssifiQatiofl By Daphna ThIS Day mHaaretz grade of the Berman Today's Papers leaked document, but An . ra~her in the $uspicipn of Map ofIsrael something fishy at the top. expiration Useful Numbers The murky waters ofthis date In..depth affair will provide ample In a few . About Haaretz ~shlng grou;'d~ ~or poiltlcal ~~~~~~~hen Tech Support rivals and conspiracy magazines list ,8/ l1aaretz - Israel News - MakIng a mountain mto a molehill o; Q Paper in PDF fonnat p~Jfs. First they'll land the great Headlin~ N~wsbox Franklin's boss, -m,9yle hits of ~ Undersecretary of Defense 2004, not only ~ fQr P6lipy Q6uglas Feith, !tSpi~erman ~:' and then they'll hook the . ~~d ~hrek 2 entire group of ~dl star ~t ~he neoconservatives of which top o! thehst. •.... So will one he IS .one of the leaders. documentary. That IS th~ gr~up?f. B Uri Klein Israel's friends, fncll)dmg Y many Jews, that pushed Pr~siden\ Bush to go to war in Iraq. The bet!t fQrm of defense being off~nse, spokesp~ople for the Isr~eli gQv~rnJ1lent Insinuated that anti-Israel elements are behind the affair; R~p'yblic;an representative~ 'point to "Democratic agents" among $en~or FBI Officials who want to spoil things for Bush on the eve of his party's convention. 2,ofS They may Qe right. But you don't need Franklin and the classified rranian qoc~nient to draw fire at the conspiracy to take over Iraq. As members of think t~r1ks several yearE~ago, Feith and his friends volunteered an open dO"QlJmerit'in which they laid bare their Israeli-American plot to change the face of ~he entire Middle East. In 1996, a conservative Isra~n-American research institute invited Feith and 9thers, Including Riohard Perle who headed an advisqry panel to the Pentagon known as the Special Offers Advertisement StUdy In Israel Get your BA In Israel In English. IDe Herzl.!va. Israel Travel Center Just one click • hundreds of super dealst 8/ t;taareti...;'~srae! News~ M~g'~ ~O~!ain m(il-'a·m61~Jti~l : - ., . , . Q' '~ttp:l/wwjl.Jt~~~:coinll:tasetVspi; O· ~l Def$l1se p(~)licy I3Qardi to puftog~ttier ~:strateglc· manual, for tlJeincoming p.rim~ minister Benjamin NeJahyahu; F~ith: is t~sponsi~l~ for ~he folloWing pa~graph f"'o~ ,that document: "Israal.can sh~pe its _~tra~eg,c ~ 'environment:"in .~o~p'9r~tio~ with Turkey and-Jord@n.,by, '!'eakel1ing, ~o~taining. and evan rqJling b~c~~. ~yr.i~. r~is effort can focus.on r~.m6vi!1g Saddam Hussein .frQm power-hi-Iraq - an important Israeli ', ~tra~egic"objecti~Ei in its own right ~-as ~ means'of f~iling Sy~i~'s region'sf" ,am~itions:" ' rhe ~ocument.gqes on to ,state that "Jordan has ch~llerig~d'$Yri~'s/'r~gional ambition.s recently by . suggesting the restor.a~iori of the Hashemit~~ ... Sirt~,e :(r~qts .fu~ure 'could ~ffect:tl1e ~trategio balance. ; in the Middle East profou'ndly, :it'woiild be :4"derstancJ~ple .JtiatIsra~1 lias'an interest in ,supportina t~e Hashemites in,their efforts-to redefine Iraq/!" ,.,. -' :~ixfy~ars i~ter, ""e,mbers of that sa~e "grQup _ - supported.the, half-baked idea's priric~ H~assah as:lraq'~ ruler. . If.'anyonewas lookfng:to, ~se_~Fr~nk!ira tg s091< Fe.itti, . - -, ·s(- .'4 .- Haare~ - Israel News - Making a mountain into a molehill o Feith and his friends promised in that document that l$ra~1i sup,pqrt for the missile plan would assist efforts to relocate the U.S. .embassy in Isra~1 from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Ttiat initiative._sponsored by the RepltbUcan presidential candidate Bob Dole, was the brainchild of the neoconservatives ~nd their friends at AIPAC. It utterly contravened the view held by president Bill·GUntan and prime minister Yitzhak ~abin that initiatives of • that sort QQ not help ~uild trust between Israel and the Palestinians. Perhaps 40f5 8/ !< Ha.aretz .. israel News .. Making a mountain into amol~hil1 '; \~,;I htql:/l.viWW:haaretz.comlhase~sp; o -5 of5 th~tJs the strongest-proof of all that the neoconservatives and Jewish IQbbylsts do not "serve two masters. Th.ey serVe themselves, and that's t~e trouble. Ii Top Subscribe to Haaretz Plint Edition HomeINewsl Businessl Editorial &Op-EdI,FeatureiISportsI~ooksl,CartoonISite rulesl C Copyright 2004 Haaretz. All rights reserved 8/ - Yaboo! News - Top Ofiicials Queried in Israel Ptobe o Yahool My Yahool Mail l!HOOtNews'fIIm New User? Sign UP. Vallool News Mon,Aug 30, 2004 Search All News .!news?ttilpJ o '~Mbl _ News Home .. Help ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN I~ UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Personalize News Home Page . J ..of4 News Home Top Stories •u.s. NatiOnal Business World Entertainment SPO~B Technology Politics Science Health Oddly Enough Op/Ed Local Comics News Photos , . lYIost Popular Weather IAudloNldeo Full Coverage White House· AP Cabinet & State Top Officials Q~eri~d in ApA880CIated Israel probe .Press Mon ~~~2:08eAdd White House - AP Ca~inet p& State to My Yahopi PMET By CURTANDERSON, Associate"d Press Writer WASHINGTON - High-ranking officials at the Pentagon (~ .. web sites) and State Department have been inteiviE),wed or briefed by Fal (~ews .. web sites) agents investiQating a Def~nse Department arialy~t suspected of passing to Isra~lclassitie~ Bush administratiQn mate~ials on Iran. . Among those briefed by the FBI ! ; was Douglas J. Feith, the Pentagon uenderse-cretary for pblicy·who is a superior of the analyst under --.......... investigation, said governm~nt AP Photo official~ familiar with the sessions. 8/ " Yahoo! News .. Top OtIJcials Querjed'in ~srael ~robe~ o ," 0' There"was no immediate indication that the criminal investigatiqn'"has widened b~yond the single an~lyst. identified previously by senior law enfoi-gement officials as Larry Franklin. . Franklin. who has not responded to telephone messages seeking .comment. work$ in al1 office dealing the.Middle East affairs and has access to clas$ified government information. The investigation focuses on whath~r Franklin Opinion & edltorla~s passed classi~ed U.S. material on Iran to the American Israel 'Public Affairs Committee. the • ~:king almh~~n~ain inti.uantiallsraeli lobby"jng o~ganizatiori in In 0 a rna e I a . " '. .' . H tz (A 30 2004) Washington! and whether anYQne In that group aara ug, •forwarded the.information on to Israeli officials. • Israeli Mole in the AIPAC and ,~raal have·strenuou~IY d~nied the Pentagon at' allegations. AIJazeerah,lnfo (Aug 30, • . • 2004) 'J~raeh offiC;lals ,did confirm Monday that a senior Israeli in Washington has met with Feature Articles Franklin. Those offlcif:)ls. alsQ $~eaking on • Spy probe tests pondition of anqnymity, identified tne diplpmat US-Israel ties at as·Naor ~ilOn. head of the Israeli Embassy's Christian Science p~litical department. . Monitor (Aug 30, 2Q04) Gilon tqld the Isr~eli newspap~r Maariv he • Analyst at center of did nothing wrong ~l:It was concerned that he spy flap called naive. may no longer be able to work in Washington ardently pro-Israel at becaiJs~ of the investigation. Haaretz(Aug 30, 2004) "Now, people will be scared to talk with me," Re~ated 'Web SI~e8 Gilon a story published Monday. • Top Officials Queried in Israel Probe AP via Yahool News (Au~ 30, 2004) • Shalom: Franklin affair is 'media nonsense' at Jerusalem Post ' (registration req'd) (Aug 30,2004) .. FuU .Coverage, Th~ offiQi~J$ !?pok~ Monday on More about conditio"n pf anonyr:nity Qeca~se t~e prob~ is Espionage & ongoing.' " Intelligence The Fa, ~gents briefed Feith Qn ~\Jnday in his Related News Stories office at tl1Q pentagon·and als~ as~eq . 'q~estions, the 6f{ici$ls $~iQ. AI$o r~Q~ntly • Israel, Iran Trade briefec;l by the FBI wa$ Deputy Defens~ Threats As FBI Secretary Paul Wolfowitz .they said Investigates Spying at "., The Washington Post Others at State and Defense have been· (reg. req'd) (Aug 30," Interviewed or briefed over the course of the ?904) . probe, but tt}e officials declined to provide ~ny other names. .2.of4 _..... _ - 8/ x anoo! l'1eWS - lOp UInclats \.luep.ea InJs~el .Probe o • National Security Archive • Crvptome • FBI's Electronic Reading Room SloryTools Prev~ Story: GOP lauds Bush As Strong Wartime leader (AP) Next Story: GI Testifies Against Woman in Iraq Abuse (AP) BEmail 1>POStlRead aPrint StOry Msgs Slory Ratings: Would you recpmmend this story? 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ALL nrForotGN CONTAINED HEP-EIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sabJ1sg 1of3. Analysis I A ~old wind blowing from the CIA By Befo~ fonner U.S. Central Intelligence Agency head George Tenet retired, he made stinging comments on various occasions to Israeli officials in the intelligence communityJ especially the MossadJsaying Israel had a spy in America. The acellSaUon was rejected out ofhand - Tenet was even lOUdly challenged tQ eateh any such agent and expose him publicly. The exchange ofremarks was pass~d on to IsrnelJ evokilig siliPdse at tHe politl~l ievel over ~e accusations. . Qq Fti4ay I,ljght the: Am~rt~ J!l~~~a ~v~~~ ~!! ;tA ~lJv~t!gatj(m was proceeding into a suspected Pentagon mole who was transmitting !~tmltiQt\ to MPAC (t~~ Ameri~ lSnlet P-bbUq Aftllittl CQJtY1).j~) ~d 119m tb~~ to ISA~Il\bQut the \\il:lJt~ HQ!JS4iS war plans for Iraq. Aperson named Larry Franklin was mentiQrtecIr who works in the offICe ofundersecreiary ofdefense Douglas Feith. Between La1Ty Franklin and Doug Feith there are at least three levels ofbureaucratie ~ierarchy. . AlPAt insisted last night that it heard Franklin's name ror the first time on Fridll-Y when investigators Cjme to them. They also said that AIPAC provided the autborities with documents and information that investigators had requested orasked about. In any ease, it is difficult to imagine that an organization like j\IPAC, considered professional and very experiencedJwould get itself involved in maintaining a mole in the American security establishment. The timing ofthe affair's exposure is connected with the U.S. election campaign and the struggle against the group ofneoconservatives in the administratioriJwho are accused ofleading President Bush to war with·Iraq. While j\IPAC claims it never heard ofLarry Franklin, he is known to the ism~1i int~lIigence community. H~ has. appeared more than puce at meetings with ISfaeli iiitelllgelice!, especially with military (iUelligeiice, mostiy in a group setting. . Israel has noticed that relations between the CIA and the Mossad had begun to cool. Senior Israeli and American officials say the chill may have a number ofcauses. One mighi have been the leaking ofsecret 8/30/2004 5:41 PM~ And Now a Mole? UNCLASSIFIED - ~OUO Newsweek Sept~mber 6, 2004 e· ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAIloJED HEREIN IS lTNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg 10f2 And Now a Mole? III ti,e Pentagon, a suspected spy allegedly passes secrets aboutIran to Israel By Michael Isikoff and Mark Hosenball . It was just a. Washington lunch-one·that the FBI happened to be monitqring. Nearly a year and a half ago, agents were monitoring a conve~sation between an Israeli Embassy 9fficialand a lobbyist for American Israel Public Aff3:irs Committee, or AlPAC, as part of a probe into possible Israeli spying. Suddenly, and quite unexpectedly, in the description ofon~ jntelligence official, another American-' Itwalked inuto the lunch out ofthe blue. Agents at first didn't know who the man was. They were stunned to discover he was Larry Franklin, a desk officer with the Near East and South Asia office at the Pentag°rt· Franklin soon became a ~ubject ofthe FBI investigation as well. Now he may ~ace cpar~es, accuse.d of divulging to Israel classified infonnation on U.S. government plans regarding Iran, officials say. While some U.S. officials warned against exaggerated accusations ofspying, one adl)'linistration source described the case as the ~ost significant Israeli espionage investigation in Washington since Jonathan· Pollard, ~n America~ who was imprisoned for life ,in 1987 for passing U.S. Navy secrets to the Israeli~. The FBI and Justice Department are still reviewing the evidence, but one intellige~ce source believes Franklin may be arrested shortly.. The probe itself amounts to another ep:1barrassing problem for Donala Rumsfeld, the beleaguered Defense secretary. It come~ during ~ week in which violenc~ flared up ag~in in Iraq arid a Pentagon investigation indirectly blained Rumsfeld for poor oversight in the Abu Ghraib prisoner-~~use scandal. In. a statement, the Defense Department said it Ithas been cooperating with the Department ofJustice on this matter for an extended period oftime." At first'blush, officials close to the investigation say, Franklin seemed an ~likely suspect: he was • described as a midlevel policy "wonk" with a doctorate who had toiled for. some time on Mideast affairs. Yet he had previously worked at the,Defense I~te1l1gence Agency, and there was at least one other ~pect to his background that caught ,the FBI's attention: although-Franklih was not Jewish, he was an Army reservist who did his reserve duty at the ,U.S. Embassy in rei Aviv. FBI counterintelligence agents began,tracking him, and at one point watched him allegedly attempt to pass a classified U.S. policy document on IraIl to one ofthe surveillance targets, according to a U.S. intelligence official. But his alleged confedera~e was "too sma~, II the official said, and re~sed to take it. ,Instead, he asked Franklin to brief him on its contents-and-Franklin allegedly obliged. Franklin also passed informati9n gleaned from more highly classified documents, the official said. Ifthe correct, Franklin's motive appears to have been ideological rather than financial. There i~ no evidence that money changed hands. ufor wl!atever reason, the guy hates Iran passionately," the 9fficial said, referring to the Iranian govermrient. . 813112004 1:30 PM And Now a Mole? .". bIlp'JIWWWodi"O/adminlEARLYBIRDI0408301s20040830316062.btml NEWSWE~KIS efforts to reach Franklin or a lawyer representing him were unsuccessful. But a close friend, MicliaerLedeen ofthe American Enterprise Institute, said he believes the charges against Franklin are "nonsensical.II Officials say that Franklin began cooperating about a month ago, after he was confronted by the FBI. At the time, these officials say, Franklin acknowledged meetings with the Israeli contact. Law-enforcement officials say they have no evidence that anyone above Franklin at the Pentagon had any knowledge of his activities. Israeli officials, meanwhile, bristled at the suggestion ofespionage. Ephraim Sneh, a member of Parliament and a retired general who has been monitoring the development ofnukes in Iran for years, said that Israel would be crazy to spy on its best friend. JlSince Pollard, we avoid any intelligence activity on U.S. soil,II Sneh said in an interview. "I know the policy; I've been in this business for years. We avoid anything that even smells like intelligence-gathering in the U.S.II Another Israeli official contended that the Israelis had no cause to steal secrets because anything important on Iran is already exchanged between the CIA and the Mossad, Israelis spy agency. In a statement, AlPAC denied that any ofits employees received information "they believed was secret or classified,II and said it was cooperating. U.S. investigators would not reveal w~at kind of information Franklin was allegedly trying to divulge to Israel. But for months the administration has been debating what to do about IraI\'S clerical regime as well as its alleged program to build nuclear weapo~-a subject ofkeen interest to the Israelis, who have quietly warned Washington that they will not permit Tehran to gain nuclear capability. . Franklin was known to be one ofa tightly knit group ofpro-Israel hawks in the Pentagon associated with his immediate superior, William Luti, the hard-charging and impassioned protege offormer flouse speaker Newt Gingrich. As deputy assistant secretary of Defense for Near East aff~irs, Luti was a key player in planning the Iraq war. He, in tum, works in the office ofUnder Secretary Douglas Feith, a career lawyer who, before he became the Pentagon's No.3, was a sometime consultant for Likud, Israeli prime Minister Ariel Sharon's political party. Officials say they have no evidence that either Feith or Luti had any' knowledge ofFranklin's discussions with the Israelis. Franklin has also been among the subjects ofa separate probe being conducted by the Senate intelligence committee. Part ofthat investigation concerns alleged "rogue" intelligeJ!.ce activities by Feith's staff: Among these activities was a series ofmeetings that Franklin and one ofhis colleagues, Harold Rhode, had in Paris in late 2001 with Manucher Ghorbanifar, the shadowy Iranian arms dealer made infamous during the Iran-contra scandal ofthe 1980s. One purpose ofthose meetings was to explore a scheme for overthrowing the mullahs in Iran, though Rumsfeld later said the plan was never seriously considered. But so far, there is no evidence that the Ghorbanifar contacts are related to the espionage probe. And officials famili~ with the ~ase suggest that the political damage to Bush and the Pentagon may prove to be more serious than the d~age to national security. - With Michael Hirsh and Daniel Klaidman in Washington and Dan Ephron in Jerusalem f· 2of2 8/3112004 1:30PM ~~I Looking Deep Into Qefense Office , "I UNCLAS~IFIED.. FOUO Philadelphia Inquirer August 29, 2004 o hUp:l/wwW.dia.~/admWEAiu,YBIRD10408301s20Q4083031S93I.h~1 ALL FBI INFOrot&TION CONTAlNED HEREIN IS TJNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg lof2 FBJ, Looking Deep Into Defense Office Aprobe goes beyond wlletller a ":lidlevel analyst gave an Iran policy docum.ent to !s.r~el, sources said. . By Warren P. Strobel, Inquirer Washington Bureau· WASHINGTON - An FBI irivestigation into the handling ofclassified material by Pentagon civilians'is broader than previously reported and goes well beyond allegations that a single m~dlevel analyst gaye a top-secret Iran policy document to Israel; three ~ource.s familiar with the investigation said yesterday. The probe; more than two,years old, also ha~ fo~used on othe~ Pentagon civilians, the sources, who have, firsthand knowledge ofthe subj~ct, said on c~ndition ofanonyinity. ~n additi<;>n, one said, FBI investigators in recent week~·have condQcted interviews to detelJllin~ whether Pentagon officials gaye cl~sified u.s. intelligence to a leading Iraqi exile grQup, the Iraqi National. Congress, which'may,have in tum passed it to Ira!!. The exile group's leader, Ahmed Chalabi,.has de.nied his group was involved in any wrongd<?ing. The link,.ifany, between the two.invest~gations rem~ins unclear. But they both center on the office o"fUndersecretary ofDefense Douglas Feith,.the Pentagon's No.3 official. " - Feith's office, which overse~s policy matters, has been th~ source ofnumerous cOl;ltroversies "in the. last three years. His office had:close'ties to Chalabi' and was responsible Ior postwar Iraq planning that·the adm~nistration has acknowled.ged was inadequate. Before the war, Feith and his aides pushed the now-discredited th~ory that Iraqi lead~r Saddam Hussel~ ,was in league with al-Qaeda. No pne is have been,chargeq with any Wrongdoing in the investigations. Offici~ls said the investig~tions coulg result in cqarges ofmishandling classified informa~ion, rather than tJ1e more seri~us ch~rge ofespionage. The I~raeli gQvemment strenuously denied yesterday-that it had'spfed on ~e United States, its main benefactor on the global scene. ' The American Israel Public Affairs Committee; the powerful pro-Israel lobby that top offici~ls said was suspected ofs~rving as ,a c9~du~t to Israel for the midlevel analyst, also h~ denied any wrongdoing. The sources indicated that the analyst being investigated is Larry Franklin, who w~rks for Feith's deputy, Willia~ Lilti. frank!Jp~ s.~ry~~ ~~ ~!!' i~portant, alb~itl.o~-prp~le~ ~dvis"e~ on ~ran issues to ~eith and . - ... -- 8131120041~~O.PM FBI Looking Deep Into Defense Office o http://www.di..OIadminlEARLYBIRD10408301s200408303IS93I.htm1 20f2 Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz. Franklin, a former Defense Intelligence Agency analyst who lives in West Virginia, could not be reached for comment yesterday. Investigators are said to be looking at whether Franklin acted with authorization from his superiors, one official said. Two sources disclosed yesterday that the information believed to have been passed to Israel was the draft ofa top-secret presidential order on Iran policy known as a National Security Presidential Directive. Because ofdisagreements over Iran policy among President Bush's advisers, the document is not believed to have been'completed. Having a draft ofthe document - which some Pentagon officials may have believed was.insufficiently tough toward Iran - would have allowed Israel to influence U.S. policy as it was being made. Iran is among Israel's main security concerns. Two or three staffmembers ofthe pro-Israel lobby have been interviewed in the case. Inaprepared statement, the lobby said any allegation ofcriminal conduct was "false and baseless.II It is cooperating fully with investigators, the statement said. Israeli officials insisted they stopped spying on the United States after the exposUre ofJonathan Pollard, who was arrested in 1985 and sentenced to life in prison for spy'ing for Israel. White Hou~e spokesman Scott McClellan would not discuss the investigation. I1Qbviously any time there is an allegation ofthis nature, it's a serious matter," he said while traveling with the President in Ohio. Other sources said the FBI investigation was more wide-ranging than initial news reports suggested. , They said it had involved interviews ofcup-ent and former officials at the White House, Pentagon and State Department. Investigators have also asked about the security practices ofseveral other Defense D~partment civilians, they said. 813112004 I:30 PM Pentagon Spy Flap Isn't Open-And-Shut Case .; ~ - 0 UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Lqs Angeles Times Augu'st 29, 2004 hUp:/lwww.dia.(5V/adminiEARLYBiRD~~s2004083031S922.hlml • "'~ .4~' , •••. ~~~~;'~3f~~~:~'ijfe~~iiitMi~:ii&i~i¥~.( -;:...!-'#:.' ~t..~.!...:';__~2~-::lU..~~~:.;.~"::~ t •• , .. ',~~~......-:.. ~.,..:±-~_ PIA Home IWhat'$ New IProducts by Typ~ IProdUcts_by Region I~IIDili! ALL FBI INFO~HATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS T~iCLASSIFIED DATE'07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg iIII !, lof4 Pentagon Spy Flap Isn't Open-And-Shut Case u.s. and Israel often sl,are data, officials say. But tl,e latter I,as rile4frlelldly nations befor~' . By Laura King and,Tyler Marshall, Times Staff Writers JERUSALEM - Not just in espionage thrillers,but in real life as well, it can be difficult ~o tell trusted .friend from double-crossing spy. That's especially tru~ Qetween close- allies such as Israel and the United States, in a world where g~vernmentofficials, lobbyists, diplomats, Jhink-tank analysts and !ntelligepce veterans fr~m both sides o~en move in overlapping political ~nd social circles - a pattern that can blur the line between cordially informal exchanges ofinformation and espionage. · After U.S. authorities disclosed that a Pentagon analyst specializing in Iranian affair~ is under -investigation for possibly spying for Israel, the government ofPrime Minister Ariel Sharon flatly denied that it had illicitly acquired any classified American material. r But cases such as these are not always ~pen and: shut. Longtime observers ofthe intelligence scene note that the U.S. and Israel often share sensitive data, particularly when one has assets the other lacks. For example., the ranks ofIsrael's diplomatic and intelligence corps are:h~neycoinbed.with native Arabic spea~ers, many ofthem Jews whose families emigrated from elsewhere in the Middle East. They are i~ many cases far better equipped than their relatively sparse U.S. counterparts to carry out sophisticated analyses ofpolitical and military developments in the region, and the fruits of such labors are routinely handed over to America. Before and during the war in Iraq, Israel and the United States engaged in intensive sharing of inte~ligence- some ofwhich turn~d out to be tainted, military and inte~ligence officials on both si~es have said. Among Arne~jcan Jews, the subject ofIsraeli spying is fraught with tension because offears.ofbeing tarred as a "fifth'column" that pu~ Israel's interests'ahead ofAmerica's. ~ome act~vi~ts for Jewish and Isra~li causes believe that it took-years to recover from the damage done by the case ofU.S. naval intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard, who was convicted ofspying for Israel and sentenced in 1987 to l.ife in prison. In t~~ current case, such concerns are investigators' s~spicions that the American Israel .Public Aff~if§ Committee, the foremost lobby group in Washingto~ for Israeli causes, may have served as a conduit for infonnat!on improperly passed to the Israeli'government. AlPAC has denied any wrongdoing. 813112004 "1:3.0 PM P..e.ntago-n Spy Flap Isn't Open-And-ShutCase 0. ~ " 2of4 http://www.dia.iO/adminlEARLYBlRDlO4OilJ0Is2904083031S922.html " .For.Israel,.part ofthe. problem w~~n confronted.wit~:a spy scandal like this is that in the past, its, protestations of innocence sometimes proved Jess:than. creaible: In recent years, under the watches ofseveral prime ministers, Israel has antagonized a string offriendly nations, inclpding Switzerland, Cyprus, Jordan an4.Canada, either by using their soil as a staging ground for spy activity or by having' ~ossad age~ts pass themselves offas these ~ountries' riationals. .. ' Israel ~uffered one ofits.·worst cases of "blowback" -.espio~ageparlance for unanticipated and highly unwelcome consequences - when Mossad agents tri~d, ineptly, t~ assassinate Hamas le~der Khaled' Meshaal in Jordan in 1997 by injecting him in th~. ear with poison. To retrieve its disgraced agents, Israel wasJorced to free Hamas leader Sheik Ahmed Yassin, who returned to the Gaza Strip in triumph and was a driving force behi~d the campaign ofPalestinian suicide bo~bings until he was ass~sinated by Israel in March. .Authorities in New Zealand were infuriated last spring when two Isra~lis were caught trying to fraudulently procure aNew Zealand p~spoi1. Prosecutors s~id a disabled New Zealand man waS unwittingly used as the phony passport ~pplicant. . Israel ha~, not acknowledged that its nationals were spies, but New ~aland says there is little room for doubt. Bungles suc~ as these have done much to dent the.Mossad's image a~ a skilled and subtle practi~ioner of the art ofespionage, and high~profile errors nave pro~pted ,calls in Is~el to rein in the spymasterS: In the aftermath ofthe Pollar~ case, Israel made ~trenuous pledge~ to refrain from spying on the United States. Senior diplomatic sources apd analysts interviewed Satw:day expressed doubt that Israel WQuld have'dsked involving ~tself in such an operation at thi~ j\Ulcture. "Isr,ael is not spying on American soil, full stop, in the sense that it's not trying to locate potential agerits, it's n9t approaching them, it's not $em, it's not running the~, and it's not paying mo~ey for information," said Yossi ~elman, an author Who special~zes in ~srael's intelligence community. "And it very much depend~ on the extent and detail ofthe information involved," Melman added. ~IIf someone at the Pentagon actually passed a confidential document directly to Israel, it would-be very, very· se~ous, but ifsomeone si~ply tell~ a third partY, 'Well, it seems the American thinking on this subject is such ~d such: then it's·all much more murky." In Washington, the reports ofthe FaI inv.estigation al$o raised. questions aliout why Israel might be willing to risk a major-spy scandal involving its closest ally. After all, Sharon's government can open doors even at the highest ~eve!s oJ~e Bush acJ1lJinistra~iQn, Washington-based diplomats and Middle East experts noted. "It would be kind ofreckless for Israel to dO.this c<?nsidering the access they have within this administration," said William B. Quandt, a Middle East specialis~ at ~e Uniyersity ofVirginia who served under President Carter. But others noted ~hat the inves~igation comes at ~ time oftensions bet;wee~ ~e two allies on an issue vita~ to Israelis security: Iran's nuclear weapons capabi)ities. Israeli !p.telligence estimates have . cpnsistently concluded that Tehr~n is'much closer to building a nuclear weapon than Washington 813112004 1:30 PM ' Y:"7n Spy Flap Isn' Open-And-Shut Case0 - http://www.diatrladminJEARLYBIRDt0408301s2004083031S922.b1m1 \. 30f4 believes. Earlier this year, senior Israeli officials predicted that Iran could gain nuclear weapons capa~ility by next year, and some hinted that Israel would be prepared to attack facilities at the Iranian portofBushehr if Tehran achieved that capacity. Iran has threatened Israel as well. "Ifthe Zionist entity attacks us, we are capable ofstriking its nuclear reactors,It Iranian news reports quoted Gen. Yedalla Jawani, a senior commander in the Revolutionary Guard, as saying recently. AU.S. inteiligence estimate this year suggested that Iran was still several years away from building a nuclear bomb. "Some Israelis have recently adjusted to a prediction oftwo to three years, but they have~taken a much more alarmist position on this [than the U.S.] ·all along," said Joseph Cirincione, senior associate and director ofthe nonproliferation'program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Pea~e in Washington. "There are ~learly differences." . Understanding details ofthe U.S. assessment ofIran's nuclear program·or gaining inside knowledge of how America might reac~ to a possible Israeli preemptive military strike against Iranian nuclear facilities would be extremely valuable for the Jewis~ state, regional experts say. The subject ofthe FBI's investigation is believed to have dealt with Iran pdlicy in a part ofth~ Pentagon that has had considerable influen~e on U.S. policy in the region. Almost no one in the Israeli leadership echelon believes that intelligence-gathering,in and of i~elfis necessarily a hostile act, even when conducted in friendly countries., Part ofany diplomat's job is to read the newspapers, talk t~ politicians 'and policymakers, visit military and industrial installations when invited to do so - and report back. "All over the world, in the embassies ofany country, you have people with job titles like cultural attache or agricultural liaison, and in reality, they gather infonnation ofuse to their home country's intelligence apparatus," said a former Israeli diplomat, speaking on condition of anonymity. "Everyone does it.tI Israel has dozens ofmilitary and military intelligence officials, and at least two ranking Mossad agents, as part ofits overt operations in the United States. The Mossad has a liaison to the CIA, who also ~cts on behalfofIsrael's domestic security agency, the Shin Bet, in dealings with the FBI. Because Israelis such a melting pot, with immigrants from all over the world, it has many citizens who hold dual mitionality. When smart, multilingual young Israelis holding foreign passports are ready tQ enter the job market, they sometimes find themselves approached -- albeit discreetly - by Mossad rec~iters. Separately, the Mossad is known to seek out foreign Jews to serve informally as volunteer tipsters, known in Hebrew as sayanim, or Ithelpers.1t Whatever its outcome, the spy flap comes at an awkward time for both Sharon and President Bush. The Israeli prime mipister is on far friendlier terms these days with Washington than he is with members of his own party and has no wish to jeopardize that. And in an election season, no U.S. leader would court a public spat with Israel. Bush has lately gone far out ofhis way to support Sharon. 813112004 1:30PM Pentagon Spy, Flap Isn't O~n·Aii(l·Sliut Case - http://www.dia.ic.~oY/admintEARLYBlRD/04"0830/s200408303IS922.html ,~ ~ - - " 0 .O' -.' .' -:- ., . " - . .. - .Four mOl)ths ~gQ;·h~ r~v.~r.se4 'c!~c!4~~'.~.fl)~~'. ~?liCYJ9, s~uppg~ ~~ t~e ,prime nii~i~tet~siplan to"eve!1tualiy ~ex large Jewish settle~ent blocs in:the'W~st Bank'in e.xc~uingefor Israel relinquishing settlements'in the Gaza_Str~p., Washingt~l} also~ ~efrahied from publ~<; criticism this month ~fJsrael's:i~s~iitg of.~enders.t9 b~ild nearly 2, in.the We,st Bank, even though lo~g.;.sta~ding U.S. policy expli~itly <?pposes settlement -. e~pan~io!1. ",_ . King reported.!ro1!'"Jerusalem, andMarshallfrom Wa,shington. r--- 4of4 - --- ..- ....... ~ .......... - - -- ... - - - .. ~ ....... oI-..~ _...d. ....-._"••'050 813112004 1:30 PM UNCLASSIFIED .. FOUO washingto1'~:Post August 29, 2004 Pg. 1- . .~ 'r~" • "~'''(I·~$r!~'ls·'1....~'''Z':\" ..~:ti~~i''''''''Iii~;;'''-:-{l1J:~:~f'''~,iIll'1. _.~~~ ~i~:ii.~~~~~~~~:~D~f'!!S8; t~ntg9n~'i~m~5:!I PIA HOme I¥'hat'? New IProdu~ts by Type l rfoduets bY ReSioD I~'11:k!R . ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAI~mD HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sq lof4 Analyst. Who Is Target QfProb~ Went-To Israel By Thomas E. Ricks and Robin Wrigh~ Washington Post StaffiWriters . The FB~ investigation into whether classified inforination was passeq to the IsraelLgov:ernment is focused on a P,entagon:analyst.~ho has served as an Air Force reservist in Israel, and tne.probe'has ~e~n broadened'in recent days to in~lude interviews at the State and Defense departments and.with Middle ~astem affairs speci~lists outside government, officials and <?thers familiar with the inquiry said yesterday. At the cent¢'r ofthe inve.stigation, sources said, is Lawrence A. Franklin, a career analyst at the befe~se Intelligence Agency who speciali;zes in Iran and lias served in the Air Force Reserve, rising to colon~l. Early in the Bush administration, Franklin moved from the DIA to the Pentagon's policy branch headed bY'Undersecr~tary'Douglas 1. Feith, where he continued his work on Iranian affairs. . . Officials ~d colleagues said yesterday that Frankl~n had-traveled to Israel, including during ~uty in the, Air Force- Reserve, where he served as a specialis~ in foreign P9lifical-inilitary affairs. He may have been based at the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv on-those tours, satd a former co-worl:<er at the DIA, but.was ~ever perinanently assigned there. Messages'left at Franklin's Pentagon office were 1).ot returned yesterday, and'nobody answered'the door at his house in'West Virginia..No one has been charged in the case. i FBI officials have been quietly investigating for months wh~ther Franklin gave classi~ed, information -which ~fficials said included a draft ofa presidential d~rective on U.S. policies toward Iran -- to two Israeli lobbyists here who are alleged to have. pass~d it on to the Israeli gov:~rnment. Officials said it was not yet clear whether the probe would become an espionage case or perhaps would result in lesse~ charges such-as improper rele~e ofclassifi~dinformation or mishandling of government docu~ents. On !r~day, Pentagon officials said Franldin was not in a position to have significant influence over. U.S., policy. liThe Defense'pepartmenthas been cooperating with'the Department ofJ~tice for an extended period oftime," .a Pentagori statement said., "It is the DOD's understan4ing that the investigation wi~hin DOD is very limited in-its scope." At the Pen~gon and elsewJter~ in··WashiQ.gton yesterday, people touche~;by the 'case sai~ they were bafiled by aspects of it.. . Colleagues said they were stunned to hear Franklin was suspected ofgiving secret information to a foreign government. And for~~gn POlicy specialists said they were skeptical that the pro-Israel group unger FBI scrutiny, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, would jeopardize its work wit!) qlassified documents from a midlevel bureaucrat when it could ruid qut ~lmost anything it wanted to by ~allin~ top offici~ls in the BU'sh administration. 8/31/2004 1:30 PM ." Analyst Who Is Target OfProbe WentTo Israel . -. ~ () . O' 20f4 liThe whole thing makes no sense to me;II said Dennis Ross, speciar'envoy on the Arab-Israeli peace process in the first Bush administration a~d the Clinton presidency. "The Israelis have. access to all sorts ofpeople. They have access in Congress and in the administratipn. They have people who talk about these things," said Ross, ~ow a seniQr fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's office issued a statement yesterday saying Israel was not involved in the matter and conducts no espionage in the United States. AlPAC has strongly denied any wrongdoing and said it is "cooperating fullyll with the probe. ~ The FBI investigation was touch~d off months ago when a series ofe-mails was brought to investigators' attention, said a U.S. official familiar with the case. The investigation move4 into Jrlgh'gear in re~ent days, another official said. On Friday, Justice Department officials briefed some Pentagon officials about the state ofthe inquiry. "1 think they are at the end oftheir investigation and beginning to briefpeople in the chain ofcommand, partly to make sure that the acts weren't authorized,II one official said. Pentagon co-workers expresse~ shock at the news. IIIt's totally astonishing to all of us who knew him," said a Defense Department co-worker who asked not to be identified because ofthe investigation. "He is a career guy, a mild-mannered professional. No one would think ofhim as ev~l or devious." Franklin works in the office ofWilliam 1. Luti, deputy undersecretary ofdefense for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs. For years a bureaucratic backwater, the office has been in the thick ofthe action since 2001 because it fonnulates Pentagon policy on Iraq. It played a centralt'ole as the U.S. military prepared for the spring 2003 invasion and"since then as the Pentagon has overseen the occupation. Luti's office is part ofthe policy operation Ul1der Feith. Feith has been a controversial figure in U.S.-Israeli affairs since the mid-l990s, "Yhen he was part ofa study group ofAmerican conservatives, then out of government, who urged Israel's then prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, to abandon the Oslo peace accords and reject the basis for them .- that Israel should give up land in exchange for peace.. More recently, Feith has been a target ofcriticism from Democrats who claim that two offices in his branch -- the Office ofSpecial Plans, headed by Luti; and the Counteperrorism Evaluation-Group _. sought to manipulate intelligence to improve the Bush administration's case for war against Iraq. House and Senate intelligence·committee investigators found no evidence for allegations that the Pentagon offices tried to bypass the Clt\ or had a major impact on the prewar debate. But in the Senate panel's report on prewar intelligence, three Democratic senators -- John D. Rockefeller IV (W.Va.), Carl M. Levin (Mich.), and Richard 1. Durbin (III.) .- specifically criticized Feith's operation. . In Kearneysville, W.Va., about 80 miles from the Pentagon, neighbors ofthe Franklins interviewed yesterday said they did not know the family well. Though nobody answered the door, voices were heard i~ the house, which had a "God Bless Our Troops" sticker and an American flag i~ the window. People who know Franklin from different phases ofhis life offered contrasting accounts of his political views. AU.S. governm~nt official familiar with the investigation said Franklin was very outwardly supportive 813112004 1:30 PM Analyst Who Is Target OfProbe Went To Israel http://www.dia..~V/adminlEARL YBIRD/040830/s2004083 03 IS928.html .. ~ () ~ ofIsrael, for example. But a fo~er co-worker at the DIA disputed that characterization, saying that h~ did not recall In years ofworking with him any strong political statements about Israel or anYthing else. Franklin, he said, was a solid, competent analyst specializing in Iranian political affairs, especially the views oftop leaders and the course ofopposition movements. . In February 2000, Franklin wrote an op-ed piece for the Wall Street Journal's European editiop. that was sharply cri~ical ofIranian President Mohammad Khatami, arguing that the leader was launching a "chann offensive" that was simply a "ruse" to make the Iranian government look better to Westerners while it continued to abuse human rights. Details ofFranklin's Air Force service, and especially his time in Israel, could not be learned yesterday. Aspokesman for the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv declined to comment. In Israel yesterday, Sharon's Qffice issued a statement. ItIsrael does not engage in intelligence activities in the U.S. We deny all these reports,1t the stateme~t said, according to the Associated Press. That followed a strong statement Friday by the Israeli Embassy· in Washington denYing any wrongdoing. One Israeli of(icial familiar with the situation said yesterday that his government had checked·lIevery organ here" to make sure that no part ofgovernment was involved. "We checked everythiJ}g possible, and there's absolutely nothing. It's a non-event, from the Israeli point ofview. Someone leaked this to [hurt] . . . the president, AIPAC and ~e Jews on the eve ofthe R~publican convention,1t he speculated. He added that Israel would not have been involved in such activities, "because we have a trauma here in Israel. It's called Pollard.It That was a reference to the case in which a U.S. Navy intelligence analyst, Jonathan J. Pollard, admitted in 1987 to selling state secrets to Israel. Pollard was life in prison, and Israeli officials have said since then they do not conduct espionage against the Uriited States. At AIPAC, spokesman Josh Block said the organization had no comment yesterday beyond its Friday statement that the organization and its employees denied any wrongdoing and were cooperating with the government. Aformer A~AC employee also said he was baffled by the news ofthe FBI investigation. "I have a hard time figuring out what this is about,II he said. If the Israelis or their supporters want to know about deliberations in the Bush administration, he,said, "all they have to'do is take people to lunch.II Others in Washington, however~ maintained that Israel does present a problem for the United States in certain aspects ofintelligence, such as sensitive defense technologies and Iran policy. - Israel sees Iran as the single biggest threat to its existence, and so closely monitors all possible mov~s in Washington's Ira~ian pol~cy -- especially as the Bush administration presses Tehran to disclose more about the state ofits nuciear program.. One former State Department officer recalled being told that U.S. government experts considered the countries whose spying mo~t thr~~tened the United States were Russia, South Korea and Israel.. III also know from my time in Jerusalem that official U.S. visitors to Israel were warned about the counterintelligence threat from Israel:' he said. Taking a slightly different view, others speculated that the very closeness ofthe relationship between the United States and Israeli governments -- and especially the'tight connections between ~he Israelis and Feith's policy office -- may have led officials to become sloppy about rules barring release ofsensitive 30f4 813112004 1:30 PM Analyst Who Is Target OfProbC Went To Israel .:;,; . ~ "I '-J ,information. 40f4 Staffwriters John Ward Anaerson in Jerusalem, 'Dan Eggen, Ami!. f?. Paley, Steven Ginsberg pndJerry Markon. in Washington a~nd staffresearcher Madonna Lebling ~ontributed to,this report.. 8/3 112004 1:30 PM' !teport On Iran KeyTo Spying Inquiry ,.~ ·0 UNCLASSIFIED - fOUO Los Angeles Times Aug~st 29, 2004 Pg.l hUp11www.di"O'adm!JVEARLYaIRDI0408301s2004083Q3 IS93~.htrill , _ .... to ~" i?{f(~ --:-:£~~~1.""'~'!5\~~~~~t.,;:;-rlii·~t~~·ii~:~·":rt~·'?~A(·~~~~~DJ' . •,,~t' .'.! ~t:~.;':,~~~.;' ';_{-'~~~:!';"';J',*~UeAense, e.u.irtence; gency;~ - A-".,~A:-..~1..~~~"~~=+= l~:S-lJ·l oi,'"&lH "."-0',.,, t. . PIA Home JWharsNmIProducts by Type I Pr~ilCiS by Region',~, &JR. ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Report On Iran KeY,To Spying Inquiry Investigators are looking closely at Pentagon'policy analyst Larry Franklin's relations/lips Wi~/l advocl;ltes for IsraeL By Mark Mazzetti and Richard B. Schmitt, Times StaffWriters ·WASHINGTON - The man at the center ofan FBI investigation into possible Israeli espionage in Washington is a career Pentagon employee, a colonel in the Air Force reserves and a national security ~nalyst who at the end ofthe Cold War taught himself Fa~si' and refashio't:led himselfas a!1 expert on Iran, officials said Saturday. T!le FBI is trying to detennine whether he is also aspy. U.S. officials ~onfinned Saturday that the target ofthe investig~tion was Larry'Franklint the Pentagon's top Iran policy analyst and a confidant ofDeputy.Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz and Douglas J. Feith, whot as undersecretary for policy, was t~e Pentagon's t~ird-r~n.king official. The FBI is trying to ascertain whether Franklin turned' over a draft presidential direc~ive Qn policy toward Iran last year to two people affiliated with·the Washington..bas~d American Israel Public Affairs Committee, which may have given the information to Israel. Officials are concerned because the-directive was still being debated by U;S.· policymakers at the time, possibly putting the ISll\eli government in a position to influence the final document, officials said. U.S. policy toward Iran is vital to I~~ael, which is gravely concerned' about the expandi~g nu~lear capability of th~ country run by Shiit~ MuslJm clerics. Tne probe, which is being handled by the FBI's counter- espioQage ~ivisiont might not result in .espiopage charges against Franklin. Instead, the Pentagon analyst could be charged with lesser offenses such as i,mproper discl9sure or mishandling ofclassified information. Or he could be exonerated. A U.S. official with knowledge ofthe case expressed doubts Saturday that Franklin's alleged actions rose to the level ofespionage. Insteadt he said it was more.likely that Franklin, who maintaiI].S close ties with Israeli officials, passe~ documents to Israel without knowing the seriousness of.his actions. "Frqm everything I've seen, the guy's not a sPY,"·the official said. liThe guy's an idiot" Acc9rding to the official, th~ closeness ofthe U.S. relationship with Israel means that top officials ofthe two nations often share sensitive infonnation. Nevertheless, Fratiklin should have knoWn what 'i~fonnation was and, p.~~i~~ib.1e t(J ~e_shared, he said. . 10f3 ..... - ..... 8/3112004 1:30 ~M Report On Iran Key To Spying Inquiry -0 o 1 " ; ~ "We knew this guy had the relationship for a while, and he shareCl some stuffb~yond what he should·be sharing," the official said. . Franklin did not respond to phone messages Saturday seeking comment. Sources said that Franklin, a longtime official with the Defense Intelligence Agency, three years ago joined the Pentagon's Office ofNear East and South Asian Affairs, the group charged with developing the Pentagon's policy for the Middle ~ast. The office is run by William J. Luti, who in turn reports to Feith. Since joining Luti's office, Franklin has been the Pentagon's leading Iran policy analyst, ajob that took on greater importance after President Bush included Iran in his "axis ofevil" and his appointees at the Pentagon advocated a hard line toward Iran. As a member ofthe Air Force reserves, Franklin is assigned to a DIA reserve unit based in Washington. . APentagon statement released Friday characterized Frankli~ as a "desk officer" with no significant influence on U.S. policy. Yet some who have worked with him offer a different picture, saying he was very influential in high-level Pentagon policy debates.. "You're not talking about someone toiling away in the bowels ofthe U.S. government," said a former Pentagon official who worked fOf Feith until last year and spoke on condition ofanonymity. "Franklin was t!Ie. go-to guy on Iran issues for Wolfowitz and Feith.1t In addition, the former official characterized Franklin as an ideological ally ofWolfowitz, Feith and Luti. The three men were among the Bush administration's leading advocates ofwar with Iraq, and the Middle East policy office and the Office ofSpecial Plans, both ofwhich reported to Luti, produced analyses bolstering the U.S. case against Iraqi dictator Saddam Hus~ein. "Their analysis wasn't whether we should invade Iraq, but whether we should do it on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday," the fonner official said. FBI investigators fear that Franklin - given his influential position and high-level security clearance-. may ,h. ave been in a position to compromise government information,about Iraq and the U.S. war effort"'\ .. .. Sometime after the Sept. 11 terrorist attac~s, Franklin took a secret trip to,Rome with Harold Rhode, anot~er civilian official jn the Pentagon, to meet with Iranian dissiden~ who reportedly promised to provide information to'them 'that would aid the U.S.-declared war on terrorism. One ofthe dissidents the pair spoke to was Manucher GhorbaIiifar, an arms dealer and former Iranian spy who was a central figure in the Iran-Contra scandal ofthe 1980s. The White House blessed the trip. Yet when news ofthe meeting ieaked two years later, officials said they had not known that Ghorbanifaf would be among the dissidents Franklin and Rhode met. According to Def~nse Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld, th~t meeting and a subsequent one between Rhode and Ghorbanifar "went nowhere.II 20f3 813112004 1:30PM Report On Iran Key To Spying Inquiry htqi:l/WwYioCliaO/adminIEARLYBJRDi040~0Is2~O~03JS933.h1ml. , ... Michael Ledeent a, scholar at,the American-Enterprise I~s~i~te in Wasllington Who specializes in Mideast ,affairs, arranged the contacts betw~en the Pentagon' officials and the Irariian dissidents, wh~ch he said led to American lives being saved in Afghanistan~ Asked' Saturda~ for ~omment on th~ investigation, Ledeen ~aid he expected the FBI probe to yield nothing incriminating abqu~ Franklin, whom Ledee'n has known for years. "1 don'fbelieveLarry Franklin would ever do anythiIJg improper with class.ified'inf0l'll':ation," said Leqeen, who worked as a consultant to the Nation~l Security Council and the State and Defense • depart~ents during the adritinistrati~n ofRo~ald Reag~. -. L~deen ~aid the information Franklin was suspected oftransferring was well knowniamong foreign policy observers. 'f!1e U.S= h~d not developed a co4erent Iran policy, he said, and th~divergent views of various administration officials were publi~ly known and available. "There is no Americ~n policy on Iran," L~deen s~id. "What is,he telling them? What can there possibly be that is classified about-American po~icy on Iran that.we do not know about from the publ~c debate?" Franklin and Rl!ode also have clos'e ties with Iraqi politic!an Ahmad Chalabi, whose Iraqi National Congress was the dissident org~nization most favored by Pentagon officials during atisseiI)'s rule. Chalabi met ofteri. with top. officials at the Pentagon and Vice President Dick Cheney's office to a4vocate regime change in ~raq'. Chalabi himself has been investigated by American officials in connection with the transmission ofU.S. secrets to Iran. It is unclear whether the investigations into Franklin and Chalabi ~re connected. -. ~ 30f3 -- - .... - .. .k ...... __ ~13JiiOO4 I:30 PM . Sharansky': Pentagon-CIA Rivalry Led To Spy Charge .. ;.. ' 0', UNCLASSIFIED .. FOUO!DihlEARLYBIRD/040830/s200408303is913.html ,0 Jerusalem Post August 30, 2004 ALL FBI INFORMATION COlrfAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY' 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg • lof2 Sharansky: Pentagon-CIA Rivalry ,Led To Spy Charge By Associated Press Allegations of I~raeli'spying in the United States are false and may be th~ result ofintemal conflicts Pentagon and ~he CIA, Diaspora.Affairs minister Natan Sharansky said Sunday, but analysts. admitted that even so, damage has been done to cmcial'ties between the two countries. American officials said S.aturday that the'FBI has spent more than a year investigating whether a Pentagon analys~ funneled highly classified material to Israel.. The material described White House policy tow~d Iran. 'srael says I~n .. and its nuclear ambitions pose the greatest single threat to.the Jewis~ state. Sharansky, the frrst Israeli Cabinet minister to spe8k in public about the matter, told Canadian Broadcasting Corp. television that Israel enforces a ban on spying in the United States. "I hope it's all a mistak~ or misun4erstanding ofsome kind, maybe a rlvaJry between different bodies," he said, singling out "the P~ntagon and the CIA." SharansIcY said the ban ori e~pionage in the 'United states dates to the scandal over Jonathan Pollard, an American Jew caught spying for Isr!1el in 1985. Sharansky, who belongs to P.rime Minister A~el Sharon's ruling Likud Party, said he pas "personal experience" with the ban, but he did not elaborate. "There are absolutely no attempts to involve any member ofthe Jewish community and any general Ameri~an citiz~ns to sPY fQr Israel against the United States:' he.said. Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's office issued a denial late SatUrday, saying "Israel does not engage in intelligence activitie~ in the U.S.II The scandal dominated Israeli news media on Sunday. In numerous interviews, both current and former Israeli intelligence officials said it was pighly unlikely t~at Israel would have to spy on the.U.S. government. Legislator Ehud Yatom, chairman ofthe parliamentary su6committee on covert intelligence, said he expected the allegations to be quickly withdrawn. "I imagine that within a few days the United States will come oqt wi~ an'announcement that Israel has no connection whatsoever with t~e supposed spy and his activities," he told Israel Radio. ,... Uii Arad~ a former senior offlcial in the Mossad spy agency, said the allegations were-leaked to hurt tile pro-Israel lobby in Washington. ~ 813112004 I:31 PM • ;Sh;,a'r.a.nsk:y: Pentagon-C'IA R.ivalry LedTo,Spy0Charge ·'40SjO/s2004083031S913.html.. !-- ~They was repofle~, they pointed out- in which office, (franklin) worked,II Arad told Israel Radio. "They pointe~ at people like"Doug Feith or other defense officials who have long been under attack within the Arileri~an bureaucracy.II • 20f2 ... ~1~004'1:31'PM Sharansk:CIA Rivalry Led To,Spy Charge ;;,'.. '. 0 Spy Probe Tests US-Israel Ti~ ... UNCLASSIFIED .. FOUO o http://w\l-wodia.C:f/admin/EARJ.YBIRDI0408301s20040~303IS937ohtml .. Christian ScIence fylonitor August 30, 2004 Spy Probe Tests US-Israel Ties ALL ,FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg .' lof2 At issue: wlietller a Pentagon analystpassed secrets to an Israeli lobby group, l;lnd wlletller tI,at group passed ti,e material to-Israel. By Faye Bowers, Staffwriter ofThe Christian Science Monitor VIASHINGTON_.The n~scent spy' probe unfolding in .t~e nation's capital could end up complicatJng ties: between the US,and Israel ~~ a'critical time in the war on terror for the Bush administration - and raise new questiq~s a1?out how closely the two allies should cooperate on sensitiv~ iss~es. Word l~aked over the weekend that for more than ayear the FBI has been i~vestigating aPentagon official for possibly pr<?viding Israel classified information - inclu~ng a draft ofa presidential directiye on US policies toward Iran - ilirough an Israeli lobby in Washington, the American Is~el Public Afff!irs 'Committee (AIPAC). ·Whether true or not; the' revelations couid sour relations between the US and one ofits closest aliies in the war on terror. iJte two co~ntries have lOng shareq. intelligence - the US passes Israel information to help prevent attacks on its homeland and Israel'shares intelligence.from a stable ofnative Arab speakers who operate in parts ofthe world the US can't. ~ Moreover, at a time when !he uS is the sole superpQwer, wielding enormous influence, particularly in a~eas like the ·Middle East, experts say it is not unusual for friendly allies to go one step further and spy o~ Washington. The problem is, as p~rhaps happened in this case, when ~he snooping goes beyond acceptable bounds. .. -. "Ifthey are found-to be spying on us, it wouldn't be a shock," says Jim Walsh; ~ intemation~l security expert at Harva;rd University's John F. Kennedy School ofGovernment. "But.the closer the friendship,. and the morese~itive the info,Onation, the more likely it is to'leave an impression on the personal relationships. People will feel betrayed, particularly,government.leaders.'! The, Pentagon official identified as bei~g at the c~nter o.fthe'probe is.Lawrence Fra~lin, an Iran spe~ialist, at the Defense In~elligence Agency and a former colonel in the Air Force Reserves. Reports indicate that·Mr. Fr~lin is being investigated for allegedly passing on sensitive, papet:s abou~ US pol~cy !ow~rd Iran to AlPAC, which then supposedly handed them on to the Israeli government. Franklin works in tht; office ofWilliam Luti, who reports to Douglas Feith. Mr.--Feith and the policy branch he heads at the Pentagon have been under scmtiriy becau~e ofthe role they played in. forlnulating the Penjagon's Iraq war strategy. . Franklin hasn't been available fo~ comment. So~e people-who know him have said they thip}{ the accusations are groundless. T~e;P~ntagon released a statement saying it is' fully ~ooperating with the fBI investigation, ,which it insists, is "li~ited in scope." The Israelis, fo~ their· part, are -vehemently de~:riitg complicity in any espionage,..actjvity~ 1~!sr8:.t?! do~s notengagt? in intelligence activit~e~ in the US," I$raeli ......... - --- -- - 8131120041:31 PM ...Spy ProbeTestsUS-Israel Ties o hUp:lIwww.di..CSV/adminlEARLYBIRD10408301s200408303IS937.html 20f2 -Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said in a statement. - - . AlPAC, too, proclaims innocence. IIAny allegation of crimJnal conduct by AlPAC or our employees is false and baseless,II a statement says. StilJ, now that the probe has become public, speculation will contiriue until a conclusion,is reached. And whether Israel is guilty or not, there wil~ be residual damage to the relationship, experts say. For one thing, it reminds people ofthe time Israel was caught spying on the US once before. In 1987, a US Navy intelligence analyst, Jonathan Pollard, ~mitted to selling state secrets to the Israelis. "I think this will 'escort us for many years to come,1I says ,Danny Yatom, a fonner chiefofthe Mossad, Israel's foreign intelligence ann. IIThere was one attempt made by Pollard, and since then there is still an assessment that Israel will try again whenever it is l?ushed into a comer.." In ~ddition, experts say the relationship,between the US and Israel has become so lax - because'ofthe cozy ties between the two countries at the moment - that there was bound to be this sort ofproblem. "The Israelis have always had more access tnan other friendly countries," says Patrick Lang, fonner head of Middle East intelligence at the Defense, Intelligence Agency. tiThe liaison relationships between the Israeli and American services are highl)' developed, codifie4, and have functioned for many years.II In this climate, he says, it is easy to share information without checking the rulebook, which can lead to problems. Indeed, some experts say the' level ofsharing will provoke other questions, even ifthe incident turns out not to be serious. "Why does this guy thjnk he should share this type ofinfonnation? asks Mr. Walsh. IIIfthis is just standard operating procedure, then it does raise serious policy issues." It is still not clear whether'the cl.1arge~ Will be serious (possibly espionage), or something more mundane (mishandling ofdocuments), or whether there will be charges at all. FBI officials reportedly were tipped to a potential problem months ago by ai series of email exchanges. The investigation recently ratcheted up to the point where Justice Department officials have begun briefing Pentagon officials. - Josh Mitnick contributedfrom .Tel Av(". 8131120041:31 PM \Israel Denies Spying Against U.s. • : ;r UNCLASSIFIED - FOUQ New York Times August 29, 2004 Israel Denies Spying Against U.S. By Steven Erlanger ALL" FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS T~iCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg. lof2' JERUSALEM, Aug. 28 - News that the F.B.1. has Deen investigating a Pentag9rl official on suspicion of" passing secrets to Israel has caused a diplomatic scramble here, with officials rushing'to deny spying on' Washington and to assure the United States of its friendship. Administration officials say the Pentagon official, who has been identified in some news reports but who could not be reached for comment early Saturday, works in the office ofDouglas J. F~ith, the under secretary ofdefense for policy. Officials who have been briefed about the inquiry say the official'is suspected qfpassing a classified policy draft on Iran to th~ American Israel PubJic Affairs Committee, a pro-.Israellobby group, which in tum is thought to have prQvided the information to Israeli intelligence. Publicly, the Israeli government, through its spokesmen here and in Washington, have called the allegations wrong and outrageous, as has Aipac, the lobbying group. "The United States is Israel's most cherished friend and ally,"said David Siegel, the Israeli Embassy spokesm~n. "We have,a strong ongoing relationship at all levels, and in no way would Israel do anYthing to impair this relationship." Aipac called the allegations ltbaseless and false." After the hugely emoarrassing spying scandal of 1985, when Jonathan Pollard, an American intelligen~e analyst, was arrested and convicted ofspying for Israel, the Israeli government made a firm decision to stop· all <;landestine spying in the United States, Yuval Steinitz, the chairman ofthe foreign and defense cqmmittee i~ P~liament, said Saturday. Mr. Steinitz is chairman ofthe most powerful committee in Parliament, with oversight ofall Israeli m~litary and intelligence agencies, and is chairman ofthe subcommittee on in~elligence. He says he has access to as much secret information as Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. "This was a'firm deCIsion," Mr. Steinitz said, nand I'm 100 confident - not 99 percent, but 100 percent - that Israel is not spying in the United States. We have n!-l agents there and we are not gathering intelligence there, unlike prob~bly every other country in the world, including some ofAmerica's best friends in Europe." Mr. Sharon's office emphasized the same point on Saturday, issuing a statement saying: "Israel has no connection to this matter. The Bnited States is Israel's greatest ally. Israel is no~ engaged in intelligence' activities in the l!nited States and denies reports to the contrary." - -.... -... - 813112004 1:3rPM Israel Den~es Spying Against U.S.. o· Mr. St.einitz in particular cpnsiders Iran a nuclear s~perpower i~ the m~ng, working on weapons that can hit Europe, as well as Israel, and he urg~d 'Washington and Europe to deal with Iran Itbefor~ it is too late." . Still, reports ofthe F.B.I. investigation caused a furor here. And officials went to pains on Saturday to. say that despite the importance ofsuch iQ.telligence, Israel oqly works openly in America, including diplomatic conversations and relationships with a full range of sources, from ~he White HoUse ~d Congress to Aipac, which has its own sources. "America is the great exception," on~ official said. Mr. Steinitz said, "People leak so~etimes when they shouldn't, that goes on everywhere;butthat's a different matter.II \ While Israel has representatiyes bfthe Mossad, its intelligence agency, and military intel1~gen~e in Washington, they are attache~ to the embas~y and their presence is known to American, officials said. Yossi Melman, an intelligence and terrorism e~pert w~th the Israeli daily Haaretz, said Saturday tliat since the case ofMr. 'Pollard, who remains in prison in the United States, "I know there has been a decision not to run any operations on American ~oil or to recruit Americans to spy for IsraeI.'• , Mossad, he said; is uhder'inst~ctio'ns to direct contact even with officials from Aipac, "and I know that Israel is very, very sens~tive about having ev~n open contacts with Jewish members ofthe administration, because ofthe ramifications ofPollard" and the concern that Isr~el would be accused of playing on any duall~yalty that an A~erican Jew mig4t feel. This is.a case ofan American accused ofp~sing inform~tionto an American organiz~tion, Mr. Melman .said. "While Aipac is pro-Israel, and maintains contacts with ~he ~sraeli Embassy and shares ana!ysis, it does not deal withIsraeli intelligence services," he said. IIIf Aipac passed on a secret document, that would be a sensitive matter for Israel. But ifAipac said, 'It's oUr understanding that the Americans in Doug Feith's office are thinking this and that,''s 4ifferent," he said. . But the lines are often har4 to draw, especially with an"issue as sensitive as the one involving Iran, ~hich is considered by American and Israeli offic~~s to be working on ilucle~r weaponry even though it has said its program is only to ge~erate electricity - in a sens~,'preseIiting a publicly ambiguous stance, much as does Israel, which has developed nuclear weapons ,as a deterrent but refuses to discuss the matter. Iran is also interesting to Israel, although less so to $e United Sb!tes, for the ~nancial and military support it provides Hezbollah, the militaht ~nti~Israel group based in Lebanon and active in the West Bank. For Mr. Steinitz, a hawk with Likud, Iran js a clear and present danger for $e entire West. lithe Iran nuclear program is so ambitious that after pr9ducing a first bomb, they could produ~e 20 bombs a year,II he said. "This isn't North Korea or Iraq or ~yen P~istan. Iran will soon become a glob~l power with ~ntercontinental missiles that will threaten Europe and NATO, with disastrous political results for Israel, the moderate Arab world and the United States,II he said. But the problem ofJran is global, he said., lilt's liP to t4e.Americans and Europeans to'solve Iran, not little Israel.II - . -- 2Qf2 813112004 1:31 PM Officials Worry About Effects OrSpy Accusations ;. It, • 0 UNCLASSIFIED· FOUO Washington Times August 30, 2004 Pg.17 hUp:llwwwodi"O/adminlEARLY0!RDf0408301s200408303160S9.html " .. >.,;:J~ ,~.:~~/ ·:~~fJSP\~i;J:-;1'r'!~;"~""~~t~"""""'n·~~~A1P.)'~:5a~ -.' : l.ff\t~ht1~m..~~~..;w1u,=!~~ns~.m1 e Jgen~;~ency~~ '\Jr. to" l.~ "": _\,. .. ~ ;""\1l",:,~...::-.~=---~~~~ _l>:_ _,~ illlJ. • ..........,..............~. ,h' . ~~.. PIA Home IWha(s New IProdUctS by TiDe IProdUcts by RcgiOQ I~1lliJJ! ALL FBI INFORMATION C01JTAII~D HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg lof2 -Officials Worry A~out Effects OfSpy Accus~tions , Hope Pentagon reports arefound to be a 'misunderstanding' By Abraham'Rabin~vich; The Washington Time~ "~ JERUSALEM - Israeli officials yesterday said reports that a Pentagon analyst passed classified infonnation to Israel seriously could damage the nation's image in America, even as t~ey denied any role . in such an operation. . "There is no doubt that these publications are damaging, [and] even though they are false, they are d~~ging," said Natan Sharansky, who as minister for diaspora affairs is responsible for tlie effects of anti-Semitism on Jews worldwide. American officials saidthi~ weekend that the FBI has spent more than a year investigating whether a PeQtagon analyst funneled highly classified material to Israel concerning U.S. policy toward Iran. . " Bo~h-Israel and toe United S~tes are wQrried that Iran'~ nuclear-energy program is a front for an effort to develop J;luclear weapons. "I hope [the investigation] is all a mistake or misunderstanding ofsome kind," Mr. Sharansky told the Canadian Broadcasting Corp; Mentioning tithe Pentagon and the CIA" specifically, Mr. Sharansky suggested that the probe ~ight have resulted from "a rival!}' between different bodies." Former Mossad chie(Danny Yatom saic\ the Israeli government laid down strict guidelines to prohibit espionage against its major ally after the arrest in 1985 ofIsraeli spy Jonathan Pollard. Pollard, a former-official in U.S. Naval In~el1igence, "is serving a life sentence iri the United Sta~es. Although the two countries have very close defense and political ties, the American intelligence community has·been sensitive to the possibility oflsraeJi iI!telligenc~ penetration ever sin~e Pollard's arrest. With the issu~ dominating Israeli public-affairs show~ yesterday, Mr. Yatom pointed out that Israeli and American officials and acad~mics have.hundreds offormal and informal meetings every year. "It could be that someone [in the United States] innocently did something that is forbidden by American law. But there was no mopilization ofagents by Israel'or"instructions given to them about what ~o look . for, as with Pollard," he said. ,. 813112004 I:31 PM •O~:ial~ Worry About Bffects OfSpy ACCUS8<5 bttp:llwww.dia.(jV/adminlBARLYBIRDI0488301s200408303160S9.hlml -, 20f2 Mr. Yatom·said he hoped the lat~st episode would prpve to be no more serious than "an unnecessary initiative on the part ofan American offiCial.II Another former senior Mossad"official, Uzi Arad, said he had met with the Pentagon analyst n~ed in press reports as the suspect, Larry Franklin, along with other Pentagon officials as part ofhis ongoing contacts in the United States. . "Our two countries have open relations," he said. "Collegial relations. It's clear that wb,en we get together we don't talk about the Olympics.II Nevertheless, the investigation provides ammunition to tho~e who charge that Israel has undue influence in the United States and that it influenced Washington to undertake the war in lraq- a charge dismissed as absurd by both the Bush administration and Israel. The episode also has renewed concerns about conflicted loyalties among American Jews, which were brought to the fore by the Pollard affair. Although Mr. Franklin is not Jewish, the purported mole is suspected ofhaving passed on secrets regarding American policy on Iran to two members ofthe pro-Israeli lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, who in tum passed them on to an Israeli official. Senior Jewish officials in the Bush administration - including Mr. Franklin's boss, Undersecretary of Defense Douglas J. Feith-"also have been accused ofpromoting the war with Iraq as a way to help Israel. Mr. Arad seemed to suggest in an interview with Israeli radio that the press reports were.deliberately leaked to hurt Israel's supporters in Washington. "They pointed out in which office [Mr. Franklin] worked,It he said. "They pointed at people like Doug Feith or other defense officials who have long been under attack withiri the American bureaucracy." .. Infonna~ion·Passing Inquhy Could ~pand UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg lof2 USA Today August 30, 2004 P~.13 Information-Pa,ssing Inquiry Could Expand u.s. secrets may I,ave gone to Israel By Toni Locy and Barb~a Sla~in, USA Today WASJ1INGTON - Ah investigation into wheth~r a midlevel Pentagon an~lyst passed information about .U.S. policy on hanto pro-Israe. lobbyists could expa~d into a·brqader inquiry into whether more U.S. .secrets were shared with Israel, two federal law enforcement offici~l~,s~id Sunday. Pentagon analyst Lawrence Franklin is suspected ofhaving given either an internal administration document oran oral summary ofits contents to the American Israel P~blic Affairs Commi~ee (AWAC), said the officials, who have knowledge ofthe case but asked not to be named because the investigation is ongoing.-One official said charges as serious as espionage c~uld be filed soon. Th~ other official said the FBI hopes Franklin will cooperate. 'Ifhe does, he may face a lesser charge. such as mishandling classified documen~. Spokesmen for AlPAC ~nd the Israeli gov~rnnlent have denie~ the n~tion, first reported Friday by CBS News, that Franklin shared the. contents ofa draft U.S~ policy document on Iran ,with AlPAC members who then passed t,he information to israel. . "Any allegation of criminal conduct by.AIPAC or our employees is false at:ld baseless,II the organization said in ~ statement on its Web site; "Neither.AIPAC nor any ofits employees has violated any laws or . rules, nor'has AlPAf; or its employees'ever received information they believed was secret or classified." Much about the,case is puzzling..The dQcument Franklin is suspected of having shared, an internal statement on U..S. policy on Iran, :was nevetpublished because ofdifferences within the Bus~ administration about how to deal with that country. ' Israel, which fears Iran is c~ose to developing ~uclear weapons, has myriad w~ys of finding out and influencing U.S. policy, as does AIPAC, a half-century old organization considered. the niost influential foreign affai~ the Vn~ted States. . "AIPAC doesn't need to d~al with midlevel people I~ke this guy," says Dennis Ross ofthe Washington Institute for Near ~ast Policy,.a think ta~ whose trustees include AlPAC members. "Why create a risk by dealing with someone who is not at the policy level? it doesn't.add up to me at all.II The investigation is taking place in an"atmosphere ofpolitica! recriminations .in Washington focused on so-called neoconservatives - strong supporte~ ofls~el who lobbied for the U.S. invasion ofIraq and downplayed the difficulties U.S. fo~ces would face there. the Frariklih investigation'comes as aseparateJnq~iry ~oo~s.into w~o leaked information about U.S. .. ...:. _ _ _ l'" • _ . - - 813112004 I:36 p.~ • .." .. ." 11' - • l • ..' .~ "'I"'~"''' ~ ,. ~nfonri~tJon.P8ssing In~uirY C~uld Ex~d .; ioo, ,; rp.~t~i04sg( spyi~g <?~.~~,!n,t~ ~hmad C~~la~i, ~n ~raqi'eolJ~!ci~n,who,was, 0!1c~ favored~by the. , neoconservatives ~ a-likely lead~r ofihe new ~riq. One"ofthe'lawenforceirient officials said '~there ~ay, be.some cro~soveri' betwe~n the two inves~igations, but only be~ause the information in,.both dea!s with· I~. .- Fr~linis ~n Air Force re~~rvi~t wh~ served in'Israel and also worked for the De~ense'Jn~elligence Agency, the Pentagon's in~hous~"intelljgence organization~ An Iran analy~t,.Franklin works'f<?r Dougl~, Fei~h, undersec~etary ofpefense for pplicy. Before becoming the P~n~g9n's N,o. 3 official, Feith was a private attorney in Wash~ngton ,who. represented Israeli companies.-Ih'J996, a sfJ1dy for an ~srael·based insti~te that advocat~d'overthrowing Iraqi leader Sad~a~·aussein as a means,of-weakening anotherl~sraeli enemy, SYria. , Franklin, who lives in West Virginia, could not be reached for comment. ~of2 -_ l~ ~ ....... ". ... --.-w.. ...... __ * ~ - ..... - - ...... 813112004 1.:36 PM FBI's Pentaoon Probe Is Another Burden For Rumsfeld ..... 0 "0 ~ ... UNCLASSIFIED· FOyO Wall Street Journal ( August 29, 2004 btrp:llwwlN.dia.Q/adminIEARLYBIRD10408301e20040~03IS867.~1 ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAI~mD 'HEREIN IS U]JCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg ,I lof2 FBI's Pentagon Probe .Is, Ano·ther Bur(len For Rumsfeld Dow Jones Newswires WASHINGTON(AP)·-The FBI investigation into whether·a Peritagon analyst passed classified information to Israel is yet another political weight on Defense Secretary Donald H,. Rumsfeld, still fending off criticism ove~ the Iraq war and prisoner abuse. It is not clear whether the investigation will result in charges ofespionage at the Pentagon. At the least, the pro~ complicates Rumsfeld's position as congressionatc9Jn.mittees that oversee the Qefense Depart~ent prepare for more hearings on the abuse scandal. Rumsfeld has no~ commented publicly o~ the FBI's investigation. Whil.e the FBI has spent more than,a year on the case, it only became p~blic Friday. Officials~ speaking on condition ofanonymi~,say the inyestigation is foc:used on Lawren~e A. ~ranklin, an analyst of Iranian affairs who works in a policy office headed by pouglas J. Feith, the undersecretary, for policy. Feith ~as been Democrats ofsee~ing to manipulate help make the case for going to'-war in Iraq. Congressional investigati9ns hav~ found no eVidence ofthat. " - Th~ New York Times reported on its.Intemet site in a storY for Monday's editions that government officials say.Franklin had been coopeiatiJig with federal agents for several weeks and was'preparing to Jead them to contacts inside the Israeli gov~rnment when work ofthe investigation, first reported by CBS News, was leaked late last week. The Israeli gove~ent has denied spying o~ the United States. 'Efforts to reach Fr~lin by telephone have been unsuccessful. Local law eriforcement officers have kept reporters and photograpqers away from his secluded home in rural West Virginia, about a 90-minute commute from Washington. The Washington Post reported Sunday that $e FBI investigation has broadened to include interviews with individuals at the State and Def~nse departments as well as MideaSt affairs specialists outside the government. Israeli officials predi,cted ~hat the allega~ion it got secret information on White HoUse policy toward Iran f~om the Pentagon analyst would prove false. Vincent Cannistraro, a retired CIA officer and former director ofWhite House intelligence progfams ~uring the Reagan administration, ~aid Sunday, "It's another scandal for the Pentagon," with the potential in this case ofgoing beY9nd the singl~ individual under investigation. Larry Di Rita, Rumsfeld's chiefspokesman, said ~unday·that the Penqtgon is sticking"by its initial s~atement Friday.that it imderstands the investigation is limited in scope. He said it would be lnapprC?pria.te for him or RUlQ.sfeld to comment further because it is an active investigation. 8131120041:36 PM FBI's Pentagon Probe Is Another Burden For Rumsfeld --. () http11www.dia.~/adminlEARLYBIRDI0408301c200408303.~861.html .. • As for the possible political implications for Rumsfelrl at the height ofapresidential election campaign, Di Rita said, "I would not try to predict how the political season will affect,this." Early in his tenure at the Pentagon, Rumsfeld spoke out publicly against the unauthorized release of classified information. He undertook a special investigation when some elements ofPentagon planning for war in Iraq leaked to the news me4ia in 2002. In his 3 1/2 years as secretary, Rumsfeld has had a sometimes rocky relationship with Congress. When the administration began a global fight against terrorism in response to the attac"s ofSept. iI, 2001, ~is stock rose quickly and he gain~d popularity for his tough approach. But as the insurgency in Iraq took hol~ in the summer of2003 and the casualty toll for American troops mounted - more than 950 have be~n killed - Rumsfeld became a target ofcriticism on Capitol Hill. ATime magazine poll released Saturday said.39% ofthose surveyed approve ofthe job Rumsfeld has done and 37% disapprove., They were split on whether President Bush should replace Rumsfeld : 49% said Rumsfeld should go and 48% preferred that he stay. Rumsfeld, 72, took much political heat when the Abu Ghraib prisoner scandal came to light in April with photographs of U.S. soldiers abusing and sexually.humiliating Iraqi prisoners. Two official investigations found that the highest levels ofthe Defense Department shared blame for management lapses that may have contributed to the problems at Abu Ghraib. ~ut those reviews found no evidence to sugg~st that Rumsfeld.ordered, encouraged or condoned any abuse of iraqis. To the suggestion that Rumsfeld resign over the abuse scandal, former Defense Secretary James Schlesinger said last week that such a development would be a "boon to all of America's enemies.II Schlesinger headed an in~ependent panel that looked into the abuse. Asecond panelist, former DefeQse Secretary'Harold Brown, agreed that Rumsfeld acted appropriately. "lfthe head ofa department had to resign every time anyone'down below did something wrong, it would be a ver;. empty Cabinet table" Brown said. That was just days before news broke ofthe FBI investigation at the Pentagon. 20f2 8131/2004 1:36 PM UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO New York Times August 30, 2004 hltp:lfivww.di"O'V/admin!EARLYB1RD10408301c2OOi083pi15889.html )I. • ,. • ..' >·...~." ••·~n..-"':~..."'~'!t. ....:v:"':~~.i{,:I~ .•<-'t':,»_~'~~~_. .,. 1.• Iv- -\~t'..":".'tl:!~r-f1{:'~~') ,: t-?:1)~rense~lritentgence·l~genwJ. .!-;:.. :.;~ 't"'~'1,~:~..'!:m'th'\r~ ••~~""":"~· ·~~""""""-,,'t r' «t' PIA Home IWhat's New IProdUcts.,. Type IProductS6y Region I~Illim ALL FBI INFORHATiO~ CONTAINED HERE IN IS mirC LA:::!'S I FlED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/~ab/1sg OfficialsSaY'J;lubliei.ty Derailed Secrets Inquiry 'By David Johnston and ~ric'Schmitt WASHINGTON, Aug; 29 - The Pentagon official under suspicion ofturning over classified information to Israel began cQoperating with federal ~gents several weeks ago anq was preparing to lead the authorities to cohtacts inside the Israeli government when the case became publicly known last week, govert1ll1ent officials said Sunday. The disclosure ofthe inquiry late on Friday by CBS News revealed what had been for nearly a year a covert national security investigation conducted by the F.B.I., acc~rdi~g to the' offjcials, who said tha~ news reports about the inquiry compromiseQ important investigative steps;like the effort to follow the trall ba~k to the Israelis. As a result, several areas.ofthe case remain murky, the officials said. One main uncertainty is the legal status ofLawrence A. Franklin, the lower-level Pentagon policy analyst who the authorities believe passed the Israelis a draft presidential policy directive related to Iran. No arrest in the case is believed to be ,imminent, in part because prosecutors ~ave not yet clearly established whether Mr. Franklin broke the law. But the officials said there was evidence that he turned the classified material over to officials at the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, a pro-Israel lobbying group. Officials ofthe group are thought to have then passed the information to Israeli intelligence. The lobbying group and Israel have denied that they engaged in any wrongdoi~g. Efforts to.reach Mr. 'Franklin or his lawyer have not be~n successful. Reporters who went to ~r. Franklin's residence in West Virginia on Sunday were.asked by a local sheriff not to approac4 the house. Friends ofMr.. Franklin's, like Michael Ledeen ofthe American Enterprise institute, said the accusations against him were baseless. As the overall outline ofthe case emerged more clearly, doubts about ~ome aspects ofit seemed to stand out in sharper relief. Investigators, the officials said, may never fully utiderstap.d the role oftwo officials for the lobbying group who-they believe were in contact with Mr. Franklin. ~or are they likely to be able to completely determine wliether Israel regarded the entire matter as a formal intelligence operation or as a casual retationspip that Mr. Franklin himselfmay not h~ve fully understood. Investigators do not know, for example, whether Israeli intelligence officers tttasked" intermediaries at t~e group to seek specific information for Mr. Franklin to obtain, which would make the case more serious. Officials said some investigators speculated that Israeli officials might have passively accepted whatever classified material that officials for the lobbying group happened to get from Mr. Franklin. Moreover, Mr. Franklin appears to be an unlikely candidate for intelligence. wor~. Al~hough he ,was involved with Middle East policy, a defense official said Sunday.that he had no impact on U~ited States poli~y and few dealings with senior Pentagon offi~ial~, including the deputy defense secretary, Paril D. lof3 - ....... - -- --.,.. - - - 8/3112004 1:37 PM -- ~~.Cial~Say P~blicity Deraile~ Secrets InQUi\"-'" ,- .. .. All I( \ ....... Wolfowitz. - ....~. hllp:llwww.di~"/adminiEARJ. YBnID!0403301~3031Sil89.hlmI ... .. 20f3 At one point in !he run-up to the Iraq war in early 2003, Mr. Er~lin was, brought in to help arrang<? meetings between Mr. Wolfow~tz and-Shiite and Sunni clerics across,the United States, a defense official said. But he was never regarded as an influential figure., "He was at the bottom. of the food c~ain, at the grunt level,~l a senior defense pfficial said. Another defense official sa~d 'Mr. Franklin "had a ~ertain expertise and ha4,access to things, but he wasn't a policy .maker.~' ' Still, as a desk offic~r, especi~ly one ~ith a background at the Defense Intelligence, Agency, Mr. Franklin would have had top-secret security clearance. That would have, given him access to mos.t ofthe nation's most-sensitive intelligence about Iran, including that relating to its ·nuclear.,progr~,Pen~gon officials s~id. He would also have had a~cess to diplomatip cables and'drafts.of~onfidentia1documents about the administration's policies toward Iran., 'While the facts ofthe c~e remained unclear and contradictory, tqe inquiry has stirred.deeply emotiona~ respoJlses. On Sunday, in an event held on the eve ofthe Republican National Convention, Bernice Manocherian, the p~esident 0'£the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, described the ~llegations against her group as·"outrageous, as well as ba~eless.1I In a speech in New YQrk to' Jewish Republicans, Ms. Manoche,rian said, "We Will not allow innuendo or ..false allegations against Aip~c to distract us from our central }llission." The event was sponsored by the group, along with the Republican-Jewish Coalition and the United 'Jewish Comm~ities~ Even so, officia.1s who 'discussed the case on Sunday, including·three,who have been briefed on it recently, said ifbegan as a highly confidential inquiry into what coun~erintelligence agents from the Fede~atBureau ofInvestigation ,regarded as a serious allegatio~ ofpossible spying that appeared to go well beyond the extensive iiifonnation-sharing relationship that exists between the United States and Israel. 'f.he F.B.1. obtained warrantS from a special federal court for surveillance un~er the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and for months kepttabs on Mr. Franklin. In an article on its Web site 6n Sunday, Newsweek magazine reported that the bureau first learned ofMr.. Franklin when agents observed him walking into a lunch in Washington b~tw~en a lobbyist for the American Israeli group.and an Israeli embassy official. ' American officials would not comment on the report. Israeli officials said Sunday that the lobbying group's main point ofcontact in-Washington was·Naqr Oilon, who is described in a biography on the Israe,li E~bassy's Web site as the minister ofpolitical affairs. Israeli officials said Mr. Gilon had no involvement in intelligence.matt~rs. Efforts to reach him on SUnday were notsuccessful. Mr. Fra,nklin began cooperating with agents this month in an arra~gement that fs still not completely understood. He agreed to help the authorities monitor his meetings with his contacts at the lobbying group. It is not clear whether the authorities in exc;,hange'agreed'to grant him any form ofleniency. Current and former defense officials said this weekend that Mr. Franklin worked for the Defense Intelligence' Agency for most ofhis career in the government until 200i, when he was detailed to the Penta.gon's policy office, headed by.Do~glas J. feith, the under secretary ofdefense for policy. Mr. 813112Q04 1:37 PM .Officials Say Publicity Derailed S~ts InquiryO w ~ T http://www.dia.~.Q.adminlEARLYB}RD10408301e200408303IS889.html 30r3 Franklin is one 9f.aboutl,SOO people who·~ork for Mr. Feith. When he..transferred to the Pentagon policy office, Mr. Franklin was assigned to the Northern Gulf directorate to work on issues related to Iran. After the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, that office was expan~ed and renamed.the Office ofSpecial Plans, and did most ofthe policy work on Iraq in the run-up to the war. Mr. Franklin was a part ofthat office but continued to work on Iran. In his job, Mr. Franklin is one oftwo Iran desk officers in the Pentagon's Near Eastern and South Asian Bureau, one ofsix regional policy sections. The Nell! Eastern office is supervised by William J. Luti, a deputy under secretary ofdefense, who also ovefSaw the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans, which conducted some early policy work for the 2003 invasion ofIraq. According to former colleagues, Mr. Franklin was originally a.Soviet specialist at the D.nA. who the agency's Mlddle,East division in the early 1990's. He learned Farsi and became an Iran analyst, developing extensive contacts within the community ofIranians who opposed the Tehran . government. ' "He was very close to the anti-Iranian dis,sidents," one former colleague said. "He was a good analyst of the Iranian political s~ene, but he was also someone who would go offon his own.II RichardA. Oppel Jr. contributed reportingjrom West Virginiajor this article, and Steven Erlangerfrom Jerusalem. . 813112004 1:37PM .. .. UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO , Washington Post August 31, 2004 Pg.3 ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UlJCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-Z010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg .~.. , lof3 FBI Interviews Senior Defense Officials I~ Probe Of A~~lyst Investigators Looking·At Contacts Witl' Israelis By Brad~ey Graham and Dan Eggen, Washington Post ~taffWriters The FBI has interviewed several senior Pentagon officials -in recent days in connection With an investigation of a Defense Department analyst who is suspected ofproviding classified 40cuments to Israel but has been cooperating with investigators for several weeks, government officials said yesterday. Douglas J.Feith, undersecretary for policy, and Peter Rodman, assistant secretary for international security affairs" are among those who met with FBI agents on Sunday an4 Monday abou~ the case, which has·focused on contacts between a lower-level Pentagon analyst, Lawrenc~ A. Franklin, land the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AlPAC), officials said. . . Higher-11lnking government officials 'have also been,briefe4 about the FBI investigatiQn lin recent days, incl~ding Secretary of.State Colin L. Powell. State Department spokesman Richard Boufher·said Powell was briefed over the weekend during a telephone call ~y James B. Comey, ~e deputy a~orney general, and told his senior a~des at a meeting yesterday to "coQperate in any way with any reque~ts that might come from the investigators.II I U.S. gov.ernment oftjcials familiar with-the Pentagon interviews, who declined to be ide~tified-b~cause ofthe senSitive nature ofthe case, characterized them as an attempt by FBI investigato~ to determipe whether Franklin received authorizatioQ. from any superior to engage in the actions that 1~vestigators ar~ probil!g. The FBI has been forced to accelerate its investigation since the case broke int<jl public view through media reports Friday. Franklin is s~pected ofhaving passed classifieg information -- including a draft presid~ntial directive on U.S. policy toward Iran -- to AlPAC, the major Israeli lobbying group in Was~ington, Whicp in tum may 'have passed it to Israel. AlPAC and Israel have denied the al!egations. Law enforcement officials said yest~rday that federal prosecutors in Alexandria were ~l~ser to filing charges in the case an~ th_atFranklin -- who has been cooperating with FBI agen~ fr0!U Ithe' Washington field office -- could be among those arrested. It was not clear whether Franklin would agree -- or be allo:wed ,-- to plead guilty to. a lesser charge ~n exchange for cooperation. ' lilt appears they're wrapping this thing up, and so they were checking with the chain ofqommand to make' sure no one had authorized hi~ to do any ofthis," said one official, who spoke on the c~ndition he not ~e identified further. Franklin, who has ~ot responded to repeated requests for comment at his office andhonie, first came to the il~enti~n ofthe FBI mqre than a year ago, when he showed up at a lunch between art Israeli diplomat 813112004 i:37 PM ..F~lll!terviews Se~ior Defense 9fficials In Pro.,....,-Analyst ~ ~ and an ~IPAC ()ffici~lthat-was being monitored by FBI.counte~intelligence agents, two law enforcement officials said yesterday. Law enforcement and defense officials have declined to say what that original investigation was about, 'and whethe~ it continues apart from the Franklin probe or has been abandoned. One law enforcement official who has been briefed on the Franklin case said it is part .of a broader FBI inquiry, but the official declined to elaborate. Defense officials familiar with the case empha,sized yesterday that the number ofthose at the Pen~gon approached by the FBI should not be taken as a sign that the'investigation was widening. They characterized the meetings as part interview, part briefing session, used by FBI authorities not only to gain information for their probe but also to brief senior defense officials about the status ofthe case, which c~e as a surprise to many at the Pentagon. The list ofthose interviewed: over the past several days runs from William J. Luti, who heads the section on Near East and South Asian affairs where Franklin is assigned as,a desk officer on Iran, through Rodman and Feith. All told the FBI that they did not give Franklin perniission to giv~ AlPAC or the Israelis any ofthe material at issue, officials said. At the Pentagon, before Friday~ disciosure, only D~fense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld, Qeputy Defense Secretary'PauID. Wolfowitz and department lawyers had been informed ofthe investig~tion, which has been underway for more than a year, officials said. "The FBI is focused on one suspect," one officHl1 said. "The briefings and interviews that they're doing have been a routine part oftheir probe --not it broade~ihg ofthe list ofs~spects." At t~e same time, several' ~efense officials said the FBI hits not told them everyt~ing that investigators have learned in the course ofthe probe, making. it difficult to be certain ofthe outcome; The premature disclosure has caused proBlems for investigators, according to numerous law enforcement officials speaking on the condition ofanonymity because the probe is ongoing. . "This has severely hampered their investigation,!' one law enforcement official said. "It's impossible to tell what plight have.been lost beca~se ofall this." An Israeli official in Wash!ngton said the embassy has not received any formal noti,ce from U.S. authorities that th.ere is an investigation ofthe Franklin case. He also said reports of~~ case were growing increasingly exaggerated. 1'. 20f3 nOiv.en ~he level ofdialogue between the ·United States and Israel, this makes little sense," the official said. "We basically pick up the phone and call when we want to discuss policy. We have formal and transparent and open djscussions on all th~se issues. It's not like there are differences on these subjec~;" Naor Oilo!), the embassy's top political diplo~at, who.has been identified in several media ~ccopnts as having met with Franklin, said in an inten;.iew with the Israeli newspaper Maariv published.yesterday that "my hands are clean." "All my activities·are well within the parameters ofaccepted diplomatic norms and procedures," he said,' adding that he was concerned the scandal.will affect his -work in Washington: "Everyone would t!tink twi.c~ n~C!w before talking to me." 813112004 1:37.PM l~~ IntCtvi~wsSenior pe~ OIlici~!n prn$Analyst .. " \ po , ft .~ ~ • .... .. ...." _. In Jerusalem ye_sterday, Foreign Minlster Silv'an'Shalofu to~d'iiieqibeis of.tl1e Jsraeli~cabinet}~~at tl).ere~ was no tr:uth;to' allegatiQns ofspying ~d said the,embassy",' deviatt:<i .either trom diplomatic n9f!ll~ 9r from the-good an~ Opel1: ~i.alogUe 1.jeiWee~ Israel and~the'U.S.,~' a~cording ~o an offici.a! ~~co~t ofhis sta~e~ents. An Ainerican_noti~ government whQ,\yas,i!1terviewed by the FBI l~t week described i~e line of ,questioning as ~ '~fishing e~peditJon'_' ~at d~d hot includ~ any mentio~ ofFi'anklin or Iran. the FBi appe~e~ m.9re concerned abo~t peoP.le this perso1i~ow~ who were·l<?okingJor access t9 intelligence or claSsifi~d informatipn. ' "!fwas left, startled f;i tQWIl 9faward-wil1;Oing j~u~alis~; law enforcemen~ offici~liuw~re ask~~g if' .anyooC? I knew inigh~-be iritere~ted in chis~if1e~ information," $e pers~n said. lilt was a fishing: . expedi~loo. It w~~a~.ex~emelr9dd,conversation.," , Staff)vriters Mqlly Moore. in "JeJ:usale!ri ,iiid Robin Wr!g"ht .qridJerry Markon in Jfashi1}gtol'i contri~iJted to .this r.eport., . .. , 30f3 ... - ............ ...."........ ..... ....,...-- .... _ ,,--,w. .......__ ~ 84\(2004 1:37PM UNCL~SSIFIED - FOUO Boston Globe .August 31, 2004 I ... \ ,"', I~' ""'t "~-j""-"'~o'H1.":~4'+-v«r!m-l!t~..~..~~l."'..'t"~~~~~..r.. ,. '. < .r:~~~~~/:i:.:~~~~~~;t~?~~~~uefense3liileUiien~;-ag~ui~ ~:t: ... ~.... _....-t"4't..__~~.l';:~-...1. Ir ..~. t! ~ ! ' ........... . . ..~ --piA HomeIWhats NewI Products bYTyPe IProducts'bY Regism I~Illiln ALL FBI INFO~~TION CONTAINED HEP~IN IS ~JCLASSIFIED _ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc bawjsab/lsg lof3 2d Probe At The Pentagon Examines. A,ctions On Iraq By Bryan Bender, Globe Staff WASHINGTON -- The Pentagon office in .which an analyst is the focus ofan investigation into the possible passing of secret documents to Israel is at the heartof another ongoing ptobe.on Capitol Hill. The broader probe is trying to determine whether Defense Departl{lent officials wen~ outside normal channels to gather intelligence on Iraq or overstepped their legal mandate by meet!ng with dissiden!S ~o plot against Iran and Syria, according ~o Bush admiriistratio~ and· congressional officials. Senate Intelligen~e and Hou;se Judiciary Co~mittee staffmembers say inquiries. into the Near East and South Asia Affairs division have found preliminary evidence tha! some officials gathered questionable information on we~pons ofmass destruction from Iraqi exile's such as Ahmed Chalabi without proper authorization, whic4 helpl!d build President Bush's case for an invasion last year. The investigators are also looking into a more serious concern: whether the office engaged in illegal· activity by holding unauthorized meetings with foreign-n~tionals to ~establize Syria ~d Iran without the presidential approval required for covert operations, said one senior congressiopal inves~igator who has longtime experience in. intellig~nce oversight. Government officials seeking the cooperatioQ. of foreign nationals to·take secret action against other countries p.eed a so-call~d presidential finding to engage in such activity. The office, I~d by Will~am J. Luti, a former Navy captain and a4viser to then-House Speaker Newt Gingricli,.is a.powerful cog in Bush administration policy making, populated by some ideologically-minded i~dividuals who se~ their goveriUnent service as a way to promote democracy in the Middle East and improve :US-Israel ties, according to colleagues inside ~nd outside government. Th~ recent investigation into whether analyst Larry Franklin provided documents on a pair of lobbyists with the pro-Israel American-Israel Public Affairs Committee -- who then allegedly passed them to the Israeli government -- has placed the little-noticed Pentagon office in the national spotlight at a time when. the Bush administration is attempting to convince vot~rs that the president has been a <?ompetent manager ofmiti~l!al ~~~urity affairs. Douglas Feith, undersecretary ofdefense for policy, who oversees the Near East office, declined to comment. Luti and Franklin did not respond to messages. -Richard Perle, a former assistant secretary ofdefense in the Reagan administration and current adviser to t~e Pentagon, said the investigations are baseless and politically motivated. lilt's pretty nasty, and unfortunately the admi1!istration doesn't seem to have it under contro~," ~aid Perle, calling on the administration to defend Feith more vigorously. 8131120041:37 PM ; 2~ Probe At The Pentagon Bxamines Actio~ 00q '" .. • . hUp:lIwww.dla.ts"adminIBARLYBIRDt04083I1e20040831316433.hlml -, 'i 20f3 Both Perle and senior Defense officials, spe~ing on the condition ofanonymity, deny that the P9licy office or two controversial subgroups have ever engaged in intelligence-gathering activities. The division's work, they said, has consis.ted only ofdrafting policy options for superiors. They contend that the now-defunct P9licy Counterterrorism Coordination Group, set up after the Sept. 11 attacks to search for links between Al Qaeda and state sponsors such as Iraq, never gathered intelligence; it only reevaluated previous government findings. The Iraq War planninggroup called the Office of Special Plans,meanwhile, did not engage in any wrongdoing or questionable contacts, they said. Butinvestigators for the Senate Intelligence Committee, which is closely scrutinizing the office as part of a formal probe of pre-Iraq War intelligence-gathering, and Democratic members ofthe House JudiciarY Committee, who are conducting a preliminary probe, say that the full picture ofthe office's·activities may include more than meets the eye. They are seeking additional documents and interViews from policy officials. After months ofdelay, the investigators said, they are getting cobperation from Feith and his staff: Some of the incidents that prompted the probes are already known. Franklin and another employee, Harold Rhode, met secretly with Manucher Ghorbanifar, an Iranian arms dealer, in Italy in December 200i and subsequently in Paris. The Paris meeting was not approved by Pentagon officials. Ghorbanifar, who has been linked to the Iran-contra scandal ofthe 1980s, has said the men discussed ways to destabilize the Iranian regime, labeled a part ofPresident Bush's tlaxis ofeviltl for support of terrorist groups and suspected development ofwe~ponsofmass destft:lction. Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said I~t fall that the meeting was requested by Iranian officials to dis<;uss the war on terrorism, but nothing came of it. But one congressional investigator said staffers are looking into whether there was an exchange ofmoney between US officials and Ghotbani(ar or pther Iranians, and whether any proposals for cooperation included seeking assistance from the Mujahed~n-e Khalq, a group in Iraq that is seeking to overthrow the Iranian regime but is labeled a terrorist group by the US State Department. Another Near East policy official, F. Michael Maloof, was stripped ofhis security clearance a year ago after the FBI linked him to a Lebanese-American businessman under investigation by the FBI for weapons trafficking. Ahandgun registered to Maloofwas found in the possession ofImad el Hage, a suspected arms dealer. Investigators are seeking to learn whether Maloof's alleged contacts with Hage and a hard-line former Lebanese general, Michel Aoun, may have been part ofa back-channel effort to destabilize-Syria, which has occupied Lebanon for nearly two decades. "People are concerned about covert action being conducted·by a policy office with no legal mandate to do so," said one DemocIC:ltic official involved in the Judiciary Committee inquiry. "lfthe Senate and House intelligence committees in their review only look at the Chalabi relationship but don't look at the office's role in what was in-effect covert action to explore regime change in the entire arc oftPe Middle East, then their inquiry will be a joke." 813112004 1:37. PM •~ P~be At The Pentagon Examines Aetions0(1 hllp:llwww.dia.i(5.ladminlEARL.(B1RD1040831/e20040831316433.html 30f3 The official said he is ttying to determine if some ofthe office's activities may have been prohibited by the Hughes-Ryan Amendment, which holds that all activity to undermine a foreign government must be approved by the president in a specific document approving such activity. Supporters ofFeith and his policy advisers roundly deny accusations that the office is a rogue .opemtion. They say the two ongoing FBI inquiries into alleged leaks ofclassified infonnation amount to what one called "McCarthyism," a sustained campaign by opponents ofBush's policies to discredit their views and brand them as pawns for the Israeli lobby merely because they are pushing for stronger action against terrorist states. They note that no arrests have been made, only charges a~d leaks to journalists fr9m unnamed officials. "It sounds to me that it'is an investigation that was leaked for maximum adverse affect on the office, which has been subjected to a lot ofother criticism," said'Frank Gaffney, president ofthe conservative Center for Security Policy and a former assistant defense secretary under President Reagan. "You have people who are-controversial. They are taking positions that last time I checked, the president ... was closely associated with, that are opposed by other people in the bureaucracy. "One of the tricks ofbureaucratic warfare is to attack them in the press. It makes them less effective," Gaffney said. -"I think that is going on here." . 813112004 1:31,PM Israel's Albatross: U.S. NeoeoDS .~ " UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Los Angeles-Times August 31, 2004 ....'~ ,' ~ ·v~:·· ...,.:·~{'~·~'l1"'~~;r,D·····J7'1t··!"~:'.~~·t~n ~'l..\mtI'1!!;?fAZ~~~.· ~ ......... '.. _. ~··."l; ,:. ./.·~~U·.\!~':-"'t::;-:\,..,. e.lenso;m e tgence~eney.:'" I ~ • ..MJA,"MV~""''''':</f~.:...;.!t1~''~'~s.s "q"'+a • ,.~.,,"'''' ~.-......-.~- . _. ~. ,.,. ~-DiA-Homcil Wbati NccY,1 frOslve's by'Type IproduCts by Resionf~ Ilkhl ALL FBI INFOPMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS tU~CLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg l,of2 Israel's Albatross: U.S. Neocons By Robert Scheer With friends like these, israel doesn't need enemies. The p\U'Ported Israeli "spy caper" is another sign that the neoconservatives in the ~u~h administration, who cl~im to'be big ~upporters ofIsrael, on the contrary, have increased the risks for the Mideast's only functioning democracy. As the. developing story goes, a neacon Pentagon official allegedly gave_clas~ified documents to the American Israel'Pub,lic Affairs Committee, the pro-Israel lobby, which then passed them on to the Israeli Emb~sy. So far? these are onlY unproved accusations. It is disturbing that some well-placed Qfficials in t~e Bush adniinist~tion'haye leaked to the media ~llegations of spying against the Pentagon official and a respecte9 ally.. As'de~onstrat~d in the phQny, Clinton-era China spy case, in which Los Alamos nuclear weapons scientist Wen Ho ~ee was smeared, such lurid charges may not stick. -But the c~arges now circulating do call attention to the regime-change ideologues in the Pentagon, whose antics have left Israel more vull1erable than at any time in recent memory. First, the Bush-administration abandoned the Israel-Palestinian peace proces~ and the United ~tates' historical role as a good-faith broker petween the two sides. Then, after 9/11, the tight band ofso-called .neoconservatives who had champi.oned the invasion,ofIra~-forye·ars, both,in Israel and.i!l the U.S., ~uccessfully completed their hijacking ~fU.S. foreign policy by·landing us in ~e Iraq This has only served to infl!lme passio~s ~cross the region, increasing the threat t9 Israel. Many Is~aeiis concerned for their country are alarmed by President Bush's substitution ofmilitarism for diplomacy, W~ich they believe only. benefits those wh9 Rrofit from fear and hate - such as anns brokers and , political and religious ~xtremis~. - .. -In addition, moderates across the Muslim Worldp'ave seen their position eroded by popular anger over the U.S. occupation and Washington's uncritical support for Ariel Sharon. Al Qaeda and allied terror grouRs have seized Qn the chaos and fury to recruit anew generation of fighters. Extremists are now in control ofcru~~ai parts ofIraq and disrupting th~ r~st, while rogu~ Iran is more politically influential among th~ir cO-J;'eligionists in the Shiite majority in Iraq than is the U.S. with its 120,000 troops on the ground. Now, after the missing weapons ofmass destruction and Abu Ghraiti, comes the latest embarrassing blow to America's image - which polls show has been in-free fall-since the decision to·invade Iraq. It centers on neocon Larry Franklin, the Pentagon's chief Iran analyst, who, according to unnamt;d ~fficials, is under investigation for allegedly supplying the American'Israel committee with a secret draft presidential directive on U.S.-Ir~n policy that was allegedly passed on to Is~ael. Franklin is an ideological comrade of his bosses, Douglas J. Feith, undersecretary ofDefense for policy, _...... --.-_ .. ~. __ .. - • -, - 'i' 813112004 1:38 PM .·Israel's Albatross: U.S. }lJeocons hUp:lIwww.diai(S.ladmlnlEARLYBIRDI04083J1e20040831316386.html and Deputy Defen~e ~ecretary Paul D. Wolfowitz, the two strongest promoters inside the administration ..,.. ofpreemptively invading Iraq. He also was part ofthe unit that funneled intelligence chum up the food chain and into Bush's now..discredited speeches claiming Saddam Hussein's regime posed an imminent danger. These are the folks who bought the disinfonnation pumped out by Iraqi exile.Ahmad Chalabi, whom they promoted as the George Washington ofthe new Iraq state. Now the neocons distance themselves from Chalabi, who'has been accused ofspying for Iran and harangues radical Iraqi Shiite crowds with anti-American rhetoric. That can't be good fOf Israel, which is threatened by Iran's n~clear program. The neocons are unstable ideologues, more in love with their own radical dream ofbreaking the world to remake it in their image than they are with protecting Israel or the U.S. Such unbounded arrogance, embraced by Bush, has greatly amplified the voices of those persistent anti-Semitic conspiracy theorists in the Muslim world and beyond who are now seizing upon the latest Israeli spy rumors. . tilt revives the old charge that Israel is not an ally but a treacherous country," Nathan Guttman wrote Monday in the Israeli newspaper Haaretz. That charge is false. What is troe is thatnot every Bush administration hawk who claims to support Israel is actually a'reliable friend. 20f2 8131120041:38 PM ._.The Iranian Bomb W., UNCLASSIFIED _FOUO Washington T~mes August 31, 2004 Pg. 16 The Irani~n Bomb ~y Frank J. Gaffney Jt. .http://wWw.dia,i~~inIEARLYBlRDi040831/e2l10401i313t6364.h1m! ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAI~mD HEP~IN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg 10f2 One could be forgiven, !n light of recent headlines and'press accounts, for \yondering precisely who the enemy is in this war on terror: For some people, it cle~rly seems the list should include - i€not be headed by - a.aemocratic ally that has bee~ subjected, per capita,to considerably more sustained .and deadly terrorist attacks 'than tile Unit~d States: Is"rael. This argument requires Israel to be seen not for what it is - n~mely, a longstanding U.S. partner in,a strategically vital region ofthe' world where few exist, one that shares America's values and is a bulwark against the risin~ tid~ ofanti-We~tem I$lamist extre1l!is!D. Israel must, instead? be portrayed as perfidi~us, p~rsuing an intematio*al agenda divergent from (if not actu~lly at odds with) that ofthe 'United States an4 a liability, rathe~ t!tan an asset. - Those who wo~ld portray Israel ~n .suc~ an unflattering light doubtless are gleeful over leaks claiming the Jewis.h State surreptitiously obtained state secrets from. a U.S. government employee working for t~e Pentagon. At thJs ,writing, no evidence has beeq. provided to support'such charges. Nor has anyone'been. api>reherided - although, for s~veral ,d,ays, the FBfhas been described as poised to arrest someone employed by the Defense Department's·policy organizatio~. On~y time will tell whether anyone actually is taken into custody, the type ofcharges and wh~ther he is actually found guilty.. In the meanti~e, thes~ leaks have already divert~d attention from a' nation that genuin~ly,should head the. , list ofAmerica's foes: the terrorist-sponsoring, nuclear-arming and ballistic missile-wielding Islatnist gov~rnment ofIran. This effect haS been all the·more ironi9 insofar as, according tO,press accounts, the classified information the FBI thinks was improperly purveyed to Israel involved documents shedding light on America's evolving policy toward the Irani~n. mulhihocracy. Strategic analyst Steven D~ka~ recently offered a reminder ofthe peril posed by Iran: "While the Islamic Republic ofIran as a state is technically not at war with the U.S., Ayatollah Khomeini's fatwa calling-for total war by all Shl'ites, regarciiess ofcitizenship, against the 'Great Satan ~erica' remai~s in effect ~ it has never.been rescinded" and in fact was expanded to include killing Americans as being a necessary part ofa defens~ve jihad to make the world sa(e for Islam. Khohteini's pioneering pseudo-theology was later picked up by Sunni ex~remists,including Osama bin Laden.II .. IIi a t~oughtful article in the Aug. 23 New York Post, ~ir Taheri recounted how 19tomeirii and his succe~sors have translated that fatwa into a 25~year-Iong war against the United States - wag~d asymmetricaUy, both directly (for ~xample, in'attacks against U.S. embassies and personnel) and indirectly (through terrorist proxies like Hezbollah in Lebanon, Sheik Muqtada al-Sadr in Iraq and Shi'ite .warlords i~ Afghanistan). Mr. Taheri correctly Qbsetves "the Khomeinist revoluti9n defines itself in opposition to a vision ofthe world.that it regards as an American imposition.... With or without nuclear weapon.s, the I~lamic Republic, in its present shape,.represents a clear and pr~sent threat to the kind of --- - -- -- ---... 8/3 1/2004 1:38 PM .~T.he lrani~ Bomb -.. o hUP:lIwww.dia.i(5'/adminIBARLYBIRD10408311e2Q01083 ~316364.hlinl Middle East that President Bush says he wants to shape." '" .' Therefore, for the '(:J.S., stopping Tehran's Islamist government before it obtains the carry out threats to attack Americans forces in Iraq and elsewhere should .be an urgent priority. FQr Israel, however, denying the ruling Iranian mullahs nuclear arms is literally a matter ofnational life and death. Israel's concern about the growing existential threat from Iran can only be heightened by overtures Sen. John Kerry and his running mate have been making lately to Tehran"" In remarks Monday, vice presidential candidate John Edwards said a Kerry administration would offer the Iranians a "great bargain": 'They could keep their nuclear energy program and obtainfor it Western supplies ofenriched uranium fuel, provided the regime in Tehran promised to forswear nuclear weapons. According to Mr. Edwards, if Iran did not accept this "bargain," everyone - including our European alliesl~ would recognize the true, military purpose'ofthis program and would,"standwith us" in!evying on'lran "very heavy sanctions." There is just one problem: Based oJ) what is knoWn about Iran's program and intentions -let alone its history ofanimus toward us - only the recklessly naive could still believe such a deal is necessary to divine the mullahs' true purposes. While it may be inconvenient to say so, Iran is clearly putting into place a complete nuclear fuel cycle so as to obtain both weapons and power from its reactor and enrichment facilities. And a deal like that on offer from Messrs. Kerry and Edwards failed abysmally in North Korea. If the United States is unwilling to take concrete steps to prevent the Iranian Bomb from coming to fruition, its Israeli ally will· likely feel compelled to act unilaterally - just as it did with the 1981 raid that neutralized Saddam Hussein's nuclear infrastructure. At the time, the Reagan adminis~tionjoined the world in sharply protesting Israel's attack. Adecade later, however, the value ofthe contribu~ion thus made to American security was noted by then-Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, who said he thanked God every day during Operation Desert Storm that Israel had kept Iraq a nuclear-free zone. If such a counterproliferation strategy becomes necessary once again, it will be in all ofour interests to have Israel succeed. Frank J. Gaffney Jr. is president ofthe Center[or Security Policy and a coiumnis(for The Washington Times. ... 20f2 813112004 1:38 PM .. Hand Rumsfeld Hi~ Walking Papers. .; r .. .. .... or ~ .UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Seattle Post-Intelligencer August 31', 2004 , htlp:llwww.dia.O/adminlEARLYBIRDI040831/C200408313 I6426.hbnl ALL FBI INFORHATION CONTAUJED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg ·,~ lof2 Hand Rumsfeld His Walking Papers !3y Helen Thomas, Hearst Newspapers WASHINGTON ,;,-The tillie has come for Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to leave:His'Pentagon post, either by dismissal or resignatio~. Two separ~te reportsJast week make it clear that Rumsfeid and other t~p PeJ.1tagon officials were ultimate!y responsible for the sadistic abus~ of.prisoners in Iraq's infamous Abu Ghraib. Areport by a four-member panel headed by foriner Defense Secretary James SchlesiJ!ger traced the mistreatment ofprisoners 'in ~q to failures that went all the way up the chainlof com~and in the Pentagon. Another military report Wednesday said 27 people attached to intelligence agencies as well as four private cont~ctors participated in abuses, some tantamount tp torture, ofprisoners. "We.discovered serious misconduct and a loss ofmoral-values," said Army Gen. Paul Kern, ,head ofthe investigation. This gives the lie to early Pentagon efforts'to paiht the prison abuses as the work ofa handful of low-level MPs, acting out their frustrations. The Kern report also noted that eight "ghost detainees" were conceale~ from the Ipterna~ional Committee ofthe Red Cross. One ofthem died in custody. The origiQ ofthe scandal·traces back to Feb. 2, 2002, when President Bush abrogated the Geneva Conventions requiring humanitarian treatment ofprisoners. Bush declared that ~ose rules did~'t apply to the U.S. war against terrorism. Bush has been scrapping ou:r international agreements since he came into office, but for this one he has paid dearly in t~rms ofjust plain decency. 'I. When he canceled the <;]eneva accords, the U.S. focus was in Afghanistan where American forces were rounding up al-Qaida and Taliban suspects. Later that year, in'December, Rumsfeld authorized ruthless interrogation practices against detainees rounded up in Afghanis~ and held at the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Those approved practices included the use ofdogs to terrifY prisoners, forcing p~isoners fito prolonged painful stress positions, stripping them naked, solitary confinement, shaving them, hooding them. The train then completely left the tracks after the U.S. invasion ofIraq where.U.S. military pers<?nnel at the Abu Ghraib ppson adopted the same interrogation.tactics used in Afghanistan and at Quantanamo Bay. 'The photos provided the shocking evidence earlier this year and the investigations, courts-martial and congressional hearings began. 8[3112004 1:39 PM. Hand Rumsfeld His Walking Papers " ... o 20f2 Top military officials ignored the mistreatment ofprisoners until the graphic photographs of naked prisoners piled in a pyramid at Abu Ghrail? horrified the public. , Red Cross reports about prison abuses fell on deatears at the P~ntagon until the administration..was faced' with exposure. Several reviews ofthe military mistreatment of prisoners have been under way but the Schl~singer panel was the first to assign any responsibility to the highest levels ofthe Pentagon. IIThere is both institutional and personal responsibility at higher levels,II the Schles~nger report said. Schlesinger said the pris<;>n problems were "well knownll and corrective actions "could have been taken. , and should have been taken~ II Despite all ofthis, the report concluded that Rumsfeld and other-senior leaders, including Air Force Gen. Richard Myers, chairman ofthe Joint Chiefs"ofStaft; should not be forced to resign. Since he is a Washington "establishment" figure who headed the Pentagon in the Nixon era, Schlesinger was not about to go any higher than a brigade commailder to parcel out responsibility. Schlesinger said Rumsfeld's resignation would be "a boon to all of America's enemies and consequently, I think that it wQuld 'be a misfortune if it were to take place.It Wrong. It would show the world that Americans are not afraid to topple leaders when the country is dishonored on their watch. For those who have lived under totalitarian rule, a challenge to the leadership could have dire consequences. But.that's not our system. In a democracy, public servants must be held accountable. Rumsfeld should have thrown in the towel months ago for this scandal. In the run-up to the invasion ofIraq, the Rumsfeld coterie bragged about the "shock and awe" ofthe p'anned U.S. invasion. The secretary has since lost some ofhis swagger and is no longer a]\T rock ~tar. As the gravity ofthe scandal gradually sunk in around the world, Rumsfeld has become virtually invisible to the public. Rumsfeld stands indicted by the very panel that he appointed to assess responsibility. The fact that the S'chlesinger panel vee~ed sharply atthe last curve and said Rumsfeld should keep his job can't bury the reality that they traced the footprints right to Rumsfeld's office. It's time for him to take responsibility for this scandal. It's time for him to leave office. 813112004 1:39 PM, ;A7AICenterOfSpy Flap Called ~aive, '1;1~ ~Is...1 http://wwwodia.t;/@llminIBARLYBIRDI040831/s2004083131641I.hllitl ."t! .... ,,~ UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Tel ~viv Haaretz August 31, 2004 - ; '~':l:~ ·.:.:",~','f~~2;:';;,;'·~t~i~~~iI_mt1fn~:q;:C:iA::~~.i ...:J.I . or~"''''''"!&J''''''''"''-'';''-~~ ,(l ~fd'''' r..........". a.tS' gft'".. "J("~ • ~ ... .A .. - -- - PIA Home I What's NewIProductS by Tvpe IProducts bY Region I~IJ:!dn ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw!sab/1sg I of~ Analrst At Center Of Spy Flap Called Naive, Ardently Pro-Israel By Nathan Guttman WASHINGTON - Larry Franklin, the Pentagon analyst suspected ofpassing classified material about Iran to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, has never hidden his unequivocal support ofIsrael. Colleagues from the Near East and South Asia desk at the Defense Department said yesterday that his sympathy for Israel was overt and public - he didn't refrain from praising Israel and he held aggressive views about seve~l Arab governments, primarily the ayatollahs' regime in Iral\ and Saddam Hussein's dictatorship in Iraq. "Everyone kn~W he was·a friend ofIsrael;·but he didn't go about it in any unusual way," a Pentagon coworker said. "He was always accessible t9 everyone.II Franklin~s r~sume describes his current positi~n, which he has held since 200I, as: "Office·ofthe Secretary ofDefense,-Policy, Near EastlSou~h Asia, Iran desk analyst, Office ofSpecial Plans Iraq. Focus Projects: Hizboll~, Islam, Saudi Arabia." But the official re~ume reveals only a few details about the man at the center oCtbe affair. franklin, a religious Gatholic in his late 50s, lives in Kearneysville, West Virginia, a 90-minute ~rive from"the Pentagon..But living in the distantsubur~ assured a high quality oflife. for F:ranklin, his ~ife Patricia ana t~eJr ~v~ children, some ofwhom are college-age. Franklin has a doctorate in East Asian studies from St. Jo~'s University, a,Catholic ~iversity in New York City, and speaks Farsi, Arabic, French, Spanish, Russian and Chinese (in addition to English). On top of his work at the Pentagon, Franklin teaches history at Shepherd University i~ We~t Virginia. In conversations about Fr~nklin with his colleagues, one ofthe words that comes up again and again is "naive." He is described as an ideologue who believes wholeheanedly in the neo-conservative approach. tI~verything by him is blac~ and White," said someone who has work~d with Franklin in the P~ntagon. tlHe is a very nice ~erson, very conservative, not at all arrogant,~' said the colleague, adding that one Qf the reasons he was brought into the Near East and South Asia desk was his political beliefs. Franklin's political-opinions are similar to those of his bosses .. Douglas Feith, ulJ,dersecret.ary ofdefense, and William L.uti,.the deputy ~de~ecretary ofdefense responsible for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs: Like th~m, Franklin supports the. policy ofacting to bring·democra~y to AraQ regimes and build allies in the Middle East But those who have worked wi,th"franklin also say he was a bit extreme in his work patterns, atti~de and behavior. They occasionally referred to him as "Planet Larry" ~ a·way of expressing the extent to which he "lives in a world ofhis own," colleagues said. People who have 'Yorked with Franklin believe that it was his trademark naivete that gothim in trouble, s~ying F~anklin was not aware of the severity ofhis activi~ies, and so did not try to hide or mask them. 813112004 1:39 'PM ·:An~lySt At Center qrS~y Flap C~II~ ~aiv~ A~y ~ro-Isniei c '" 'V!' .. ,- .'" .FranJdin.visited Israel eight tiqles ~hH~ he the ll..§. A!r,:Force and the Pen~gon... ~Most ofhis.visits app'ear to have be~eii relilted"t<Yhis'teserve duty sC?rvice:aS afi"Qfficer dealing with intemational c9ntacts. AccordiJ).g to l}.is resume, ~ranklin'served as 8; rese~e air force colonel between 1997 and,2004, working with ~~"U.S. ~ilitai'y attache in T~l Ayiv.,Bef~rehand h~'was inyolvedin ari~!yzing cQunter-intel!igence. in the air f<?r<;e. ' 'Had the current accusations not come to.light~ FraQklin's.1ob at th~ Pent~go~"viO,~I~ h~ve d~pe;Il~~d on the" presideQ.tial elections, his coworkers said. If;Democ~tic can~date John-K~rrY wi~s.the next election, colleagues said, it's doubtful that Franklin will move up, ~ue t9 his well-knoW!) pol!pc~l views. . '''He was consider:ed a I'ittle strange even (or the ne9-cpris," a cowo~ker s·aid. "They're' probabiy saying to themselves·- oh, ~arry again.II , . - 20f2 _ -- - , ..................... "" ~ -.... .. - _._~ - -- ~ ........ - ........ - .. <It .... ....aIll&. ~ -- -- - - --- - - ~ _. _.."'"""'- ... ""-- ...... 8131t2~41:39 PM I _ Affair Won't Hann Strong US-Israel Ties '!' •..I.f UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO :Jerusalem Post August 31,'2004 Analysis: hltJ?:llwww.ilia.(S..adniinlEARLYBJRDI0408311s2004083\3162\S.hJIDI' ~j~' . ."~J< '\ ·'~·.~~~·~~~:W~~~~f'·D"'!~i~;~'~i~:.tU...:. ,t~t~;:~~::'~~~ ..1 ~••..t::. ..... ~.,f:;.-="'~=~~~~~i ~:~.• \(-r ".?/f.;; ...e. ...y~~)UI fe ag~p.ce:~~ tilA HOme1What's New IProduCt!rt by Type IProdu~s by Region I~i~ ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg lof2 Affair Won't 'Harm Strong US-ISrael Ties By Gerald M. Steinb~rg, The Jerusal~m Post By their very: na~e, allegations ofespionage and abuse ofcla~sifiedmaterial get huge headliiie~, although the. evidence;... ifany - usually remain,s murky and hidden from public scrutiny. This is particularly th.e case regarding the l}S and Israel, reflecting the wide ~ecurity cooperation that has developed in response to terrorism, nuclear proliferation, and other mutual threats. Mixed with hints of conspiracy and dual loyalty, such cooperation presents a huge target for the relatively small ~u~ber of American offi~ials ~d journalists who want to see tpis relationship halted. For many years, claims involving Israel and spying have been manipulated in the effort tQ drive a wedge betw~en Washington and Jerusale~, particularly after the Pollard fiasco. The damage to relations in' that case was extensive, and its echoes are $till being fett today, making another "affair" the dr~am ofall those who wis.h to disruptUS-Isniel cooperation. But th~ lessons from Pollard ~ppear to have been learned by both the:Israeli government and the US. At the same time,.the absence ofreal and juicy spy scandals has spurred the' invention offictiti9us ones. Afew years ago, false charge~ ~at Israel was stealing and selling the Pentagon's technical secrets to China were later revealed to have been part ofa personal campaign ofreve.nge involving two American officials working for different branches ofthe go~emment. And headlines claiming ~at Israel was eavesdropping on the Os ;vvere also exposed ~'nonsense. In another case, the he~d ofthe CIA - George Tenet - sent. an apolpgy to then Mossa~ head Danny Yatoro"apologizing for accusations linking Israel to espionage. These periodic leaks and allega;tions, including the current case,. reflect a wider agenda. Th~ Ara~ lobby in Washington is gaining influence and access to the media,· and peddling ,such stories is one means of' moving the focus awaytfrom te~orism and t~e growing pressure from many Americans to for the corrupt regimes in the Middle :East. In addition,·fringe Republican Pat Buchanan and his adherents clingto·the classical anti-Semitic myths in which Jews are po~ayed'as all powerful,·and secretly manipulating US policy. The post~war complic"ations inlrag and tlie charge'that a neo-conservative kabal"(code for Jews and' Zionists, even though the top two neo-cons - Secretary .0fDefense Rumsfeld and Vice Pr~sident'Cheney are neither) led America"into this confrontatiol) have,revived the~e myths. This may explain the ~ttempt to involve AIPAC - the "powerful" pro-Israellob~y - and the timing ofthi~ leak at the heightofthe US election campaign. . Yet ~espite these efforts and short-lived I:t~adlines, US-Israel security coope~tio~ has be,?ome,stronger, reflecting an understanding ofthe necessity ofsharing resQ~~ces and; knowledge in order to counter the threats ~9 both. In addition, the underlying shared values of democracy and freedom remai~ central~ and .813112004 1:40 PM Affair Won't Hann ~tiOng US-Israel Ties 2of2 <::> " mark the difference between American and European attitudes towards Israel. As ~ result, in th~ earlier alleged espionage cases, including JJ1e Pollard affair, after the dust cleared, this coxp.mon core re"mained intact,'and there is no re~on to expect the outcome tO'be dlfferent this time. Indeeq, investigatjons into the sources Qfthe allegations and the erqbellis~ent add~d by CBS News may deter the next round ofthis game. Prot.·GeraldM Steinberg directs the Program on Conflict Management at Bar-llan University. 8131120041:40 PM ;'iran Intrigue •. eIt 'UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO ~oston Globe August 31, 2004 Iran Intrigue o --. :~ hltp:/!10408311s20040831~16431.html ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg loft THE MOST instructive aspect ofthe FBI's interest in Larry Franklin, an Iran desk officer in the Defense Department, is the light it casts on, the incohere~ce ofpolicy-making in the Bush adininist~ation tat4er than any conspiracy to pilfer America~ secrets for Israel. There" is a crucial background to the FBI's investigation ofFranklin, who has come-under suspicion for supposedly passing a classified presidential policy directive about Iran to a leader ofthe American Israel· . Public Affai~s ,Committee who allegedly passed the material on to an Israeli official. A neoconservative colleague ofFranklin in the Defense Department, Harold Rhode, and the' neocon promoter Michael Ledeen had been involved in secret back..chaJ:!llel meetings in Paris starti~g as early as l)ecember 2001 with th~ shady Iranian arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar, a key.figure hi the Reagan-era folly r~membered as the Iran-Contra affair~ The CIA had long since proscribed'dealings wit!t Ghorbanifar. The agency had hi~ classified as'a chronic liar. When a US ambassador in Italy got wind ofthe meetings, he and the CIA station'chief in . Rome notified superi~rs at the.State Depai1Ipent and the CIA. George Tenet, the" fonner CIA director, in turn persuaded the number two official on the National Security Couit9il, Stephen Hadley, to prohibit further meet~I.lgs with the Iranian a.nps merchant and the, so-called Ir~nian dissidents he was presenting to neocons avid for regime change in Tehran. This White House prohibition against the back-channel meetings arranged' by Ghorbanifar was to no avail. There were at l~ast two and possibly several more m~etings. Ghorbanifar, living up' to his . . reputation for indiscreet gabbiness, has boasted about further meetings to reporters for the Washington Monthly. This is the outline ofa policy quarrel that one faction has Qeen ~aging surreptitiously. Not only ~he FBI but also the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence have been investigating the neocons' secret me~tings in Paris to promote regime change in Tehran., The regime in Tehran does pose a threat by virtue ofits nuclear program, its sponsorship ofthe Lebanese Shi'ite militia Hezbollah, and its meddling in Iraq. The Bush administration, however, has"been unable to settle on a coherent strate~ to cope with the challenge from Tehran. It is quite possible that no ,prosecution will result from the FBI's in~~rest in Franklin's suspected. disclosure ofclassified infofuatiQn about President Bus~'s Iran policy, as it is unlikely Israel would "permit an intelligence operation that targeted the Bush adrninistration.•ButifBush does ~ot take control of h~s own adn;linistration's policy-making process, the nation could be 4rawn into another Gulfwar by one faction ofthe conservative constellation in his own administration. 8131(.2.. 004 2:08 PM " Espionage Intrigue " "t:. ;It " .., • ..,." UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO o hUp:l/WWWodi"O/adminlEARLYBIRDI04083I1s200408313164I6.html Baltimore Sun August 31, 2004 Espionage Intrigue ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sabllsg I ofl THE DENIALS are loud and resounding. The American Israel Public Affairs Committee called allegations that the American Jewish lobby received secret information about U.S. poiicy on Iran from a Pentagon analyst, and passed it onto Israel, "baseless and false." The government ofIsrael·was just as emphatic about the charge: "false and outrageous.II The reported FBI investigation touched a nerve. It raised the specter ofdivided loyalties, Israel spying on its chiefally and benefactor, mudslinging at a pro-Israel presi4ent on the eve ofhis renomination. I There's plenty there to provoke alanning headlines, sharp rhetoric and legitimate cause for concern -- if the allegations prove true. Iran's nuclear program poses a threat to the United States and Israel, though for the Americans it's strategic and for the Israelis it's considerably more immediate. Tehran's insistence on producing Quclear material has pushed Israel to threaten a strike on an Iranian nuclear facility. In 1981, Israel took out Iraq's nuclear reactor to quell similar ambitions. Yet an'Iranian-Israeli face-offwould have devastating consequences for the West and for the Islamic world. The reports about Pentagon analyst Lawrence Franklin, who is at the center ofthe investig~tion, are contradictory. But the fact that he works in a policy office overseen by the ideological Douglas J. Feith clouds the issue. Mr. Feith is a controversial neo-conservative who trumpeted the fall ofSaddam Hussein as an engine for democracy in the Mideast. He was an ardent champion ofAhmad Chalabi, the discredited Iraqi expatriate now thought to have had links to Iranian intelligence. The contradictions also extend to Israel. President Bush is such an unabashed supporter ofIsraeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon that it's unfathomable that Israel couldn't get information on U.S.-Iranian policy if it asked. Would it risk an espionage scandal like the Pollard affair of 1985? What's ironi~ i~ that if the espionage allegations are true, Israel will have likely confirmed that the United States in fact has no coherent or cogent policy on Iran. And the need for one is urgent, given Iran's ' nuclear ambitions and its less-than-candid dealings with international atomic energy inspectors. The campaign ofDemocratic presideQtial candidate John Kerry has unveiled its plan to persuade Iran to give up its nuclear weapons capability -- itwould retain its nuclear energy plants in exchange for any nuclear bomb-making fuel. Mr. Bush has painted himself into a comer with his hm:sh position on Iran and its inclusion in the "axis of evil." The International Atomic Energy Agency is expected in early September to release its report on Iran's nuclear program. Mr. Bush should be prepared to respond with a substantive plan to engage Iran instead ofhis usual, polarizing rhetoric. 8/3112004 2:08 PM ----------- --- oALL IN:ORMATI~~ CONTAINED 0 HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg ~unday,Sep.05,2004 A Web OfIntrigue Inside the Israel espionage investigation By BR;IAN BENNETT, ELAINE SHANNON AND ADAM ZAGORIN TIl\1E MAGAZINE It was a hot, late August afternoon when the Iraqi exile got a call on his cell phone. Over the crackling line, the Iraqi says, the caller identified himself as Larry Franklin, an analyst for the Defense Department in Washington. Franklin rattled offa series ofquestions. He wanted to know if the Iraqi, who had spent, the past decade working with Ahmad Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress (I.N.C.), could recall whether anyone at the I.N.C. had discussed the U.S.'s ability to intercept and decode Iran's secret communications. The Iraqi, who knew Franklin's name but had . never met him, was startled by the call. "How about discussing Iranian codes with a drunken American? Had anyone ever done that?" Franklin wanted to know. For nearly halfan hour, Franklin quizzed him about Pentagon officials and Iranian spycraft. "That was 'really scary," recalls the Iraqi. "I told him, II don't remember anything."1 That phone call, which the Iraqi described to TIME last week, seems to be an indication that two complicated spy cases have become linked. Several weeks ago, according to federal lawenforcement officials, Franklin, who had been under investigation by the FBI for giving classified information to the American ~srael Public Affairs Committee (AlPAC), agreed to cooperate in a probe into whether the pro-Israel group was passing sensitive U.S. secrets to Israel. . Franklin's call to the ex-I.N.C. man, who has provided Tllv.IE with credible information in the past, suggests that Franklin was also assisting the FBI in a separate inquiry into how highly classified details ofAmerica's ability to decode Iranian intelligence messages may have fallen into the hands ofChalabi's organization and been passed on to Iran in February. AU.S. law-· enforcement official confirms that the Iraqi's account ofthe conversation is consistent with the types ofcalls Franklin was making on behalfofthe FBI. According to law-enforcement officials, Franklin began cooperating with the FBI after agents first confronted him with evidence that he'had given classified material to AlPAC, one of Washington's most powerful· lobbying organizations. Israel and AlPAC have denied the spy allegations; neither the Pentagon nor Franklin would comment. The law-enforcement officials say Franklin was persuaded in recent weeks to make "pretext calls"-scriptedconversations monitored by FBI agents and designed to tease out incriminating evidence about other suspects. It was within this time frame that Franklin approached the ex-I.N.C. official who spoke to TIME. The two investigations are among the most politically charged espionage cases in years. Israel and the I.N.C. are longtime allies ofthe U.S., though the CIA has for years warned that Chalabi was not to be trusted. Allegations ofIsraeli espionage have been a hot-button issue since American naval intelligence analyst Jonathan Pollard was imprisoned for life in 1987 for passing U.S. military secrets to Israel. Ever since the Pollard affair, Israel has publiclyinsisted it no C/ , ." longer spies on the U.S. "I can tell you here very authoritatively, very categorically, Israel does not spy on the United States," Israel's U.S. ambassador, Daniel Ayalon said last week. "We do not gather infonnation on our best friend and ally." Federal law-enforcement officials say they re~ain on the lookout for signs that Israelis still pursue U.S. secrets. A fonner congressional official told TWE that in the 1990s Israelis in Washington were known to routinely seek copies ofclassified documents such as secret portions ofthe annual Javits report, a U.S. compilation on arms sales. National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice and her deputy Stephen Hadley were informed of the FBI's probe into AIPAC at least two years ago, according to a U.S. official. But that did not hinder numerous contacts between AIPAC and top Administration officials as well as congressional leaders ofboth parties. The lobbYing group derives its power from its backing among influential Jewish Americans. Just last May, President George W. Bush attended AIPAC's annual conference in Washington and thanked the organization for "serving the cause of America" and bringing to public attention the threat ofIran's developm.ent ofnuclear weapons. At that time, the FBI was alrea.dy deep into its investigation ofAlPAC. A former U.S. official interviewed by the FBI more than·a year ago told TIME that the bureau sought information on key AIPAC personnel, their meetings with White House and other national-security officials in Washington and ev.en details about their personal lives. At one point, the FBI was surveilling a meeting between an Israeli diplomat and an AIPAC official when the Pentagon's Franklin suddenly appeared, igniting concerns. Franklin, a former :Air Force Reserve officer, served briefly in the U.S. military attache's office in Israel in the late 1990s. Since the summer of2001, he has worked as an Iran expert for Douglas.Feith, the Pentagon's third ranking official, a neoconservative long in favor oftougher measures against Iran. In 2001 Franklin and a Pentagon colleague were dispatched to Rome for a meeting with Manucher Ghorbanifar, an Iranian arms dealer who had been a key figure in the 1980s' Iran-contra scandal. They were seeking inteliigence on Iran from him. But the CIA h3$ long considered Ghorbanifar unreliable, and the Bush Administration later cut offthe contacts. According to a former U.S. government source, the material Franklin passed to AlPAC included a draft ofa National Security Presidential Directive dealing with U.S. policy on Iran. The document, a source says, had gone through several ve~ions without ever achieving the status of official U.S. policy pecause ofdeep disagreements within the Administration over how to cope with Iran. Asource familiar with multiple drafts ofthe document said it was a "glorified Op-Ed looking at how engagement [with Iran] doesn't work and how the U.S. needs a more robust strategy.II A former senior U.S. official who also saw the drafts told TIME the directive did not explicitly call for regime change in Tehran and left open the possibility ofcooperation with the Iranians on matters ofmutual interest. . Meanwhile, a former case officer at the Defense Intelligence Agency says that when he was questioned in thel.N.C. case, the FBI seemed fntstrated in that investigation. That case officer, who worked alongside I.N.C. intelligence gatherers at the time ofthe alleged breach, says he was interrogated and polygraphed by the FBI. He contended to TIME that the allegations against the "F --:-------- - --------------- o ALL INF0RMtTION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED f"!!'\ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc ba~J13g September 6, 2004 Spy Case Renews Debate Over Pro-Israel Lobby's Ties to Pentagon By JAMES RISEN and DAVID JOHNSTON ASHINGTON, Sept. 5 - It began like most national security investigations, with a squad of Federal Bureau ofInvestigation agents surreptitiously tailing two men, noting where they went and whom they met. What was different about this case was that the surveillance subjects were lobbyists for the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, and one oftheir contacts turned out to be a policy analyst at the Pentagon. The ensuing criminal investigation into whether Aipac officials passed classified infonnation from the Pentagon official to Israel has become one ofthe most byzantine counterintelligence stories in recent memory. So far, the Justice Department has not accused anyone ofwrongdoing and no one has been arrested. Aipac has dis·missed the accusations as baseless, and Israel has denied conducting espionage operations in the United States. Behind the scenes, however, the case has reignited a furious and long-running debate about the close relationship between Aipac, the pro-Israel lobbying organization, and a conservative group ofRepublican civilian officials at the defense department, who are in charge ofthe office that employs Lawrence A. Franklin, the Pentagon analyst. Their hard-line policy views on Iraq, Iran and the rest ofthe Middle East have been controversial and influential within the Bush administration. "They have no case," said Michael Ledeen, a conservative scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and a friend ofMr. Franklin. "Ifthey have a case, why hasn't anybody been arrested or indicted?" Nearly a dozen officials who have been briefed on, the investigation said in interviews last week that the F.B.I. began the inquiry as a national security matter based on specific accusations that Aipac employees had been a conduit for secrets between Israel and the Pentagon. These offi~ials said that the F.B.I.,.in consultation with the Justice Department, had established the necessary legal foundation required under the law before beginning the investigation. Ahalfdozen people sympathetic to Aipac and the civilian group at the defense department said they viewed the investigation in different terms, as a politically-motivated attempt to discredit Aipac and the Pentagon group. Supporters ofAipac have said the organization is being dragged into an intelligence controversy largely because ofits close ties to a Republican administration and the Israeli government ofPrime Minister Ariel Sharon. . Friends and associates ofthe civilian group at the Pentagon believe they are under assault by adversaries from within the intelligence community who have opposed them since before the war in Iraq. The Pentagon civilians, led by Paul D. Wolfowitz, the deputy defense secretary, and o Douglas 1. Feith, the unders~cretary for policy, were among the first in the immediate aftermath ofthe Sept. 11 attacks to urge military action to topple the regime ofSaddam Hussein in Iraq, an approach favored by Aipac and Israel. Mr. Wolfowitz and Mr. Feith were part ofa larger network ofpolicy experts inside and out ofthe Bush administration who forcefully made the case that the war with Iraq was part ofthe larger fight against terrorism. The Pentagon group circulated its own intelligence assessments, which have since been discredited by the Central Intelligence Agency and by the independent Sept. 11 commission, arguing that there was a terroristalliance between the Hussein regime and Al Qaeda. The group has also advocated that the Bush administration adopt a more aggressive policy toward Iran, and some ofits ~embers have quietly begun to argue for regime change in Tehran. The administration has not yet adopted that stance, however, and the Pentagon conservatives have been engaged in a debate with officials at the State Department and other agencies urging a more moderate approach·to Iran. To Israel, Iran represents a grave threat to its nation~l security. Pushing the United States to adopt a tougher line on Tehran is one ofits major foreign policy objectives, and Aipac has lobbied the Bush administration to support Israel's policies. Mr. Franklin was an expert on Iran in the office ofMr. Feith and among the material he is suspected ofturning over to Aipac is a draft presidential policy directive on Iran, which would have provided a glimpse at the Bush administration's.earIy plans. But skeptics ofthe case have said that the United States and Israel routinely share highly sensitive information on military and diplomatic matters under an officially sanctioneq understanding. In addition, most ofthe contents ofpolicy drafts ilffecting either country are well known to people outside the government who follow American-Israeli affairs. As a result, some ofMr. Franklin's associates regard his efforts as an attempt to obtain Aipac's help to influence the Bush administration rather than an effort to provide Israel with information. They believe the case is the latest in a series of assaults by intelligence and Jaw enforcement agencies, who they believe are determined to diminish the influence ofconservative civilians at the Pentagon. In their view, there have been other attempts to embarrass them. In May, American officials said that Ahmed Chalabi, the leader ofthe Iraqi National Congress and a longtime ally ofthe Pentagon conserva~ives, had told Iranian intelligence officials that the Unit~d States had broken Iran's communications codes. The F.B.I. began a still-open investigation to determine who in the government had told Mr. Chalabi about the secret code-breaking operation. The investigation, which has included the use ofpolygraph examinations, has focused on Defense Department employees who both knew Mr. r ' ...-.=----. II-~ o Chalabi and knew ofthe highly classified code-breaking operation. The F.B.l's inquiry ofthe Chalabi leak may overlap with the Pranklin case because some ofthe same Defense Department officials had access to infonnation that was believed to be compromised. But officials who have briefed on the case say they remain two separate inquiries being conducted by separate teams ofinvestigators, one with jurisdiction over Iranian matters and one with jurisdiction over Israel issues. The focus and direction ofthe Franklin investigation, which was publicly disclosed Aug. 27, remains unclear. The officials said the inquiry first focused on A~pac, but later became more intense after F.B.I. agents gathered evidence indicating that Aipac officials had obtained classified information from Mr. Franklin, which was turned over to Israel. But it is unclear who, if anyone, is likely to be charged with wrongdoing and whether the government is more interested in Aipac, Mr. Franklin or the Israelis who may have received the classified material. Officials say Mr. Franklin has been cooperating with the F.B.I. since being confronted by agents several weeks ago. Two officials at Aipac, Steven Rosen and Keith Weissman, have also been interviewed by the bureau. ItI know that this is part ofa campaign against us," said MichaelMalo04 a former Pentagon analyst who worked in a special-intelligence unit created by Mr. Feith after Sept. 11. Mr. Maloof lost his security clearances because ofan investigation that he believed was unfair. He now believes that Mr. Franklin is being unfairly targeted as well. "They are picking us of~ one by one," Mr. Maloofsaid. But leading critics ofthe Pentagon hard-liners have repeatedly argued that Mr..Wolfowitz, Mr. Feith and others have used the Sept. 11 attacks as a pretext to pursue issues that in some ways mirror the interests ofIsrael's conservative Likud government. One piece ofevidence repeatedly cited by the critics is a 1996 paper issued by the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, an Israeli think tank, calling for the toppling ofSaddam Hussein in order to enhance Israeli security. Entitled "A Clean Break," the 1996 paper was intended to offer a foreign policy agenda for the new Likud government ofBenjamin Netanyahu. The paper argued: "Israel can shape its strategic environment, incooperation with Turkey and Jordan~ by weakening, containing and even rolling back Syria. This effort can focus on rell)oving Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq - an important Israeli strategic objective in its own right - as a means offoiling Syria's regional ambitions.': Among those who signe~ the paper were Mr. Feith; David Wunnser, who later worked for Mr. o I '6 • • -.-..;.-- Feith at the Pentagon and now works for Vice President Dick Cheney; and Richard Perle, a leading conservative who previously served as chainnan ofthe Defense Policy Board, a group of outside consultants to Secretary ofDefense Donald H. Rumsfeld. In the Reagan administration, Mr. Feith served as Mr. Perle's deputy at the Pentagon. 101_ ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED \1 HEREIN IS U!IICLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg' BEHIND THE HEADLINES 7 Used to working behind the scenes, I AIPAC suddenly thrust into limelight By Matthew E. Berger dmJ Print This Story Page 1of3 NEWYORK, Aug. 30 (JTA) -In its outreach to potential supporters and to the media, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee touts its access to the highest levels of government. Now it's,that very access that has thrust the pro-Israel lobby, accustomed to working behind the scenes; into the limelight. Accusations that AIPAC officials received classified information from a Pentagon staffer and forwarded it on to Israel broke on the eve of this week's Republican National Convention in NewYork, where AIPAC is hosting several policy forums for Republican contributors. According to media accounts" a non-Jewish officer on the Iranian desk at the Pentagon, Larry Franklin, is being investigated for passing at least one classified document to AIPAC officials, which may then have been forWarded to Israeli officials in Washington. Reports have suggested that Franklin could face charges ranging from espionage to the mishandling of classified information. The Jerusalem Post reported that the AIPAC officials involved were Steven Rosen and Keith Weissman, and that they h~ve spoken to federal investigators~ Rosen is AIPAC's director of research and considered one of the most influential people in the organization. He has been with AIPAC since 1982, and mentored both Howard Kohr, AIPAC's current executive director, and Martin Indyk, the former U.S. ambassador to Israel. Weissman is deputy director of foreign policy issues and specializes in relations with Iran" Syria and Turkey. AIPACwould not confirm or deny the reports. New reports also suggested that Naor Gilon, minister of political affairs of the Israeli embassy in Washington, was the subject of an FBI investigation on suspicion of espionage for Israel when Franklin came to the investigators' attention more than a year ago. - Both Israel and AIPAC deny any impropriety in the case. Many U.S. Jews believe, or hope, that no charges will be filed and that the issue will fade from the headlines in coming days., But the charges, and their prominent play in the media, have reopened questions about the way'AIPAC does business with the U.S. and Israeli. -- governments. http://www.jta.orglpage-print_story.asp?intarticleid=14440 8/31/2004 AIPAC's grassroots ~dvocacy and political lobbying departments get most of the attention. but the organization also has a thriving think tank that works to influence Middle East policy at the highest levels of government. ITA Print News o o Page 2 of3 To those who work with AIPAC in Washington, or have worked for the organization itself, the idea of information being passed from government officials to AIPAC st~ffers to Israelis seems almost commonplace. After all, these people see each other on almost a daily basis, at think-tank lunches and policy meetings throughout the capital. Information is exchanged and each participant tries to show his importance by touting what he knows and whom he has access to. -The easiest thing to learn in Washington is that no one likes to be surprised," said Jon Alterman, a former State Department official. -AIPAC doesn't like to be surprised and nobody wants to surprise AIPAC.,· In that sense, AIPAC is like any other policy organization in Washington. -Information is the currency in Washington," said Morris Amitay. AIPAC's executive director from 1974 to 1980. MAIPAC meets regularly with officials at the State Department and Defense Department, trying to find out what's going on:' It's unclear how much of the information AIPAC receives is forwarded to Israeli officials, but the coordination between the Jewish state and its advocates in Washington is considerable. Most Israeli officials who travel to Washington meet with AIPAC and exchange information. But Israeli officialS also have strong ties to the Bush administration, and receive much information directly from American governmental sources" without need of intermediaries. One congressional staffer said it was understood in Washington that AIPAC had access to the highest sources in both the U.S. and Israeli governments, and could get most information it wanted. -They are very astute at knowing who will know what they would like to find out,· said the staffer., who spoke on condition of anonymity because the FBI investigation is ongoing. -It's simply understood, based on the success they've had: But because of the issues AIPAC deals with. policy discussions can easily cross into areas of national security. increasing the chances that classified information will be passed., -There's always a real possibility that in giving a briefing. certain information that is classified could come out by the government briefers: said Neal Sheri who served as AIPAC's executive director from 1994 to 1996 and formerly worked in the U.S. Justice Department. -The lines are real blurry.· But Sher said the briefer would be the one committing the illegal act, not the one who gets the information. -Anyone with half a brain. ifsomeone is giving you a classified document. would say, 'I don't want to look at it.' • Amitay said. -Because it could be a sting: According to Newsweek. that's what occurred in the current case. Franklin reportedly tried to give documents to an AIPAC staffer, who wouldn't take them but asked for the information to be summarized orally. .http:/7wwwJta.orglpage-print_story.asp?intarticleid=14440 8/31/2004 JTA Print News When it comes to documents, federScials wHh security clearances are given 0 little leniency.}Most desks have two computers; one for classified material and one for unclassified. The e-mail systems are separate and diskettes are not allowed to be inserted into the classified system. But there's a lot more leeway when government officials brief outsiders. MHow far you go in telling people what's going on in a classified environment is a decision you have to make every daY,1II Alterman said. -There is a perception that you can trust the people you're talking to.III The congressional staffer added that much of what is classified already has been reported by the media. The recent focus on AIPAC's business practices is counter to the way the organization likes to work. AIPAC likes to shift focus away from its own professionals and onto the lay leaders and lawmakers pUblicly expressing support for the Jewish state. But that hasn't always been easy. Because Israel is such a heated topic in Washington and around the world, and because AIPAC has been successful in its mission" the group often is at the center of questions regarding U.S. support for Israel. ~ Print This SlolY Back to top" Page 3 of3 8/31/2004 Search site r"--~--"-~"''''''ra:J Israel Time: 02:23 (GMT+3) Hey'S,. • I 1~I Page lof2 [AD] B Send bye-mail @-send response ~ Print Top Articles Westward, ho This week, the voice of architect Moshe Safdie was heard for the first time in the stormy debate over the West Jerusalem plan that he conceived and that bears his name. By Es~er zandberg An expiration date In a few months. when American magazines list the great movie hits of 2004, not only "Spiderman 2" and "Shrek 2" will star at the top of the list. So will one documentary., By Uri Klein ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sq Another source said there is nothing unusual in the FBI monitoring meetings of diplomats, but said it's unlikely this was mundane surveillance, so it's possible there was suspicion ~f some kind about information reaching the Israeli embassy. Gilon knew Franklin and kept an ordinary working relationship with him as part of his job. The Israeli embassy declined comment on the affair yesterday and banned Gilon from talking to the media. An embassy official yesterday repeated.the line that these are "groundle~s and vicious allegations." Embassy sources were worried reports on the affair could hamper Gilon's duties as the main official in charge of political ties to U.S. administration officials by making them wary of meeting him. Gilon's meetings with Franklin and other administration representatives have been described by the embassy as the .daily routine of diplomats in that post. "It's exactly what all diplomats in Washington do, it's their job," an Israeli source said. Safar, the details available point to Naor Gilon, political adviser at the Israeli embassy in Washington, as the FBI surveillance target that led investigators to Franklin. Israeli sources could 'nqt say ~~~~IrIIiG.D yesterday why Gilon had been til under surveillance, but Israel does not intend to seek clarifications or protest in the matter. lilt's neither the first nor the last time diplomats have been tailed in this town," an Israeli official said yesterday. ii!i_~~!P.ii (See'IHT for further ,details) WASHINGTON· Larry Franklin, the Pentagon'data analyst suspected of funneling classified documents to Israel through the Jewish I~bby AIPAC, had been helping with the investigation for several weeks before the story broke in the media, the New York Times reported yesterday citing sources familiar with~ the case. Israel won't ask U.S. to clarify why official was being tailed By Nathan Guttman Print Edition News Business Editorial & Op-Ed Features Sports Art &Leisure Books Letters Food &Wine Tourism 'Real Estate Cartoon Friday Magazine Week's End Anglo File W. Bank fence ruling Disengagement plan Shopping service Previous Editions 'Select Day , 0 ~.."..........,...., ............... "-'"' - - . 9Qt!Q\§j I ~ I ~ l......... _.....-...-.......,............. _IHomepage News Updates Tue., August 31,,2004 Elu114. 5764 ~. .. . :. HAARETZ -Weekly Digital Edition Dlre~t to your printer mm~ A communique released by embassy officials said "as T~:': representatives of th~ state, we conduct an intensiv~ ThiS Day In. Haaretz dialogue on an'array of.topic~ wi!h o~r colleagues, in. Today's',Papers - -- all,branch~s,~~f ~,h~ a~ministrati~n~ !h~S ~i~l~gue takes http://www.haaret?:.comlhasenispages/4J.1370.html .. .- 8/30/2004 Haaretz - ISrael News - Israel WO~ U.S. to clarify why official was beOtailed Map of Israel place in a responsible, credible, professional, and completely transparent manner, as befits the nature of Useful Numbers relations between Israel and the.United States." In-depth Still, the question remains as to why Gilon was being About Haaretz watched. One possibility mentioned is that the FBI' obtained information that administration documents Tech Support were being leaked to Israel and wanted to track route Paper in PDF format ofthe leak. Headline Newsbox Another possibility is that elements opposed to Israeli [AD] policy tried to set up Gilon and Israel on false accusations. Gilon, who was on vacation for a family event in Israel, has returned to Washington and is back at work. Israeli sources said the embassy staff, Gilon included, will continue meeting as usual with administration and congressional representatives and with Jewish community leaders. The FBI has applied to neither Israel norits U.S.based representatives for any information on the affair and it has not come up in meetings with U.S. officials. Meanwhile, the America Israel Public Affairs Committee is also presenting a business as usual face. The powerful Jewish lobby noted with pride that all its events scheduled for the current Republican National Convention in New York are attracting capacity crowds. Shalom: Mole story has been exaggerated out of proportion A Foreign Ministry investigation of the Larry Franklin affair indicates that Israel's embassy in Washington acted completely according to procedure. lilt never violated the rules of diplomacy and good dialogue that we maintain with the United States.," Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom said yesterday. Referring to Naor Gilon, the embassy's political attache, Shalom said: "He meets senior administration officials in the course of his work, and there's nothing unusual about that. The fact [the FBI] is following him shows this matter has been blown completely out of proportion." (Aluf Benn) [AD] Home INews IBusiness IEditorial &Op-Ed IFeatures ISports IBooks ICartoon ISite rules I C Copyright 2004 Haaretz. All rights reserved http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/spages/471370~html Page 2 of2 ., :.; ». y n 8/30/2004 ..-~- ----- Jerusalem Post IBreaking News from Israel, the Middle East and the Jewish World Page 1of3 I.ll9JJ!. IJ.O.JI!" 0 14 Elul 5764, Tuesday, August 31, 20 IM.AiN::;; _ONLINE EDITION JERUSALEM POST ALL INFORliATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS tTNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg America's Voices JPost Fran~als International JP SMS Alerts Personals Media Kit Shopping Advertise »~» SeGurity·PlplQmacv ~ Article Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom responded publicly on Monday to the allegations for the first time, calling them "media nonsense" that has been blown way out of proportion. Aug. 31, 2004 0:55 Diplomat-tied to alleged mole returns to US By tiEBS KEINON ANQ lANltlE ZACHABIA ~a;~~:("~i ~l»'; ~ • .It ..... .,'...~,\.;... ,. J"" ~ I~l UmorMangl Youth AliyatStrikes Gold I,Was Able t ControlorM With a Uttle Friends - August-Top' Advertisement Ads by Google FBI ~areers Increase your salary with a career in the FBI. Free info pack. WVM' FBI lraining Online Build your career in the FBI with an online aiminal justice degree. www.apU$ edu Fbi Agents Article in BusinessWeek Read it online. Free Triall \ Foreign Ministry officials said Gilon, the political affairs minister and number three at the embassy, returned to Washington because he "did nothing wrong," and "had nothing to hide:' Newsweek reported on Sunday that FBI agents monitoring a lunchtime conversation between an Israeli embassy official, believed to be Gilon, and a lobbyist for AIPAC (the American Israel Public Affairs Committee), discovered Franklin when he "walked in" to the lunch out of the blue. Franklin, according to Newsweek, soon became a subject of the FBI investigation as well. Naor Gilon, the diplomat at Israel's embassy in Washington who reportedly had contact with alleged Pentagon "mole" Larry Franklin. returned to the US on Sunday after spending a vacation in Israel. '---__,1StarcfiI Q&.A Audio Programs Financial Tables Weather Shabbat Times SERVICES Classlficds Subscribe Archives SECTIONS Home News Opinion Columns Business Features Living Real Estate Travel&. Tourism Jewish World Books Sports Sci-Tech In Jerusalem Current Poll Cartoons Readers' Letters JPost Guides Israel programs ~ritableFunds Dating &. Relatlonshlpl tnlng with Tragedy "Israel would not do anything that could harm our best friend, the US," Shalom said at a joint press conference with German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer. liThe government of Israel categorically rejects the accusations that it spied or is spying on its best friend, the US," he said. Shalom said that meetings between embassy and US Administration officials are routine, ordinary, and part of the regular diplomatic work in Washington. He said that similar meetings and exchanges of information take place in Israel among US Embassy and Israeli government officials. Shalom said Gilon is a "dedicated worker who - as part of his job - met with administration officials, there is nothing unique or extraordinary about this. I think this has been blown out of proportion•." - - http://www.jpost.comlservlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull&cid=1093835912... 8/30/2004 Jerusalem Post IBreaking News~Israel, the Middle and the JewibWOrid Specials Shalom said~Foreign Ministry has been dealing with this case since Friday afternoon. :::t;! Estat..Q before the allegations were air~~ on CBS. Israel, Shalom said" has a firm policy that it has Coming to New York City not strayed from of not conducting any espionage activities in the us. .September 4 &. S. Page2of3 N.t.W. The only Jewish dating site you'll ever need. EI AI Online Information, special services, e·tlcketlng &. online booking. Shalom said he believes there are reasons for the timing of the leak about the investigation of Franklin, but refused to say what he thinks those reasons are. However, other Israeli officials over the last two days have said th~ allegations, coming on the eve of the Republican National Convention, are meant to embarrass US President George W. Bush, and are part of an ongoing poliCy battle in Washington being waged among officials in the State Department, CIA, and Pentagon who are at odds over US policy in Iraq. Asked whether Israel was concerned that one of its senior diplomats was being trailed by FBI agents, Shalom replied "you don't know if he was being followed." Other minister officials in the Foreign Ministry said that the "tail" on Gilon should not come as any surprise, and that the operative assumption of most diplomats abroad is that they are under a certain degree of surveillance., In New York on Monday, Sen. Gordon Smith (R·Oregon) told the Anti-Defamation League's New York regional board that the allegation of espionage made little sense. "It doesn't add up to me because I know how closely we share with the State of Israel now," said Smith, "and there is no reason for there to be any espionage operations either way. I'm very skeptical'and I've got a lot of questions to ask when we get to the appropriate hearings." One House Democratic staffer said: "My impression is that the Justice Department is backing off." VVhile CBS news originally reported'on Friday that the Justice Department was poised to "r~1I up" some agents as early as this week, the New York Times reported on Monday that no arrest appears imminent since authorities are unsure if Franklin even broke the law. Continued 11~1~ SECURITY-DIPLOMACY o IAF botches killing of Aksa M.arjyrs fugitives o IAE_ to target Kassam launch crew~ a-"~ factories • ~ir ~its are rare. i!l West Bank • Fourt..h suspect arrested for fo~cing strike o Bomb-sniffing dogs use~..f9r Jerusale~ city buses JPost Sites: JPost Audio· Shopping' Pers~mals • International JP_· ~8e'p',com Sections: ~. Busioess • Features· .Qpinion •LMng • Jpost Erao~i§ ~ .sR.o..rD. •Books' Irayel & Iourism • Real Estate· Te9h •Jewish Wod~ ~ In Jerusalem· Maps o! Israel, Looking Bac!S • ~artoons • America'~ Voice~ • Supp'lements Services: Print Edition· Jposl CD·Rom • SUbscriptions' print Classifieds • Online CI~ssif!eds • erinl Servi~s N~I . JPo_st ~~v~rtisem -. I~rael Programs' JPosl CbagUe§ • Readers' Lettet§ http://www.jpost.comlservletlSatellite?pagename=JPostlJPArticle/ShowFuU&cid=1093835912... 8/30/2004 Jerusalem Post IBreaking NewserIsrael, the Midd1~ East and the Jewit:)0rld I~formatfon: l\bout Us . feedback . Medja Kit •~. Staff E·mails • Pfivacy ~tatem_eot· CORYright ~iriks: 'Cbicago Sun:-Times Travel Deals: Hotel Beservations • Rating§ of HC?tels • event Tickets . g~oDea!,-Lodging . ~..J:JQ..tU @'""995 ! 20041he Jerusalem Post. AU rights reserved. ~I~I AdvertIse wilbJJS I !?ubscdbe I COntact Us Page3"of3 8/30/2004 Search site l--..--·...·.. -"-~ Israel Time: 03:12 (GMT+3) r 1~ Ii Page-Iof2 [AD] Q Print B. ~end bye-mail @-Send response Top Articles Chutzpah: Class 101 Sarah Augerbraun knew she wasn·t in Florida anymore when standing in line at her local supermarket, a man tried to cut in front of her. "I realized I had two options"· recalls the former Hebrew teacher. ·'1 could have either yelled at him or just ignored it." ~y Daphna Bennan An expiration date In a few months, when American magazines list the· great movie hits of 2004. not only "Spiderman 2·' and "Shrek 2" will star at the top of the list. S'o will one documentary•. By Uri Klein e, Finally. even if official Israel proves innocent, the proIsrael lobby in Washington. AIPAC. has already be~n hurt. Advertisement .Prushauer gave half a sigh of relief: ,'~'k~~=:xl"'~ If ~agan and Horev.are to be ·"{'·~~~f~;. ~ beheved, and there IS ~urrently no .;,\¥:~.,,,,..:~ ),." reason not to. then neither the ;t:i:~·;:':_;./:,4/(~-·\ ..~..J;: Mossad nor Horev's Malmab unit - which. in its previous incarnation. • was responsible for running Jonathan Pollard - is involved in the • ' affair. which threatenes to ·'..;,'.. HelJ ,t..Mnl-, .:'. reawaken all the old demons. -; Q ' But it was only haifa sigh of relief, because the Foreign Ministry's own internal investigation has no~ yet ended. Thus documents could yet be uncovered for which Franklin served as a source, whether directly or indirectly. Moreover. as the investigation progresses. suspects' confessions or polygraph tests could implicate Israel. In that case. Israel would appear to be a liar. even if its denials now are genuinely based on the best currently available information. And should Israel eventually hand over evidence against Franklin. it would appear to be a double traitor - first against its benefactor, the U.S., and then against its agent. Analysis I Damage done - true9r not By AmicQren Acting Foreign Ministry Director-General Ron Prushauer called two senior intelligence officials Friday night: Mossad chief Meir Dagan and Yehiel Horev. the defense establishment·s chief of secu~ty. Both gave him the same answer: No, we are not involved in the Larry Franklin affair. _IHomepage News Updates Sun., August 29, 2004 Elu112. 5764 Print Edition News Business Editorial &Op-Ed Features Sports Art &Leisure Books Letters Food'& Wine Tourism Real Estate Cartoon Friday Magazine Week's End Anglo File W. Bank fence ruling Disengagement plan Arab snapshots Shopping service Previous Editions SelectQay- .," ....i:J~ gg~98.1~J r"~'1o"'110~"""''''''''''.:a... ......~ I ~ This Day in H~aretz Today's Papers Map of Israel Useful Numbers In-depth About Haaretz Tech Support Paper in PDF.format 'Headline Newsbox· The importance of the Franklin affair goes far beyond the importance of the information that he allegedly gave to two AIPAC members, who in turn allegedly transmitted it to Israel. The documents, which included a draft decision by President George Bush, were all the type of staff work that is routinely . discussed by Israel·s diplomatic attaches and U.S. officials.· Indeed. getting information from U.S. officials is one of the diplomatic attaches' main jobs., Moss~d representatives and military attaches also maintain ties with American officials. The Military Intelligence representative is responsible for ties with the Defense Intelligenc~ Agency, which is the .Defense,Department's intelligence,arm and Franklin's fOJ!r1~r ~mp"loyer: . -. . ,. . " J~ . http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/spages/470420.html 8/30/2004 Under certain circumstances, any of the above embassy officials could have had reason to speak with someone working, as Franklin most recently did, for DougJas Feith, the undersecretary of defense for policy. Haaretz - Israel News - AnalYSiS(;5amage done - true or not [AD.] o Page2of2 Feith was one of the leading administration advocates of a tough line on Iran, the war in Iraq and strong support for Israel. Others include Undersecretary of State John Bolton, Vice President Richard Cheney" Cheney's chief of staff, Scooter Libby, and Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz. This group is opposed on all three issues by the CIA, Secretary of State Colin'Powell and other State Department officials. Thus Israel has been caught in the crossfire of a policy war within the U.S. administration - one unlikely to end even if Bush is reelected in November. Wolfowitz, whom Bush likes, would probably have trouble getting Senate confirmation for a promotion; Feith was considered a leading candidate for ouster even before the Franklin affair; Bolton's status has been undermined; and the entire group viewed Bush's nomination of Porter Goss for CIA director as a blow, as Goss has close ties with the agency and its outgoing head, George Tenet, the group's long-time rival. Another agency whose battle for survival is liable to hurt Israel, albeit unintentionally, is the FBI, whose signal failure to prevent the September 11, 2001 attacks led both to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and to calls for removing counterterrorism from the FBI's aegis and transferring it to a new agency, similar to Britain's M15. The FBI is thus determined to prove to be outstanding at the top two items on its new agenda: preventing terrorism and preventing espionage. The man who is heading the FBI's investigation against Franklin, Dave Szady, has repeatedly said that he views no person, agency or country as above suspicion. In his view, Israel, along with Taiwan, France, Japan, India and others, is on the list of friendly countries that "nevertheless try to steal our secrets.nHe once stated in an interview that only the prevention of mass-casualty terror attacks is more important than counterespionage. He added that today, it is not only America's enemies, but also its allies that try to steal its secrets - and while embassies and consulates remain the bases for such activity, he continued, foreign governments today also employ stUdents" scientists and nfrontncompanies. ~ ~OD [AD] Home INews IBusiness IEditorial & Op-Ed IFeatures ISports IBooks ICartoon ISite rules I oCopyright 2004 Haaretz. All rights reserved http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/spages/470420.html 1.. y 8/30/2004 Jerusalem Post IBreaking Newst:rIsrael, the Middle East and the Jewi~Or1d Page 1of 2 J.&lsL.In.I ~...nt 14 Elul 5764, Tuesday, August 31, 20 .16"&LMONLINE EDITION JERUSALEM POST ALL INFORMATION CONTAlr~D HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsq America's Voices JPost Fran~ais International JP SMS Alerts Personals Media Kit Shopping Advertise In 1988, the investigative show 60 Minutes ran a critical piece on AIPAC using information supplied by its former communications director (and ex-Jerusalem Post reporter) Barbara Amouyal. Among the material supplied by Amouyal was an internal memo suggesting that the media be fed stories regarding Jesse Jackson's private life. Unfortunately for the influential ,pro-Israel lobbying group, this new affair is turning far too much of the media spotlight on an organization that prefers to work behind the scenes on Capitol Hill. But it is hardly the first time AIPAC has found itself at the center of public controversy, although never in such a serious matter as receiving classified security material. lAPI lImor Mangl '\I Youth Allyar ~trlkes Gold I Was Able t Control of M With a Utt'e friends Ads by GOOQle AugustTop Advertisement [AD] So wrote Steven Rosen, AIPAC director of foreign policy issues, in an internal organizational memo several years ago. "A lobby is like a night flower; It thrives in the dark and dies in the sun." Aug. 29, 2004 22:08 I Updated Aug. 30, 2004 19:00 Background: Not AIPAC's first controversy By CAl.E\I BEN-DAYIQ 'a,flgt~ Si·i)·= ~ .... ' ..... 1> ,,_ ... _.~. SERVICES Classifieds Subscribe Archives SECTIONS Home News Athens 2004 o..Q.9 Opinion Columns Business Features Living Real Estate Travel 8c. Tourism Jewish World Books Sports Sci-Tech In Jerusalem Current Poll Cartoons Readers' Letters Q8cA Audio Programs Financial Tables Weather Shabbat Times JPost Guides I~rael P~ogrjlms Djltlng &. Relationships ~,-ng with ~raged~ Also induded in the 60 Minutes report was another internal memo which seemed to direct how political action committees should donate money to specific pro-Israel ca~didates, a possible violation of federal law forbidding lobby groups such as AIPAC from directly involving themselves in elections. A subsequent investigation by the Federal Elections Commission deared AIPAC of any violations., Nonetheless, AIPAC continues to face accusati()ns that it unduly interferes in the electoral process, especially'from politicians who credit their defeats at the polls to the organization's efforts., The most notable example in recent years was the 2002 congressional race, in which two Georgia Democrats, incumbents Cynthia McKinney and Earl Hilliard, were defeated in party primaries by contenders perceived as more pro-Israel. McKinney subsequently commented: "Despite the fact that I easily won the Democratic vote, 40,000 Republicans maliciousl~ crossed over and overtook the Democratic Primary. And because AIPAC had telegraphed in newspaper arti~esJhat they wer~ goinJJ to target ~oth Earl 8/30/2004 Page 2 of2 AIPAC has sometimes even found itself on the receiving end of criticism from the Israeli governments whose positions it is charged to support. This was especially so during the early years of the Oslo Accords. when an organization viewed by many on the Jewish left as traditionally more right-leaning, seemed slow to adjust itself to Israel's sudden political shift. N&Wl The only Jewish dating site you'll ever need. Jerusalem Post IBreaking Newse:;Israel, the Middle East and the Jewi~h World, Specials Hilliard and me, the Democratic Party was paralyzed." 0 Israel Real Estate Sh.oi'£W Coming to New York City September 4 & 5. EI AI Online Infonnatron, spedal services, e-ticketlng & online booking. In 1992. newly elected prime minister Yitzhak Rabin, in a closed-door meeting with AIPAC leaders in Washington" reportedly told them in harsh terms they had gone too far in antagonizing the Bush administration in the battle to gain loan guarantees sought by the previous Shamir govemment. The next year AIPAC vice-president Harvey Friedman referred to deputy foreign minister Yossi Beilin in the presence of a reporter as a "little slimebaU:' after Beilin had complained that Friedman had spoken approvingly of transferring the Palestinians. Friedman SUbsequently left AIPAC as the organization sought to improve ties with the Rabin govemment., AIPAC's efforts to keep a low media-profile have also led to accusations that it has put undue pressure on journalists, especially from the Jewish press, who cover it critically. Among them is Washington Jewish Week reporter larry Cohler, who earlier this year told an Internet site: ''Their mission statement doesn't say anything about them mucking around in Jewish newspapers. AIPAC tried to get me fired, [and editor)'Andy [Silow-Carrol] fired [from The Washington Jewish Week in 1992]." (AIPAC has denied those charges.) Given its task, it is inevitable that AIPAP will serve as a perennial whipping-boy for antiSemitic Jewish conspiracy theorists. and as the phantom spoiler by disgruntled anti-Israeli politicians who fall short at the ballot box. But its reported involvement in the Pentagon-leak story will force it to handle mainstream-media damage control of the like the organization has not yet known. SECURITY-DIPLOMACY o I~~ ~otches killing ofAksa Martyrs fugitives o rAE to ta!get~~ssam launch cre~s and fact0!ies • N[hits are rare in West Baok o Fou~h suspect arrested (or forcing strike o Bomb-sni~ng ~ogs used for Je~u~alel!l city buses (~J JPost Sites: J'post Audio· Shopping· Personals· Intematio~al J~ !' JRep,corp Sections: ~. Business • Features!' QRin19.n • living .. J~ost Fran@is •~• Books· Travel &Tourism ,. Real Estate· Jech • Jewish Wodd -In Jerusalem ~ Maps of Israel· Looking Back • Cartoons· America:s Vgis:§s • ~"p-Iemeg~ Services: Print Edition' JPost CD-Rom· ~tions • Print Classifieds . Online Classifieds • Print Services N~WI .• JPost Advertisers • Is@el Programs· JPgst ChaO!les -; Readers' Letters- - - - Information: ~bout Us • E~edback • Media Kjt •~. Staff E-mails·priv.acy Statement •~..Y!i9bJ Links: Chicago Sun-:Times Travel Deals: Hotel Reservations· Rating~ o~ Hotels· Event Tickets· European Lodging' Cheap' Hotels @ 1995 - 2004 The Jerusalem Post. All rights reserved. ~I~I Advertise wjtb Us I, Subscdbe I CoQtact Us 8/30/2004 Haaretz - Israe.l News - Making't:runtain into a molehill . ISRld 'MuttClNJ!!j ..~.....~-- . ALL INFOrorATION CONTAINED ":..~......, :OneClick HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED ~~.. Hundreds r: '~:;I,.,t of Deals!' DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sabj lsg I I 1f II :p~age-l qf2 [AD] ~ Print B Send bye-mail @-Send response Top Articles ~hutzpah: Class 101 Sarah Augerbraun knew she wasn't in Florida anymore when standing in line at her local supermarket. a man tried to cut in front of her. "I realized I had two options," recalls the former Hebrew teacher. "I could have either yelled at him or just ignored it." By Daphn~ Bennan An expiration date In a few months, when American magazines list the great movie hits of 2004, not only "Spiderman 2" and "Shrek 2" will star at the to·p ofthe list. So will· one documentary. By Uri Klein Israel Time:, 02:19 (GMT+3) Searc~ site r Making a mountain into a molehill By Aklya Eldar It now looks by all accounts like Larry Franklin will. at worst, be tried for mishandling sensitive material. In other words, he'li be charged with leaking information to the pro.;.lsraellobby AIPAC. "Sensitive" data of this sort, or of an even more s~nsitive nature, is routinely conveyed during meetings between American officials and Israeli diplomats under the bright lights· of upscale restaurants in th~ heart of Washington,' D.C. Advtrtlstmtnt .The real problem threatening Israel- '.t-:~. ...7'..A'i~'~'" , u.s. relations and the Jewish .~~~\~~ .~ community does not reside in this ~~ ~~..;;1.~~:~::. ~ small-fry from the Pentagon and the .1- ~. ~~;Ii ~~~:.::J classification grade of the leaked t~l1'~ ,f.~:I":': ;; document, but rather in the • suspicion of something fishy at the top. The murky waters of this affair will provide ample fishing grounds for political rivals and conspiracy ~...;.z;:l .........~~,;w buffs. First they'lIland Franklin's boss, Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith, and thenthey'll hook the entire group of neoconservatives of which he is one of the leaders. That is the' group of Israel's friends, inclUding many Jews, that pushed President Bush to go to war in Iraq. Th~ best form of defense being offense. spokespeople for the Israeli government insinuated that anti-Israel elements are behind the affair. Republican representatives point to "Democratic agents" among senior FBI officials who want to spoil things for Bush on the eve of his party's convention. They may be right. But you don't need Franklin and the classified Iranian document to draw fire at the conspiracy to take over Iraq. As members of think tanks several years ago. Feith and his. friends volunteered an open document' in which they laid bare their Israeli-American plot to change the face of the entire Middle East. In 1996, a conservative IsraeliAmerican research institute invited Feith and others, including Richard Perle who headed an advisory panel to the Pentagon known as the Defense Policy Board, to put together a strategic manual for the incoming prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu., Feith is responsible for the following paragraph from that document: "Israel can shape its strategic environment. in cooperation with Turkey and Jordan, by weakening, containing, and even rolJing back Syria. This effort can focus on removing Saddam Hussein fr9m power in Iraq - an importar)t Israeli strategic objective in its own right'- as'a means of ""foiling Syria'sregional ambitions." ,iI ---~.• News Updates Print Edition News Business Editorial &Op-Ed Features Sports Art & Leisure aooks Letters Food &Wine Tourism Real Estate Cartoon Friday M~gazine Week's End Anglo File W.. Bank fence ruling Disengagement plan Arab snapshots Shopping-service Previous Editions S~Da~; ~-tTI1 •0. _-Q0J".1Q0~1..~ fid_3:::::=:~:l;Zr.::t~~· DHomepage Mon., August 30, 2004 Elul13, 5764 -this Day in Haaretz Today's Papers Map of Israel Useful Numbers In-depth About Haaretz Tech Support Paper ill PDF format - Headline Newsoox ~ -..,. ...... "',~ - ... - _.:- .~ .. http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/$pages/470871.html 8/30/2004 Haaretz - IsraelNews - Making ~ountain into a molehill 0 [AD] The document goes on to state that "Jordan has challenged Syria's regional ambitions recently by suggesting the restoration of the Hashemites in Iraq ... Since Iraq's future could affect the strategic balance in the Middle East profoundly, it would be understandable that Israel has an interest in supporting the Hashemites in their efforts to redefine Iraq." Six years later, members of that same group supported the half-baked idea to crown Jordan's Prince Hassan as Iraq's ruler. If anyone was looking to use Franklin to sock Feith in the weak spot of dual loyalty, in order to hurt Bush, they could have located its sources in that very same open document. Its authors provided the head of a foreign government tips on manipulating U.S. members of Congress. They suggested that he take advantage of the period remaining before the November '96 presidential and congressional elections to obtain "a benign American reaction" for his/their policy. In exchange for the free advice. they asked for Netanyahu's help in recruiting members of Congress who "care'Very much about missile defense" to counter an agreement with Russia on reining in proliferation of long-range missiles. Feith and his friends promised in that document that Israeli support for the missile plan would assist efforts to relocate the U.S. embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. That initiative, sponsored by the Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole, was the brainchild of the neoconservatives and their friends at AIPAC., It utterly contravened the view held by president Bill Clinton and prime minister Yitzhak Rabin that initiatives of that sort do not help build trust between Israel and the Palestinians. Perhaps that is the strongest proof of all that the neoconservatives and Jewish lobbyists do not serve two masters. They serve themselves, and that's the trouble. [AD] Home INews IBusiness IEditorial & Op-Ed IFeatures ISports IBooks ICartoon ISite rules I C Copyright 2004 Haaretz. All rights reserved Page 2 o£.2 8/30/2004 ~lran-Sonira 11'/" b~ Joshua Micah M~rshall, Laura Roze... ..... \ -'4 - '.. , 0 ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED I!!"\ .."'f' .... _J\ HEREIN IS TJ1.JCLASSIFIED ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg • nji;ni]iiIE~fl!m5i1Era Nev~.r#r!lis~.a:.Sin~~~ ~~~~e Subscribo ol>fit'le &save 33% off' _ne\'Vs51oltdimce Respond to this Article September 200,. Iran-Contra II? Fresh scrutiny on a rogue Pentagon operation. By JosbuaMicab Marsball, Laura Rozen,·and Paul Glastris i __'_ .....1x:;zs -4ZS;;;:_ = azaSA : _ U_S ;SQ............. t On 'ri~a~ tv¢rUn~, ~as N¢\VS t¢pOt1~d. ttiat Jf)~ FlU i~ Jny~sJi~aUh~ a~u~peqt~d mole in tlie Department ofDefeiise wlio allegedlY passed to Israel, yilt apro-ISraeli Ip~bYiiig otgatiii.iltl~ii, classifled Am~i¢~ iiittiUlg~ttc~ abQit~ Iron. Tne fp~U~ (Sflhe iIive~tigiUiofi, according to u.s. government 6fficiiUs, is Larry VtanIdhi, aveteran Oe&"s~ Int~mg~n~ A&e~¢y Itati ~~IY$t tiQW wotk!t\g bi Ui¢ olli\:e. b.fthe Pentagon's nuiiiber tliree civilian official, UlidersecreWf ofDefeiiSe for PoJic~ Douglas Feith. .. The investigation ofFranklin is now shininB. a bript lig,ht on a shadowy struggle within the Bush adminislration over the direction ofU.S. policy toward Iran. In partic~J1ar, the FBI is lookin~ with renewed interest at an unauthorized back-chann~l between Iranian dissidents and advisers in Feith's office, which more senior adm.inistration officials first tried in vain to shut down .and then later attempted to cover up. ftanlUin, a,IOiig Witlt at\~tlt~t coU¢,{igU¢ f(iPi F¢Uh's ~Uli¢~, Bp9.lyg)QI Midgl~ EftSt expert name(f Harold Rhode, were tlie two offichils involved in tfie back-cliiiiiiiel, wJii~h ifivolv¢d on-going m~~tjng~ iUl4 ~6fi~c~ \YUh h1lmaii ijnn~ d¢aler Manucher Glioi'biiiiifar and other Itaiiian eXiles, dissidentS and government officials. QhQrbsmif(\r- i$ nsfQri¢(j figUf~ WI'4$5 PI4ye.<I ~ k¢Y TQle'h\ embl:Qilirtg t"~ :R.~agl)n adliihiistrati6n iii tne Iran-Contra affair. Tne meetiJi~S were bolli a coiidUit (or¢Ulg~n~e (lbout It~il ~nd flflq ~p4 p~ pfjll>itt~r ~SJ.~injstrati9fiPQ\V¢r-~tru.ggle pittmg officials at DoD who liiive b~iiiii!ShiDg fof Ii IUird-liilepollcy of"regiMe . 9ft(1ng~" iii Iran, si~{lUis( ()thcf ~m¢hils Jit Jh€l St~te Department and the CIA 'who nave been coUiiselin~ aliiore cautious approach. R¢PQi1$ o.fnvo oftlj~e m~¢thigS fi~t surf~¢¢d !i: Y~fii' 4galn Newlday, ~Qa h.Q.y~ smte been the subject ofan oiigamg mvestigati6ft by the Senate Select Committee sin nU¢mg<)n~a, Wlletlt¢f Ot- hoW th~ m~~titig~ nt¢ ~dj\tie¢t¢(I to tl\~ !lll~g~d espioihi~6 feiiUiirts unknown. But tlie fBI is now closelr scfutiiUzbi~ tHem. Whil¢ th¢ Fal is JOQkb.\g At tlie m~eUjigs ~ P'prt pf itS ~tiinit1al hlve§UgatiQil, t~ .coiigressioiUiI mvestigat6rs the GliorBiiiiifar back-channel typifies tlie oUt-6f..coiilr61 bureaucratic turfwari which have characterized and often hobbled Bush I.of4 ':lran-Contra lrr by Joshua Micah Marshall, Laura Roze... .~.~ ~ ~' b 2of4 http://www.washingtonmonthly.comlfeatures/2004/041 ... Q admhustiilUQi) PoJicY-ttiftKlng. And an UiVestigaQQn,by 1'h~ WMhlngtQl1 Miilltl11ym6ludiiig a tareS ililehriew willi Ghorb8.iiifar - adds w6iglit to those concerns. The tftc.¢tlngS {\1m Qut to hAve ij~eil (clt·m6i~ E}xten~UV9 (lp(l mU9h l¢s~ "tidefW"it~ House ~onti'61 tlian otigmally reponed. One ofthe meetingS, wliich Pentagon Qfli4ilU~ lia.Y~ long 9bc)ia¢t~ii~d AS metely (l "Qhl\il<t~ e.ftCs)'Piiter" ~¢em$ itrfact tQ have Been plaiiiied long in advance by RHode and Gh6i'baiiifar. Another has never b~~h repO-tlc(l in Ute .t\m¢tl~ pt~sS,·T"~ ~~inifii~trotiOl\'s r~lUctai1~ ttl dis~I9.S~ these d61ails seems clear: the D6D·Gh6rbanifar meetings sUggest tlie possiOiliiY tmit ft rog\ie fa9tion ~t tli4 p~ntP.goti w~ trying t9 WQrl( 9U.tSj4~ r\p1m~llJS fot<:igp policy cwiliiiels to advance a "tegidie cliiiiig6" agenda not approve(f by the president's foreign policy principals or even the"presl'dent himself. .. The Italian Job T!t~! .~e~ti!1g 9C9~4 in !t.9Wf? !I! R«:~c:ml]c:.r, fOO!.. !t ~1!91!1~~~ Fra..rt!Un! Rhode, and another American, the neoconservative writer and operative Michael 1ede~E, ~!l9 Q!mtl!l~~ .the.~e!!l!g: (J\~!?~r~i.,g t<) \JPJ;.~e~~el! ~~ 11!~n wo!~ing to~ Feith as a consultant.) AlSo in attendance was 9horbanitar and a number ot 9!~~r !t!nil!n.s; Q!!~ Qft~~ !r~'l!~n~;. ~2C9r~t~g tQ ~2 ~Qt;J~~~ ,f~!i3! w!tb th~ meeting; was a tonner $enior member ofthe Iranian Revolutionary Guard who ~!!lirn~~ t9 have !~r9rm!1~ig~ .~~9!lt Ql~..s!4el).t !!'!~ ~j~LI) !i!~ }J'!Ili~ ~~9P,rUY services. Th6 Washington Monthly has also learned from U.S. government sources t.h~t ~i9Q!9. POnani the:' I!f!@q QfI~jy'~ w.iUt:yy !nt~tl~g~n-Q~ I}g~nQY; §tSMI; ~ttended the meetings, as did the Italian Minister ofDefense Antonio Martino, who is well-known In neoconservative circies in Washington. AIann bells about the December 2001meeting began going off in U.S. government channels only days after it occurred. On Dec. 12,2001, at the U.S. embassy in Rome, AmeFica's newly-installed ambassador, Mel Sembler, silt down for a private dinner with Ledeen, an old friend ofhis from RepubUcan Party politics, and Martino, the Italian defense minister. The conversation quickly turned to the meeting. The problem was that this was the first that Amb. Sembler had heard about it. According to U.S. government sources, Sembler immediately set about try{ng to determine what he could about the meeting and how it had happened. Since u.S. government contact with foreign government intelligence agencies is supposed to be overseen by the CIA, Sembler first spoke to the ciA station chief in Rome to fmd out what ifanything he knew about the meeting with the Iranians. But that only raised more questions because the station chiefhad been left in the dark as well. Soon both Sembler and the Rome station chief were sending anxious queries back to the State Department and CIA headquarters in Langley, Va., respectively, raising alanns on bOth sides ofthe Potomac. . Tne ro~eUng WC}S a; $QUN¢. ufCQnc~m fot a~etiea of pv~tlapph)g t~$l$.Qns. S.jD~~ tli~ hUe 19805, Oh6tbdnifar has been the subject 6ftw6 CIA "bUm notices." The agency ~"1,"t."'!•'i•f. a,t1·s.·a ~p8~·n·E'tI ""lial.v.n·cator" W~"'I,d ~l\tIklW~c"'!ll jf~~ O.' J. t~"'g~ • anything to do with him. Moreover, whY were riiid·level Pentagon officials orgqiUtjpg ti1~~tiiu~s with qf.Qtei~1\ ti\(elJigen~e pgency J)eh.ltt(nh~ ~agJ{ Qftti6ClA -- ~ clear 6reacli ofU.S. govenrnlent pf6t6c61? Tliere was also a ma.tter ofpersonal ~°hoag,.ttti.fcQt SemH"'I.e"r; A,t S,Ult~ n~e"p~rt!m.e."t)\lf",'rc:.g'tt9.ntJ~l.~ h1'\(,f J"P.~•t.b.Oe~n QiiUtJ.c')J"1J,ng the Italiitns to te5ttabi theit contacts ~ith bad-acting states like Iran (with Which Italy has extensive trade ti~). .. • 9115/20049:1S'PM '~Iran-Gmtra II?" by Joshua Micah Marshall, Laura Roze... http://WWW.WaGgtonmOnthIY.COmlfeaturesl2004/04l... ~--~ . 0 A~¢~tdin~ tQ u,s! ~QV~tntnent $()yt<i~, botJ1 the s.tate O¢pilllJll.ebt aiiSJ tJi¢ (;11\ eveiitti'a11y broUght the matter to tile attention oftli.e White Hobse - specifi~8JJY, ~o ~o.ng9.1e¢~ Ri~'$ ~lli~f d..epUtY em tI1~ N4tipmU ~e¢pfitY C9.U"~il, ~f¢J)n~n J.. fladley. Later, Italian spy cniefP611ari ia!sed the matter ~rivately willi Tenet, who mmseifW§i\t tQ lIa~J1~Y in ~ly Febnlary 2QQ~, qQ~~~d by T¢iu1t, »{idl~y llent Word to tlie offichils in Feith's office and to Udeeii to cease au ~Ucli activities. Hadley then contacted Sembler, assuring him it wouldn't happen again and to report back if ~ili4 - rh~ otd,ets, ho.\vev~t, ~¢ell\ tQ lt4Y~ ItJig Uttl¢ btT¢ct fof fI sC«Qhd iiie~titig W~ s!)on D uiiderway. AccordiJig to astory pbblished this suiiiiiier in Carriere. de//& Sera, a 1~a.(Uilg lialiiln daUy;fl\i~ $~¢Qn~f Ui~¢tlflg toP-\( phlc¢. iii ROin~ iti J.un~ AOP~r Gh6r'bimifai'tells The Wasliinglon Monthly thiit lie arranged that meeting after a t. .fltillY Qf(axes betWe~n binl~elf jijd.Ob.P ofli¢jQJ Harold'RJiRde. did not attend it tlliiiself, Gliorbiiiiifar says the meeting coiiSisted ofan Egypliah, an Iiaqi, ----~a Hlgn:~~n uIS. gQY~fMi~rit pft'iqial, WhOSQ n4M¢.Ilt; (i~clin&f t<) r~Y~i\I. Tile fitSt tWo· briefed the Ariiericfui 6fficial al>6bt the general situation in Iraq and tlie MJ4dle E\1$t, iUld wha~ Would Il~p~il iii Ji"aq, "AnU itl~ JiliptU~ile(f Wotd t.Qt Word smce," says Gl\orbaiiifar. Aspokesman for the NSC declmed to coiiiiiieiit on tliis ~t1d <)m¢t·fi\e~titig~ an4 t¢feff~s1 '[lie JJ'.~/ifiigtdti Man/ltly t2 Jhe Oef¢hs~ Department, whi¢1i did not iesp6i1d to iepeat~d iriquities.·Udeeii also refused to comment . ~ . No on~ at th~ U.S. ~Jl11}assy ip ~Otnc, ~e~l11$ tQ bA.v~ l<nQwn ~]lQ1At tllis s~gorut ~Qtnll meetlli~. Blit tli~ baclt·cliailflel's continUing eXistence became apparent tli~ fo1l6WiIig Jliopt~ 00- Jul~ 200~ -- \yJi~ii Lec(e~jl il~alri coijJQqtijeJ Sepil1l~r i\ng 191~ liim tn3t he'9 De back hi ROme In SeptemBer to conthiiie "fiis worK" wItIi the Iranians (TIiis time Lea~.~i1 made fig mer\U<)n bf~ny inyolY~m~nt llt P~titJlgQn offlQii\lai IA\e~, ti~ told SemBle; it woUld fie bi August ratner tliWi Septenilier.) Ali exasperated Semliler !i$iliil ~~nt WDi'4 ij~~k t9 WM!llnetotl, lind Hadley again went lilto motioil felling LOOeen, hi no uncertain terms, to back off. Qn~e fig<}ip, "()W~V~f, Hqd.l~Y~ ord~~ $C;~ro tQ IhWe goii~ unh~~d~~. Alirtilst it year hiter in 'June 2003, there wef~ still furtlier meetings iii Paris iiivolving Rliode atld fjhot~Ailifa.t. Ohod;anifii.f saYR the nllfl) ()fthcffi\e~tillg was (Qf JUll)~~ tb g~t Jiiore information on the sifui\ti6ii iii Ifciq and tlie Middle East. "In tllose ti\eeiIDgS w¢ meJ, we gav~ him me ~¢¢hqtio, wn~fWQql4 ~~pp.~i1 hi (lie ~b.ii1itiit d(l.ya iilltaij. And everrtliin~ has happened word for word as we told liitn," Gli6rbanifar.repeats. 1 '!Wt met ji1 ~v~tal difft;t~t'lt places in Paris," he says. "Mode met several other people -lie didri't oiiJr meet ine." Not a "chance encounter" .By the summer of2003, the Senate Select Committee.on Intellisence had beaun to get wInd ofthe Ghorbanlfar-LedeenooDoD back-channel and made inquiries at the GIA, Amonth later! Newsdfll broke~the, original story about the secret Ghorbanifar channel. Faced with the disclosure, Secretary ofDefense Rumsfeld a9knowledged the December 2001 meeting but dismissed it as routine and unimportant. .. "The infonnation has moved around the interagency process to all the departments and agencies,'l he told reporters in Crawford, Texas, after a meeting with Bush. "As .I understand it, there wasn't anything there. that was ofsubstance or of value that needed to be pursued further." Later that day, another senior Defense official b6 b7C , "3 of4 9/15/2004 Q:15.PM, 'i,ran-C,ontra ll?" by Joshua Micah M\U'Shall, LauraRoze... .' http://www.was~gtonmonthly.comlfeaturesl2004/041... J2~. ,••.~ • O. '.. nckiioWI~dg~d U1¢ $~~Qnd tij¢etifig jn P.C\ii~ tti JlJn~ ?o.OJ, ~UI msi~te(l. that It \v~ the resUlt ofa ",cliaiice encoiJiiter" betWeen Gli6i'baiiifar and a P.eii~6ii omci.tU. The administration has,kept to the "chance encounter" story to this day. Ghorbanifar, however, lau~s offthat idea. "Run into each other? We had a prior arrangement," he told The Washington Monihly.: "It involved a Jot ofdiscussion and a lot ofpeople." 9y~r !he J~t Y~!I'; th~ ~~q~tc: JtJ,eIJjg~n9~ ~9mf!lj~~~ ~!lS _con~!1c~~9 1imjt~9 in.q!1iry into the meetln~, inoluding interviews with Feith and Ledeen. But under terms ofa QQmpt9mi~~ agr~~4 to ~y "9th P~i~i @wit inv~tigtltiqn intQ th~ fn;~!ter WM nl!t off until after the November eleotion. Republioans on the committee, many ofwhom $YR1P~!p.f~ wjqt th~ tt~gi.l!le ~h~g~ri·~gen~~ ..l!t ~Q.D, P~v~. JJ~n 1~~1~.~! .!9&~':lth investigations, calling them an election-year fishing expedition. Democrats, by <1QPt~t, ~t~ §l:I94 i!lV~§1ig~t~qp~ ~ yi~a! tq l!q<!e~t~4!pg tlt~ ~~tlt~! rgitt f~lth's office may have played in arange ota dubious intelligence enterprisest trom p~hjng ~l~!~~ J!!lQ~! ~ ~uPP9.~~d ~a4~~I]1-:~J Q!\~~~ pa!t'!~!~Np !1P~ QV~f~JQWn estimates ofalleged Iraqi stocks ofWMe to what the committee's ranking minority m~1P.~~r Sen:.l~Y R9~~fc;l!er Q?-V{~V~.) ~~il~ lithe} Gh~I~~! fc!~!Qti' {@94e ~nd others in Feith's office have been major sponsors otthe Iraqi exile leader~ who is P9W ~Q~er jny~~dga!J9,Q 19.f p~~J,tg \J.~: iI}!~mg~:9~¢ ~9l~):.Wi'h.tiJ~ f~I ~{lding potential espionage charges to the mix the long-simmering questions about the activities ofFeith's operation now,seem certain to come under renewed scrotiny. Research assistance provided by Claudio Lavanga. Image ilJ web link is aphoto ofGhorbanifarfrom the mid-1980s, around the time of Iran-Contra. - J.o.shP-l'lMicahM. a' r.$. ."i\II is .a. "U.'ds.h.1i1J6lttm" .t M,.ee"mIuz.Ol ' c-~~ht,0'b}.'l,fI'D''(oj '"1,;h;",e' t I"th.d the. editor ofTalJdiig P.6iJitS Memo. uui=a Rozeii tepoiti6ii tiatioiiJil secbrity issues fi'Qnt W~t\in~~Qn·RC·ii"a·f6t"fi~fW~bl(jg War add Piece. ~he 9ltft li~ t~dPh.~d Sit Iktozeii~tali66.c6iii. Pabl Glasttis is edlt6F ifi"clliefof the Was1iiri~lOn Man/hit. • - - ¥ 40f4I Mission Masthead FeatureS Archive Writers Guidelines Feedback Customer Service Subscribe Online Make A Donation 1'lti~ sit~ ¥~ ~IJ'~Qt~nts \v~th!!i ~ft: Copyti~t 9 ~Q04 The Washington Monthly 733 15th sf.NW Suite 520 Washington DC. 20005. CommentS or questiohs ... please email ChiisUna LatSorl lSy clicklhg~ 911~/2004 9:15 PM ... .... ~'. ,LEXIS®-NEXIS® View Prin~e Page ~ ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED <::> HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Page 1 of4 \ Copyright 2004 Los Angeles Times All Rights Reserved Los Angeles Times September 3, 2004 Friday Correction Appended Home Edition SECTION: MAIN NEWS; National Desk; Part A; Pg. 1 LENGTH: 1614 words HEADLINE: TijE WORLD;. Israel Has Long Spied on U.S., Say Officials '" BYLINE: Bob Drog~,n and Greg Miller, Times Staff Writers DATELINE: WASHINGTON BODY: . Despite its fervent denials, Israel se<?retly maintains a large and active intelligence~gathering operation in the United States that has long attempted to recruit U.S. officials as spies and to procure classified documents, U.S. government officials said. FBI and other counterespionage agents, in turn, have covertly followed, bugged and videotaped Israeli diplomats, intelligence officers and others in Washington, New York and elsewhere,~e officials said. The FBI routinely watches many diplomats assigned to America. Offici~ls said FBI surveillance ofa senior Israeli diplomat, who was the subject ofan FBI inquiry in 1997-98, played a role in the latest probe into possible Israeli spying. The bureau now is investigating whether a Pentagon analyst or prQ-Israellobbyists provided Israel with a highly classified draft policy document. The document advocated support for Iranian dissidents, radio broadcasts into Iran and other· efforts aimed at destabilizin~ the regime in Tehran, officials said this week. The case is unresolved, but it hasIhighlighted Israel's unique status as an extremely close U.S. ally that presents a dileIlU)la for U.S. counterintelligence officials. "There is a huge, aggressive, ongoing set ofIsraeli activities directed against the United States," said a former intelligence official who was familiar with the latest FBI probe and who recently left government. "Anybody who worked in counterintelligence in a professional capacity will tell you the L 11 Israelis are among the most aggressive and active countries targeting the United States." 7 ~ The form~r official·discounted repeated Israeli denials that the country exceeded acceptable limits to obtain information. ~ ~~~ \s)<;Y-- ~ b6 .~ b7C https:/Iwww.nexis.comlresearch/search/submitViewTagged 04 ~lpr . LEXIS®-NEXIS®View Printable Page . () Page 2 of4 '''They undertake a wide range oftechnical operations'and human operations," the former official said. "People here as liaison ... aggressively pursue classified intelligence from people. The denials are laughable.II Current and former officials involved with Israel at the White House, CIA, State Department and in Congress had similar appraisals, although not all were as harsh in th~ir assessments. A Bush administration official confirmed that Israel ran intelligence operations against the United States. "I don't know ofany foreign government that doesn't do collection in Washington,1I he said. AnotherU.S~ official familiar with Israeli intelligence said that Israeli espionage efforts were more subtle than aggressive, and typically involved the use ofintermediaries. But aformer senior intelligence official, who focused on Middle East issues, said Israel tried to recruit him as a spy in 1991. "I had an Israeli intelligence officer pitch me in Washington at the time ofthe first Gulf War," he said. "I said, 'No, go away,' and reported it to counterintelligence." The U.S. officials all insisted on anonymity because classified material was involved and because ofthe political sensitivity ofIsraeli relations with Washington. Congress has shown little appetite for vigorous investigations ofalleged Israeli spying. In his fust public comments on the case, Israel's ambassador, Daniel Ayalon, repeated his governmen~'s denials this week. til can tell you here, very authoritatively, very categorically, Israel does not spy on the United States," Ayalon told CNN. "We do not gather information on our best friend and ally." Ayalon said his government had been "very assured that this thing will just fizzle out. There's nothing there.II In public, Israel contends it halted all spying operations against the United States after 1986, when Jonathan Jay Pollard, a former Navy analyst, was convicted in U.S. federal court and sentenced to life in prison for selling secret military documents to Israel. U.S.. officials say the case was never fully resolved because a damage-assessment team concluded that Israel had at least one more high-level spy at the time, apparently inside the Pentagon, who had provided serial numbers ofclassified documents for Pollard to retrieve. The FBI has investigated several incidents ofsuspected intelligence breaches involving Israel since the Pollard case, including a 1997 case in which the National Security Agency b'pgged'two Israeli intelligence officials in Washington discussing efforts to obtain a sensitive U.S. diplomatic document. Israel denied wrongdoing in that case and all others, and no one has been prosecuted. But U.S. diplomats, miljtary officers and other officials are routinely warned before going to Israel that local agents are known to slip into homes and hotel rooms ofvisiting delegations to go through briefcases and to copy computer files. "Any official American in the intelligence' community or in the foreign service gets all these briefings on all the things the Israelis are going to try to do to you," said one U.S. official. . At the same time, experts said relations between the CIA and Israel's chiefintelligence agency, the Mossad, were so close that analysts sometimes shared-highly classified "code-word" intelligence on sensitive subjects. Tel Aviv routinely informs Washington ofthe identities ofthe Mossad station chief and the military intelligence liaison at its embassy in America. https:/ 10/6/2004 LEXIS®-NEXIS® View Pri<5e Page <;) Page 3 of4 "They probably get 98% ofeverything they want handed to them on a weekly basis,tI said the former senior U.S. intelligence officer who has worked closely with Israeli intelligence. "They're very active allies. They're treated the way the British are.II Another former intelligence operative who has worked with Israeli intelligence agreed. tiThe relationship wlth Israeli intelligence is as intimate as it gets," he said. Officials said Israel was acutely interested in U.S. policies and intelligence on the Middle East, especially toward Iran, Syria_and Saudi Arabia. "They are sophisticated enough to want to know where the levers are they can influence, which people in our government are taking which positions they can try to influence,II said a former high..ranking CIA official. . But the official said the relationship ~etween the U.S. and Israel, at least in intelligence circles, "is not one ofcomplete trust at all.II The latest counterintelligence investigation began more than two years ago, and initially focused on whether officials from a powerful Washington lobbying group, the American Israel Political Action Committee, passed classified information to Israel, officials said. . Several months later, the FBI conducted surveillance ofNaor Oilon, chiefofpolitical affairs at the Israeli Embassy, meeting with two AIPAC officials. The arrival ofa veteran Iran analyst at the Pentagon, Larry Franklin, sparked a new line ofFBI inquiry. J~J'~~J.~;:l~~-t4e::f~~;h~~';"J!1qpi~~!~d:<?il<?~-as~p~~.Qf.~·Itr~!i~OiVLht~.~Ji~~~¢.~.~,~:::l ~~~~S. Intelllg~e.e_offi~U1Lworking.w~~.~~on~ ~p~~:.~!g~~~.~li.g;~:l,!11..P.tgp~~_;:a ~A~ng ,!T;~~~.JlLm~~0fli~~.",rst,II!~t..~jI,£§!Q!!""~..Host~. q',1p.Ne~ ~~~llIi~!Lawm~Q1l;~_~~ffil~taersAiian,:oimilimtYJntelligeiic'e..sei.Vjce;;..andJh~ CON.6teams~~veral:olfi~ials.:Said:" .-" '~~~~~~tlr{~g9~,:Q.t~B1i~urv~t~I~p~'lnt~t~~~!?~t!!!~t~.~~~!.~~:v~a-s.:~~~~~~ ~~~~.llice,'CilSce,"!T!lt?Ysus~~o,rKmgmeJP,glpnaccess-to,U;S. ,mtelbgencel w1iir;,li::l ~'a15~~rg., In an e..mail message this week, Gilon said he was under orders not to talk to the media about the current case. He has denied any wrongdoing in interviews with Israeli newspapers. Franklin has not responded to requests for comment, and officials said he was cooperating with authorities. The FBI interviewed several AlPAC officials last Friday and copied the contents ofa computer hard drive. AlPAC has denied any wrongdoing and said it was cooperating fully with investigators. In a statement released Thursday, AlPAC said the groupis continued access to the White House, senior administration officials and ranking members of Congress during the two-year probe would have been "inconceivable ... if any shred ofevidence ofdisloyalty or even negl~gence on AIPAC's part" had been discovered. AIPAC, has especially close ties to the Bush administration. Addressing the group's policy conference on Iy!a~_18, President Bu~lt praised AlPAC for "serving the cause ofAmerica" ~d for highlighting the 10/6/2004 • LEXIS®-NEXIS® View Priese Page nuClear threat from Iran. (;) Page 4 of4 Washington and Tel Aviv differ on their assessments ofIran's nuclear weapons development. Israel considers Iran's nuclear ambitions its No. 1security threat, and the issue is the top priority for AlPAC. The Bush administration takes the Iran nuclear threat seriously, but its intelligence estimates classify the danger as less imminent than do the Israeli assessments. What mystifies those who know AIPAC is how one ofthe savviest~ best-connected lobbying organizations in Washington has found itself emrieshed in a spy investigation. Although never previously implicated in a potential espionage case, AlPAC has frequently been a subject ofcontroversy. Its close ties to Israel and its aggressive advocacy ofIsraeli government positions has drawn criticism that it should be registered as an agent of a foreign country. Others, noting its ability to organize significant backing for or against candidates running for national office, have demanded th~t it be classified as a political action committee. So far the group has avoided both classifications, either ofwhich would impose major restrictions on its activities. Three years ago, Fortune magazine ranked AIPAC fourth on its list of Washington's 25 most powerful lobbying groups -- ahe~d ofsuch organizations as th~ AFL-CIO and the American Medical Assn. Times staffwriters Mark Mazzetti and Tyler Marshall in Washington contributed to this report. CORRECTION-DATE: September 05~ 2004 CORRECTION: Lobbying group -- An article in Friday's Section Aabout allegations ofIsraeli spying in the United States misidentified the American Israel Public Affairs Committ~e, a pro-Israel·lobbying group, as the American Israel Political Action Committee. GRAPHIC: PHOTO: DENIAL: Daniel Ayalon, Israeli ambassador to the U.S., says his nation doesn't spy here. PHOTOGRAPHER: Neal Hamberg Associated Press LOAD-DATE: September 5, 2004 10/6/2004 ------------ --- ---- ---- Pentagon A~~lyst St<?RS Cooger3:t!ng It:l Israel Spy: Case The sloe Sentinel ALL INFOP~TION CONTAINED . ~REIN IS UNCLASSIFIED _~ ~ATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/5~ Page 1 of2 G5R-\.Uf-~b<S15-tJ'L - ~r'f[~ ~ mit Mr' b6 http://30.5.1 OO.249/documents/intranetlinformationlSentine1l2004/b~t6ber/~6.htJ /6/2004 b 7 C Associated Press 02:26:45 By Richard B. Schmitt October 6, 2004 WASHINGTON, DC -- APentagon analyst being investigated for allegedly passing secrets to.Israel has stopped cooperating with authorities and retained a new lawyer to fight possible espionage charges, sources familiar with the case said Tuesday. The analyst, Larry Franklin, has been a key witness in a continuing FBI investigation looking into whether classified intelligence was passed to Israel by the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, an influential Washington lobbying group. Franklin has been accused ofpassing the contents ofa classified document about U.S. policy on Iran to two AIPAC officials, who in tum may have given the infonnation to Israeli officials in Washington, sources have said. Federal prosecutors had proposed an agreement under which Franklin would plead guilty to some of the charges. Such agreements usually are done in exchange for leniency and are accompanied by a pledge of continued cooperation. But sources said that Franklin has rejected a proposed deal because he believes the tenns are too onerous. He recently replaced his court-appointed lawyer.....It looks like there is going to be a battle," a source familiar with the case said. Jr~I officials have not yet sought charges against Franklin or anyone else in the case, although the breakdown ofplea negotiations would appear to raise the odds that he could be charged soon. The scope ofthe investigation is believed to encompass a top diplomat at the Israeli Embassy in Washington; two high-ranking analysts at AlPAC; and the Pentag~n office in wQich Franklin works as an Iran analyst, which is headed up by Defense Undersecretary Douglas J. Feith.• The case has attracted widespread attention because it spotlights U.S. relations with a longtime ally and raises questions about whether those relations have become too close in recent years. Israel has become acutely sensitive to the growing nuclear capabilities ofIran, which it considers to be its most worrisome and deadly foe. Both the Israeli government and AlPAC have denied that they engaged in any wrongdoing or were given unauthorized access to secrets. Aspokesman for Paul McNulty, the United States attorney for the eastern district ofVirginia, whose office has been assigned the case, declined to comment on the matter. A prominent Washington defense'lawyer, Plato Cacheris, confirmed this week that he recently had been retained by Franklin. "We consider him a loyal American who did not engage in any espionage activities," said Cacheris, the first person representing Franklin to speak out on his behalf since the investigation surfaced a month ago. "Any charge ofespionage will be met with fierce resistance." Cacheris has represented a number ofaccused turncoats, includi~g CIA operative Aldrich Ames, who was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1994 after confessing to years ofspying for the Soviet Union. Cacheris also represented fonner EJJ.J counterintelligence agent Robert P. Hanssen, who also was convicted of passing secrets to the Soviets and who received a life sentence in 2002. Cacheris' other clients have inciudedM9nica Lewinsky and Nixon administration Attorney General John Mitchell. Some U.S. officials familiar with the investigation have said there is little hard evidence that Franklin intended to commit espionage and no hint that he was paid for any role he might have played. U.S. offici~ls believe there is more evidence that Franklin -- described by colleagues and friends as diligent and thoughtful yet periodically unreliable and disorganized -- might have handed over information without understanding the gravity ofhis actions. During two decades at the Pentagon spent tracking threats, he was considered a journeyman analyst who often could be found in his office buried behind huge stacks ofdocuments., The classified information \ he is suspected ofsharing included the contents ofa draft v.ersion of a.national security presidential A/) ~ directive, or NSPD, on Iran. The draft advocated measures the United States could take to help , ., / l" destabilize·the regime in Tehran, a subject ofintense interest to the Israelis. But officials also have said that the draft, which originated at the Pentagon's Near.East and South Asian Affairs office, where Franklin worked, contained little in the way of sensitive secrets that had not been reported by the media already. In-addition, after more than two years ofdebate among top U.S. officials, an NSPD on Iran has yet to be agreed upon by top officials and signed by the president. The SlOe Sentinel G - .... - - - - .. Page 2 of2 10/6/2004 \ ALL INFORMATION CONTAIJmD ~IN IS UNCLASSIFIED () ~ 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/3ab/l~ ' D~n~~~ ~yalon, to correct myself. Mr. Ambassaddr, ~e's al~ over the p~ess this week, the FBt js·invest~9ating an official of tbe Defense . Depar~ment, Lawrence Franklin, tor allegedly passing classified documents or materials or data from the White House that the White House plans ~e9a~din9, Iran the Wh~te House's plan~ on I~an and Israel. . ls Franklin spying tor your coun~ry? AMB. AYALON:. No, not. at. all, John. I. can tell you here. -- and thank you ~o~ giv~ng me this opportunity to $ay categorically and very authoritatively, lsrae~ does no~ spy on th~ United States, no~ do we gather any intelligence on the U.S~ We do not do it because it'$ our best friend and ally. And secondly, we don't really need it because we a~e in such close, close xelations -~ strategic, polibical -- and we see eye to eye on most of the ~ssues t~ave~;ng the M~dd~e ~ast, whether ;~'s ter~or or weapons of ma~s destruction, or Iran that we just talked about. And also, John, you emp~asi~ed i~'s press repQrts. Let me a+so say here that I'm not going to contend with or argue with some anonymous leaks or some faceless allegations o~ $ources. I can tell you here ~lS9 ~ha~ in al~ my contacts with the U.S. government, there was no way that formally or ~nfo~mally we were di~cussing any of tpese alle9ations. So it's in the press. 4 don'~ know the motivations of i~. I hope jt will be revealed because there is nothing there wha~soever. MR. MC~UGHLIN: There's no grand jury that's been impaneled? AMB. AYALON: I ha~e no details on that, and no~ am I conce~ned becaus~ we know exactly wha~ ~he facts are. And whoeve~ is leakjng, whoeve~ is feeding the press on ~hat, l would say ~t could be tWQ ~eason~. Eithe~ it'~ $ome incompetence of not unde~standing reality o~ misunderstanding or misin~erpretin9 the activities that we engage ~n witb the U.s. government, or maybe ev~n a malicious intent. I don't. know. ~~t I can t~~l you ag~;n, 9; we-have not heard anything, .neither formal.J.y nor' i.l'lformally. - - M~. MC~U~~L1N: So we q~n ~e9a~Q.this as an oF~ic~al denial on the par~ of the government of I$rael, what you're saying? ~B, AY~OH: Yes. Ye$. And I would say it'$ more than that; for us it's a non-issue. MR. MCLAUGHLIN: I t , s a nont-.~ssue.? AMB. AYA~ON: Exactly. M~. MC~UGHLIN: Now, you a~e aware, with ali due ~espect, Mr. Ambassador, that Israel Qenied that Jonathan Pollard was a spy for 13 years, and then ~t. concu~red after that tha~he·was a spy. ~a. ~YhtON: That wasn't qu~te t.he case. We too~ ~esponsib;l~ty -- ;t w~~ a sad ca~~. It was ~ $ad qase. And i~ w~~ an ~solated, ve~y unique case o£the ~as~ ove~ 20 years ago, and w~ al,..l bore the consequences b6 b7C o for.:- it. MR t MCLAUGHLlN: Well, I think the gene~al assumption is tha~ nations sPY on each other'whethe~ theY'~e friendly or not. AMB. AYALON: Absolutely . .MR. MCLAUGHLIN: And there isn't ve~y much doub~ in my mind tha~ we have our spies, if they are earn~ng some o~ that $40 billion that we pu~ out for CIA, et cetera, ~here are spies in your government working for us. Absolutely? . AHB: ~Y~ON: ~o~lr~ fi9h~ ~h~t -- no, y~yl~~ ;ig~t ~nqt n?~~O~$f even friendly ones, do spy on each othe;-. 1his .is a common, .let.ts say, understanding. But 'afte~ Pollard, l can t~ll you he~e aga~n that rs~ae~ MR. MCLAUGHLIN: The Pol~ard case. AMa. AYALON: After th~ Pollard case fro~ 20 so y~ars agQ, we took .~ lsrael tQok ~ strategic defense -- strategic -decision nQt. to do any kind ot intelligence gat.hering of ~hat. ~ype on the United States, and we adhere to i~ and we don't. want even anytning which will be remotely c10se to such activ~ty because o£ the unique relation$hip between Israel and the United States. The relationship is un1que jn te~ms of clos~ness. . . MR. .MCLAUGHLIN; And preciou.s. AMB. ~YALON: Not just. ~Qe pres~ur~. MR. MCLAUGH~IN: Precious. AMB. AYALON: Not just -- very precious, ¥oulre right. Very precious. We cherish it. We wil~ not do anyth~ng to ~mpair ~t. And a9ain, no~ do we MR: MG~UGHL~N: I ~hin~ thQs~ genia~s a~~ ~eassu~~99. lIm not. $ure it clears my hurd~e of that people in yo~r station are required by the circumst~nces ot your dtp~6matic status to automatica11y d$ny everything, but I think you've gone a ~tep beyond that. - ~. _ _. w __ ~yt ~ nav~ ~ que~t;09 w;th ~~9a~9 ~o ~IPA9. AI~~C ~~ ~ f~0~~i~~in9 qnd very successful lobby. It. does exce~l~nt. work 9n the par~ of Israel, but ;it. is -- i~ appears that. AIPJ\C is functioning as an intermedia~y, a~ this sto~y has been d~~eloped and pu~ forward. Now AI~AC den~ed any involvement, but 1 want to reaq you the lan9uage: . "Any al_legatio~ of criminal. conduct. by J\IPAC OL: ou~ employees is false and baseles~. Ne~the~ AIPAC no~ any of its employees bas vio!a~~d any laws o~ ~ules, nor has ~~~~G 0;- its employees ever rece~ved ~nformat;on they believed was secre~ or classified." Does that sound like ~ categorical denial to you? AMB. A¥ALON: I think so. 1 cannot. speak, ot cQu~se, .foL: AIPAC. I think it's a very, very g09d American organizati9n, and we very much , o appre9~ate ~ts aqtivity on be~alf of the u.s. -- American ~trategiq alliance. I~ is ve~y impor~ant. ~~: M9~UGH~~~: ~gt ~~ ~t ~9t. cu~;o~~ th?t ~h~E~ ~~ ~ig9*e ~09~ in that. statement, and the operat.tve words are "they believed was sec~et or classified?" puts the monkey on Wl;. franklin's back. AIPAC doesn't. deny passing the information on to Israeli it denies that. it. did so knowing that the information was classif~ed. They didn't know it was cla~si~ied. So a~e you -- a~e ~ou putting Franklin out to d~y? ~~. AY~tO~: l w6u~q -- yo~ ~now, ~o~n, was~~n9ton is a place, ~~k~ any other cap~tal, of jnformation shar~n9. Obviously, we do meet. with ~IPAC ¢n a ~egular basis, like we do meet w~tn ot.her think tanks ~- MR. MCLAUGHLIN: Well, he --Frank~in -- AMB. AYALON:~ -~ and wit.h administrat.~oo people MR. MG~QGH~~N: ¥eah. ~B. ~YALON: ~~ CQngre~speople, academi~ people, media people. ~heY'~e all meeting and talkin9~- ~ don't ~hin~ th~~e w~~ ~~yth~ng w~~ng~~th tn~~, and ~e ~;+l continue to do that. And r thin~ that the statement. speak$ for itself. ~ don't. have a~¥thin9 to add. r'm not. a ~pokesman for t.hem~ MR. MCLAUGHLIN: But yo~ understand how t.hat "they believed" prQvides that. wi9gle ~oom? Can you see that? AMB. AYALON: ,}: .-- .no( I'm not. sur~. t.ha~ I ~ndel;stand, you .know, tb1s legal~~tiq language~ I can tel~ you that. -- MR. MCLAUGHLIN: But AIPAC is presenting itself as possiply'an unwitting recipient. of clas~i~~ed ~nformation, whicb it ~ay have pa~sed on. trint Article-American ProspOOnline ALL INFORliATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED F'\ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324~aW/Sab/13g Page 1 of6 Cloak and Swagger The Larry Franklin spy probe reveals an escalating fight over control ofIran policy. By Laura Rozen and Jas~n Vest Issue Date: 11.02.04 Pr~nt ~riendly IEmail Article . To Washington's small and sometimes fractious community ofIran experts, it was becoming obvious: What to do about Iran and its fast-developing nuclear program was set to.rival Iraq as the most pressing foreign-policy challenge for the person elected president in 2004. By the spring and early summer ofthis year, the city was awash in rival Iran task forces and conferences. Some recommended that Washington engage in negotiations with Tehran's mullahs on the nuclear issue; they drew scorn from the other side, which preached regime change or military strikes. In late·July, as this debate raged, a Pentagon analyst named Larry Franklin telephoned'an acquaintance who worked at a pro-Israel lobbying group, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AlPAC). The two men knew each other professionally from their long involvement in the Washington Iran and Iraq policy debates, ABrooklyn-born Catholic father offive who put himselfthrough school, earning a doctorate, as an Air Force reservist, Franklin had served as a Soviet intelligence analyst at the Defense Intelligence Agency until about a decade ago, when he learned, Farsi and became an Iran specialist. At their July meeting, Franklin told the AlPAC employee about his frustration that the U.S. govemmentwasn't responding aggressively enough to intelligence about hostile Iranian activities in Iraq. As Franklin explained it, Iran had sent all of its Arabic-speaking Iranian agents to southern.Iraq, was orchestrating attacks on Ir~qi state oil facilities, and had sent other agents to northern Iraq to kill Israelis, believed to be operating there. Iran had also transferred its top operative for Afghanistan to the Iranian Embassy in Baghdad. The move, Franklin implied, signified Tehran's intention to cause more trouble in Iraq. A couple ofweeks afteJ;' this meeting, in mid-August, the AIPAC official was visited by tWo FBI agents, who asked him about Franklin. From the line ofquestioning, it wasn't clear to the AlPAC official whether Franklin was being investigated by the FBI for possible wrongdoing or ifhe was simply the subject ofa routine background investigation for renewal ofhis security clearance. But on August 27, when CBS broke the story that the FBI was close to arresting an alleged "Israeli mole" in the office ofthe Pentagon's No.3 official, Douglas Feith, it became clear that Franklin was in trouble, News reports said that the FBI had evidence that Franklin had passed a classified draft national-security presidential directive (NSPD) on Iran to AIPAC. What's more, reports said, the FBI wasn'tjust interested in Franklin. For the past two years, it had been con~ucting a counterintelligence probe into whether AlPAC had served as a conduit for U.S. intelligence to Israel, an investigation about which National Security Adviser Condoleez:?:a Rice was briefed shortly after the Bush administration'came into office. In the flurry of news reports that followed, the scope ofthe FBI investigation seethed potentially ?JJ'- enormous. Citing senior U.S. officials, The Washington Post reported that "the FBI is examining ") .\(,. whether highly classified material from the National Security Agency ... was also forwarded to ~t' Israel," and that the investigation Of.Franklin was "coincidental" to that broader FBI probe. Time "'£n'lJ\ magazine reported that Franklin had been enlisted by the FBI to place a series of monitored ,"p~ b 6 . telephone calls (scripted by the FBI) to get possible evidence on others, including allies ofAhmad .b7C Chalabi, a favorite ofPentagon neoconservatives, Chalabi was alleged to have told his Irtu"""·........-~~ file:/{C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdougl~\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte ~ ... ~l~~~r--¢t IPrint Article-American Prosp~Online o Page 2 of6 intelligence contacts that the United ~tates had broken'their commun!cations codes -- a breach that prompted a break in U.S. support for Ch.alabi last spring -- and the FBI wanted to know who had shared that highly classified information with Chalabi. What's more, an independent expert on Israeli espionage said he had been interviewed by the FBI in June and in several follow-up calls, and that the scope ofthe senior FBI investigators' questioning was broad and extremely detailed. In the wake ofthe first news reports, AlPAC strongly denied that any ofits employees had ever knowingly received classified U.S. information. Israel also categorically denied that it had conducted intelligence operations against the United States since the case ofJonathan Pollard, a U.S. Navy intelligence analyst who was convicted ofspyi~g for Israel in 1987. At the time the CBS report aired in late August-- incidentally, on the Friday evening before the opening ofthe Republican national convention -- custody ofthe Franklin investigation was being transferred from the head ofthe FBI counterintelligence unit, David Szady, to U.S. Attorney Paul McNulty, a Bush appointee, in Alexandria, Virginia, as the case moved to the grand-jury phase.. And then, in mid-September, news ofthe Franklin investigation went dark. *** The classified document that Franklin allegedly passed to AlPAC concerned a controversial proposal by Pentagon hard-liners to destabilize Iran. The latest iteration of the national-security ) presidential directive was drafted by a Pentagon ci~ilian and avid neocon, Michael Rubin, who .--1 hoped it would be adopted as official policy by the Bush administration. But in mid-June, Bush's national-security advisers canceled consideration of the draft, partly hi response to resistance from some at the State Department and the National Security Council, according to a recent memo written by Rubin and obtained by The American Prospect. No doubt also contributing to the administration's decision was the swelling insurgency and chaos ofpostwar Iraq. Rubin, in his early 30s, is a relative newcomer to the neoconservative circles in which he is playing an increasingly prominent role. Once the Iraq and Iran desk officer in the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans and later a Coalition Provisional Authority adviser in Iraq, these days the Yale-educated Ph.D~ hangs his hat at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and serves as editor for controversial Middle East scholar Daniel Pipes' magazine, The Middle East Quarterly. In an article published in the Republican-oriented quarterly Ripon Forum in June, Rubin suggests that the administration resolve its Iran warning by turning against the current regime. "In 1953 and 1979," he wrote, "Washington supported an unpopular Iranian government against the will of the people. The United States should not make the same mistake three times." In other words, President Bush should step up his public condemnation ofthe Iranian regime and break off all contact with it in hopes ofspurring a swelling ofthe Iranian pro-democracy movement. In short, Rubin, like his fellow Iran hawks, urges the administration to make regime c~ange in Iran its official policy. This invocation of"moral clarity" has a long intellectual pedigree among neoconservatives. It's the same argument they made to Ronald Reagan about the Soviet Union more than 20 years ago. "Ifwe could bring down the Soviet empire by inspiring and supporting a small percentage ofthe people," Michael Ledeen, a chief neoconservative advocate ofregime change in Iran and freedom scholar at AEI, recently wrote in the National Review, "surely the chances ofsuccessful - _.~ - ~ - . file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... 10/22/2004 •Print Article-American prospoOnline revolution in Iran-are more likely.u Page 3 Of9 Was it to this end that Franklin was allegedly observed by the FBI passing the ~raft NSPD on Iran to AIPAC? Was he trying to inform AIPAC, or Israel, about the contents ofthe draft NSPD? Or rather, and perhaps more plausibly, was he trying to enlist the powerful Washington lobbying organization in advocating for a Iran-destabilization policy? In other words, is the Franklin case really about espionage, or is it a glimpse into the ugly sausage-making process by which Middle Eastpolicy gets decided in Washington and, in particular, in the Bush administration? *** Arguably past the apogee ofits power, AIPJ\C nonetheless remains one ofWashington's most influential organizations. Successor to the E!senhower-era American Zionist Council ofPublic Affairs, AIPAC came into its own during the Reagan years, thanks largely to the efforts offormer Executive Director Thomas Dine. When Dine assumed his pqst in 1981, the organization had an annual budget ofa little more than $1 million, about two dozen employees, and 8,000 members; when he left in 1993, a budget of$15 million was being administered by a staffof 158, and the committee had 50,000 members. ' An assiduous networker and fund-raiser, Dine also quickly became indispensable to the Reagan White House as a promoter ofvarious neoconservative foreign-policy initiatives. He also forged alliances between AlPAC and other interests, including the Christian right. (Another former AlPAC executive director, Morris Amitay, has long been active in neoconservative ventures, ~ both a business partner to Feith and Richard Perle and co-~ounder, with Michael Ledeen, ofthe Coalition for Democracy in Iran.) By the mid-'80s, AlPAChad been a prime mover in the defeat or crippling ofinitiatives and legislators not to its liking, and the passage ofbillions in grants to Israel., It had also taken on an increasingly pro-Republican (and pro-Likud) tilt. While many regarded AlPAC's power as lessened during the Clinton administration, since 2001 AlPAC has been powerful enough that even the Bush administration couldn't get the committee and its congressional allies to tone down language in a 2002 resolution in support ofIsraeli military actions against the Palestinians. AIPAC's 2002 annual conference included 50 senators, 90 representatives, and more than a dozen senior administration officials; this year's conclave boasted PresidentBush h~mself, plus ~ouse Majority Leader Tom DeLay and an array of State and Defense department officials. But while AlPAC is a powerhouse, It is not clear that it would have been the perfect vehicle for the kind ofIran-destabilization lobbyi~g that some in Washington have been pushing. There are a wide variety ofIsraeli positions on how to deal with Iran. Many ofWashington's Middle East hands who are pro-Israel believe destabilization will not likely succeed, and they fear it will not deal with what they consider the real threat from Iran: nuclear weapons. "Ifyou mean trying to promote the peaceful overthrow ofthe regime in Iran, I think the prospects -for success are highly uncertain,u says Patrick Clawson, deputy director ofthe Washington Institute for Near East Policy, a pro-Israel think tank. Pro-Israel activists in Washington want to make sure that the United States considers Iran's nuclear program first and foremost, an American .problem, the response to which could include, ifnecessary, air strikes against Iran's nuclear facilities. Iran's nuclear pr<;>gram, one such activist recently told the Prospect, "has to be seen as Washington's problem." . - ... - ... .. file:/IC:\Documents%20and%20S~tti~gs\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... -10/22/2004 •Print Article-American PrOSPOOnline o Page 4 of6 There are other competing positions within the Israel-policy community. One Isra~1i official i!l Washington this summer for diplomatic -meetings discussed regime change in Iran with a reporter from The American Prospect on the condition th!lt his identity not be disclosed. He believes that Iran is ripe for democratic revolution, that it has one ofthe most pro-Western populations in the region, and that Iranian opposition forces would be electrified by a vigorous show ofU.S. presidential support. But he believes that any sort ofmilitary intervention in Iran would set back copsiderably these promising regime-change forces. Still'another group ofIsraeli policy-makers seem more inclined toward a military option, as evidenced by Israel's well-publici~edpurchase of 500 "bunke~-buster" bombs from the United States in September and its failed efforts to launch a spy satellite to monitor Iran's nuclear-program developments. Yet another policy position became evident in Seymour Hersh's article in The New Yorker in June, in which Hersh reported that Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, sensing that the U.S.created chaos in Iraq could leave an opening for anti-Israel efforts in Iran, was pursuing a "Plan B" that had Israeli operatives covertly training and equipping Kurds in Iraq, Iran, and Syria for possible future covert action to counter any such measures. As Hersh reported: "Israeli intelligence and military operatives are now quietly at work in Kurdistan, providing training for Kurdish commando units and, most important in Israel's view, running covert operations inside Kurdish areas oflran and Syria.... Some Israeli operatives have crossed the border into Iran, accompanied by Kurdish commandos, to install sensors and other sensitive devices that primarily target suspected Iranian nuclear facilities." The Israeli government insisted the story wasn't credible, and that it was sourced by Turkey, which is panicked, as ever, about foreign designs on Kurdistan. But a source told the Prospect that Franklin expressed the conviction that the United States has intelligence that affirms Hersh's report to be largely accurate. A second fonner U.S. diplomatic official who recently visited the area told the Prospect that there are Israeli intelligence officials·operating in Kurdish Iraq as political advisers, and others under the guise ofbusinessmen. All ofwhich raises questions, like what exactly was in the draft NSPD that Rubin wrote and Franklin allegedly shared with AlPAC? And does the destabilization plan pushed by neoconservatiyes in the draft NSPD in fact advocate that the United States or its proxies ann the Iranian opposition, including the Kurds, as part ofits efforts to pursue regime change? The public sfatements by the neoconservatives emphasize that regime change in Iran would not require U.S. military force. Then again, the neoconservatives' inspiration for the Iran plan has its roots in Reagan-era NSPDs that, while providing nonmilitary support to Poland's Solidary Movement, also had the CIA aggressively arming and training the Afghan mujahideen, the NicaraguanContras, and other anti-communist rebels. There's also no denying that some ofthe chief advocates ofthe Iran regime plot come out ofthe Pentagon, America's military command center. And some ofthose same Iran hawks have discussed the Iran regime-change issue, for instance, with Parisian-based Iran Contra arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar -- not exactly the kind of go-to guy for a nonviolent regime change plan, one might think. *** Whatever the nuances, the neocons are facing one oftheir biggest challenges in Washington today: persuading the administration to adopt their regime-change policy toward Iran even while their regime-change policy in Iraq appears to be crumbling. Since the Iraq invasion, Feith's office has come under the intense scrutiny ofcongressional investigators, investigative journalists, and - file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... 10/22/2004 •Print Article-American prospoOnline o Page 5 of6 Democratic critics for its two controversial prewar intelligence units, the Office ofSpecial Plans and the Policy Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group. It was those units that had helped convince the Bush White House of an operational connection between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda -- a claim since disproved by the independent September 1'1 commission, among others. Those secretive intelligence units had also been among the administration's strongest champions of Cbalabi, who allegedly told Iranian intelligence agents that the United States had penetrated Iranian communications channels. An FBI counterintelligence investigation ofwho had leaked this information to Chalabi was reportedly under way by spring 2004, and many ofChalabi's neocon allies were incredibly anxious: Misjudgment about Chalabi's virtues or postwar Iraq planning was one thing; passing secrets to another nation would be an accusation ofan altogether graver magnitude. All ofthese investigations put Franklin and other neoconservatives associated with Feith at the white-hot center ofa raging controversy: What would any second-term Bushforeign policy look like? Would controversial neocon figures like Feith remain in power? Or would it mark the rise of pragmatists and realists? For the neoconservatives, the fight to clear-Franklin and themselves has become a fight against their internal administration rivals. And they're fighting it in classic neocon fashion: dirty and disingenuously. Among intelligence professionals, it's hardly a state secret that even nations whose relationships go beyond mere alliance and constitute friendship spy on one another. That's one reason nations have counterintelligence capabilities as well. As such, investigations ofespionage and mishandling ofclassified documents are not uncommon in Washington; the Bush administration',s Justice Department, for example, has opened investigations to probe allegations ofChinese, Taiwanese, and Saudi espionage, including ones that involve ranking officials at the FBI and State Department. With the investigations into AIPAC and Franklin, the Justice Department has renewed its interest in snooping by our ally, Israel. Since the Pollard case, U.S. intelligence and law-enforcement sources have revealed to the Prospect that at least six sealed indictments have been issued against individuals for espionage on Israel's behalf. It's a testament to the unique relationship between the United States and Israel that those cases were never prosecuted; according to the same sources, both governments ultimately addressed them through diplomatic and intelligence channels rather than air the dirty laundry. A number ofcareer Justice Department and intelligence officials who have worked on Israeli counterespionage told the Prospect oflong-standing frustration among investigators and prosecutors who feel that cases that could have been made successfully against"Israeli spies were never brought to trial, or that the investigations were shut down prematurely. This history had led to informed speculation that the FBI -- fearing the Franklin probe was heading toward the same silent end -- leaked the story to CBS to keep it in the public eye and give it a fighting chance. But the pro..lsraellobby and some neoconservatives, fighting for their poiiticallives, have turned the leak on its head. They claim that the AlPAC and Franklin investigations have nothing to do with the substance of the Iran-related leaks. Rather, they say, investigators are going after Jews. In the current probes ofFranklin and AlPAC, Michael Rubin has led the strident charge. On September 4, during the media flap over the investigations, Rubin sent an e-mail memo -obtained by the Prospect -.. to a list offriendly parties targeting two of Washington's more respected mainstre~m journalists, calling them key players in an "increasing anti-Semitic witch hunt." The memo fingered Deputy Secretary ofState Richard Armitage as one likely source ofthe leaks about the investigation, and also urged that, if the accusations had any merit, the White file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... 10/22/2004 ,. •Print Article-American prospoOnliJ;le· o Page 6 of6 House demand the evidence be made public. "Pm increasingly c,oncemed about the l~a~s spinning off from the Franklin affair,u Rubin wrote. celt was bad enough when the White House rewarded the June 15,2003, leak oy canceling conside~ation ofthe NSPD. It showed the State Department that leaks could supplant real debate.... Bureaucratic rivalries are out ofcontrol.u Rubin's memo showed up in a similar form almost a month later in the op-ed pages of The Washington Times under the byline ofNational Review staffer Joel Mowbray, and echoes ofit can be seen in the pages ofthe neocon-friendly Jerusalem Post. Meanwhile, FranKlin was involved in some pushback ofhis own. In late August, the Franklin case was referred from Szady to U.S. Attorney Paul J. McNulty, a Bush-Ashcroft appointee who heads the U.S. District COU!! for the Eastern District ofVirginia. Agrand jury was seated on the case in September and had subpoenaed at least some witnesses to testify about Franklin. Then, on October 1, The New York Sun reported that Franklin had fired his court-appointed attorney (whom he had·presumably retained for financial reasons), halting grand-jury proceedings while he found new couns~l. On October 6, the Los Angeles Times reported that Franklin had stopped cooperating with the FBI entirely. He had hired ~ high-profile lawyer, Plato Cacheris (of Aldrich Ames and' Robert Hanssen fame), and had rejected a proposed plea agreement whose terms Franklin considers "too onerous,u according to the Los Angeles Times. Who pushed Franklin -- who for months seemed vulnerable -- to stop'cooperating? And wQo is paying for his expensive new lawyer? At this writing, we do not know, Also unknown is the status ofthe larger FBI counterintelligence probe ofalleged Israeli espionage into which Franklin stumbled. But we do know that his recent decisions would seem to immensely help any ofthe people against whom he could have testified. At least for now, that~s a rQund won by a clique intent on pushing freelance crypto-diplomacy to its limits. Laura Rozen reports onforeign-policy and national-security issuesjrom Washington, D,C. Jason Vest is a Prospect senior correspondent. ' Copyright © 2004 by The American Prospect, Inc. Preferred Citation: Laura Rozen and Jason yest, "Cloak and Swagg~r'_',_The ~f!lerican Prosnect OnUne,_Nov 1, 2Q04, This article may not be resold" reprinted, or redistributed for compensation ofany kind without prior written permission from the author.'Direct questions about permissions to . . file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... 10/22/2004 Docum.entResults . ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED ~HERE IN IS UNCLASSIFIED ~ ~DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/s~g Page 1of2 -search Within Results: 1_--_=_"--..,-,....,-.......-...."",.,,,,..,...__,,,,,,:,,,,,,,,,J mmm· Edit Search I New Search .Pri~~ I Do,,:,nload - View: ~ I Full < Prey Document 10 of 14 next > ~ Tag for Print &. Download r;r:s:t). o Copyright 2004 Los Angeles limes All Rights Reserved Los Angeles limes April 4, 2004 Sunday Home Edition SECTION: OPINION; Editorial Pages Desk; Part M; Pg. 1 LENGTH: 979 words HEADLINE: Iraqi Democrats Feeling Sidelined BYUNE: Michael Rubin, Michael Rubin Is a resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute and was a governance team advisor for the Coalition Provisional Authority In Iraq. ' DATELINE: WASHINGTON BODY: Last summer, as Iraqis sweltered outside, the Coalition Provisional Authority met in the marbled corridors and air-conditioned offices of one of Saddam Hussein's former palaces to hash out how to fund political parties. The State Department was adamant, insisting that the CPA should maintain "an even playing field" and should not favor one party over another. Parties affiliated with the Iraqi Governing Council's militant Islamists and liberal secularists should receive the same treatment. There should be no special consideration given to groups seeking to unite Iraqis rather than dividing them by ethnlclty or sectarian affiliations. - This may sound like the way to ensure fair elections•. But while the CPA has maintained its neutrality, our adversaries have shown no such compunction. Until recently, I worked for the CPA, living in a nondescript house outside Baghdad's Green Zone. I traveled the country with Iraqi friends, paying spot checks on borders, political parties, shrines and markets. Because I was not In a convoy or traveling with heavily armed guards, Iraqis could easily approach me. Professionals, politicians and religious figures telephoned at all hours for meetings, knowing they would not have to wait at the fortified gates of the palace complex. I quickly learned that most political business In Iraq happens not at Governing Council sessions, but In private homes between 9 p.m. and 3 a.m. One February evening, a governor from a southern province asked to see me. We met after dark at a frlend's house. After pleasantries and tea, he got down to business. "The Iranians are flooding the city and countryside with money," he said. "Last month, they sent a truckload of silk carpets across the border for the tribal sheikhs. Whomever they can't buy, they threaten." The following week, I headed south to Investigate. A number of Iraqis said the Iranians had channeled money through the offices of the Dawa Party, an Islamist political party, led by Governing Council member Ibrahim Jafarl. On separate occasions In Baghdad and the southern city of Naslrlya, I watched ordinary Iraqis line up for handouts of money and supplies at Dawa offices. The largess seems to be having an effect: Polls Indicate that Jafari is Iraq's most popular politician, enjoying a favorable rating by more than 50% of the electorate. The CPA's evenhandedness may be well-intentioned, but to a society weaned on conspiracy theories, the United States' failure to support liberals and democrats signals support forthe Islamists~ Equal https:l/w3.Iexis.comllawenfsolutions_securedlsearchfonnsldoBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=.... 11/16/2004 Document Results ,\ o o Page2of2 opportunity may exist In Washington, but not in Baghdad. Why, Iraqis ask, wouid the ,CPA ignore the Influx of Iranian arms and money into southern Iraq if It had not struck some secret deal with Tehran or did not desire the resulting increase in militancy? Why would the Iranian border be largely unguarded a year after liberation? Iraqi liberals are especially sensitive to signs of support for Shiite politician Abdelaziz Hakim, leader of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution In Iraq, whose visit official Washington welcomed in January. Students affiliated with the Badr Corps, Hakim's militia, roam Basra University, forcing women to wear the veil. Signs proclaiming the supremacy of Hakim are affixed to doors across the university, and professors say they are afraid to remove them. In Naslriya and Karbala, Iraqis lament they can no longer speak openly, lest they become the subject of retaliation by Iranian-funded gangs. While Sense John F. Kerry of Massachusetts and carl levin of Michigan demand yet another government audit of the Iraqi National Congress (previous audits have found no wrongdoing), radical-clerics find their pockets full, their Iranian sponsors more Interested In mission than political cannibalism. last month, I Visited a gathering of urban professionals in Najaf. They repeatedly asked why ti:'e CPA stood ~y while followers of firebrand Shiite cleric MUQtader Sadr invaded homes, smashed satellite dishes'and meted out punishment in ad hoc Islamic courts. We may dismiss Sadr as a grass-roots populist, ~ut his rise was not arbitrary. Rather; his network.lS"'based:~pon~ample~fundlna he'receives through Iran-based" cleric Ayatollah Kazem al Haerl, a close"'assocfate"orrranian·Supreme LeaderAyatollah All Khamenei.·, In signing the bill authorizing $87.5 billion for reconstruction in Iraq and Afghanistan in November, President Bush called the massive campaign to rebuild bottl nations "the greatest commitment of Its kind since the Marshall Plan'!." There is daily progress. Shops have opened. Roads are repaved. But, the CPA remains hampered by a strategic communications strategy geared more toward Washington than Iraq. American newspapers may report our $5.6 billion Investment in Iraq's electrical infrastructure1 but what Iraqis see are signs such as a billboard of Hakim, the radical politician, affixed to a newlY'refurblshed Ministry of Electricity office in Baghdad. On March 26, a team of United Nations election specialists arrived In Baghdad to prepare the country for elections following the scheduled June 30 transfer of sovereignty. Iraqis may welcome elections, but It would be an abdication of American leadership If we do not support our allies, especially as Iraq's neighbors fund proxy groups and radicals with goals Inimical to democracy. We should not be more willing to help our adversaries than our friends. Democracy Is about not only elections, but also about tolerance, compromise and liberty. Twenty-five years ago, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinl, leader of the Islamic Revolution In Iran, declared "the first day of God's government." In a rushed referendum supervised by armed vigilantes, Iranians voted for theocracy. For a quarter century, they have struggled to undo their mistake. It would be a betrayal of'Bush's vision as well as 24 million Iraqis if we replicate It In Iraq. LOAD-DATE: April 4, 2004 I View: ~ I Full < p,re~ Document 10 of 14 next > Edit-Search I New Search .e.o.nt I pownload About LexisNexls I Terms and Conditions I privacy Policy Copyrlgbt 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed· Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https:l/w3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_securedlsear~hfoITIls/dqBrowse.~p?SearchlnfoID=... 11/16/2004 Edit Search I New Search Search Within Results: 1.."..,,-- - ""'.--'-'=-"",,-_:__ PrIn~ I - ---==-', mmm DocumentResults ALL INFORliATION CONTAINED O HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/~lSg • Page 1of3 View: ~I Full < JmlUt Document 2 of 2 .:- Tag for Print &. Download o 'r:rmDl Copyright 2004 IPS-Inter Press Service/Global Information Network IPS-Inter Press SelVice April 9, 2004, Monday LENGTH: 1435 words HEADLINE: IRAQ: NEO-CONS SEE IRAN BEHIND SHIITE UPRISING BYLINE: By Jim Lobe DATELINE: WASHINGTON, Apr. 9 BODY: Neo-conservatives close to the administration of President George W Bush are pushlng'for'retribution aga,~~st Iran for; they'say, sponsoring this'week's'Shiite uprislng'in'Iraq'led by radical'cleriC"Moqtada~al~ s-a~t Despite the growing number of reports that depict the fighting as a spontaneous and indigenous revolt agains~ the U.S.-led occupation, the influential neo-cons are calling on Bush to warn Tehran to·cease its alleged backing for al-Sadr and other Shla militias or face retaliation, ranging from an attack on Iraniap' nuclear facilities to covert action designed to overthrow the government. But independent experts say that while Iran has no doubt provided various forms of assistance to Shia factions In Iraq since the ouster of former President Saddam Hussein one year ago, its relations with Sadr'have long been rocky, and that it has opposed radical actions that could destabJllse the situation. "Those el~ments closest to Iran among the ShIIte clerics (In Iraq) have been the most moderate through all of this," according to Shaul Bakhash, an Iran expert at George Mason University here. Many regional specialists agree that Iran has a strategic Interest In avoiding any train of events that risks plunging Iraq Into chaos or civil war and partition. Neo-conselVatives centred in Vice President Dick Cheney'S office and among the civilian leadership in the Pentagon have strongly opposed any detente with Iran, and have frequently blamed it for problems the United States has encountered in both Afghanistan and Iraq. Neo-conselVatives outside the administration, such as former Defence Policy Board chairman Richard Perle and his colleagues at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), Michael Ledeen and Reuel Marc Gerecht, called even before the,Iraq war for Washington to support Indigenous efforts to oust the "mullahcracy" in Tehran, which Is seen as an arch-enemy of both the United States and Israel. Some neo~conservatives have seized on Sadr's uprising ~s a ,new opportunity both to raise tensions against Iran and to divert attention from Washington's bungling of relations with the Shia community in Iraq. . Top U.S. officials both here and in Iraq have not yet named Iran as the hidden hand behind Sadr, although a senior reporter at the right-wing 'Washing~on_llmes~, Rowan Scarborough, quoted unnamed:"militarv.'.sources~WednesdaY'as"te1lifig~hinltthat:SadG:ISihelnQ;!ldea;;:direetly:bY;-lran~s· Revoliitr{fnaIYGiiard;';:_and:I:iy:Hezbolrah~ciir'iraniari~created terrorist'group-:bijseC:l:rn':tetianon~ Unnamed "Pentagon offidals" gave a similar account to the 'New York Times', although 1lmes reporter James Risen stressed that CIA offidals disagreed with that analysis, adding, som~ intelligence officials Iittps:/Iw3.1eXis.comllawenfsoluti6iis_sectiredlsearchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=.... 11/16/2004 Document Results o Page 2 of3 j, •, p believe that the Pentagon has·been eager to link Hezbollah to the violence in Iraq to link th~ Iranian regime more closely to anti-American terrorism". The Iran hand was first raised In connection with Sadr's revolt by Michael Rubin, who just returned as a "governance team advisor" for the U.S.-led Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) In Iraq to his previous position as a resident fellow at ~EI. In a column published In the 'Los Angeles TImes' on Sunday, he complained that Washington and the CPA had failed to provide liberal and democratic Iraqi leaders with anything like the kind of support that Iran was supplying to radical Shla leaders and their "gangs". Rubin said that on a Visit to the Shla-domlnated south he found that Iranians were pouring money and arms to key Islamlst parties,.Including the Da'wa, the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution In Iraq (SCIRI), and Sadr himself, whose rise over the past year, according to Rubin, is explained by the "ample funding he receives through Iran-based cleric Ayatollah Kazem al Haeri, a close associate of Iranian Supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamelni". Another'senior CPA adviser,.Larry: Diamondi·a'neo=,conservative·who:speclalisestin'democratlsatl~~:at.the~ CalifornIa-based Hoove...Instltution:-told'IPS:thr~weerc-that Sadr's' Mahdi ArmYi,;.and~othe~Shiaimll~~as,~_ ' are' beIng'armed. and.financed by'Iran with the:alm·of.·lmposlng:"anothe,...rrai1laiFstyletheoCracy~- - "Iran is embarked on a concerned, clever, lavishly-resourced campaign to defeat any effort for any genuine pluralist democracy in Iraq," said Diamond. "The longer we wait to confront the thug, the more troops he'll have in his army, the more arms he'll have and financial support -- virtually all coming from Iran -- the more he will Intimidate and kill sincere democratic actors in the country, and the more Impossible our task at building democracy will become". "I think we ,should tell the Iranian regime that if they don't cease and desist, we will play the same game, that we will destabllise them," he added. On Tuesday, the 'Wall Street Journal's editorial page took up the same theme, arguing that Sadr has talked "openly of creating an Iranian-style Islam!c Republic In Iraq (and) has visited Tehran since'the fall of Saddam•••• hl~ Mahdi militia is almost certainly financed and trained by Iranians," the editorial continued, adding, "Revolutionary Guards may be Instigating some of the current unrest".• "As for Tehran, we would hope the Sadr uprising puts to rest the iIIuslon,that the mullahs (In"Tehran) can be appeased. As Bernard Lewis teaches, Middle Eastern leaders interpret American restraint as weakness. Iran's mullahs fear a Muslim democracy in Iraq because Is It a direct threat to their own rule." "If warnings to Tehran from Washington don't Impress them, perhaps some cruise missiles aimed at the Bushehr nuclear site will concentrate their minds," the Journal suggested. On Wednesday, 'New York Times' columnist William Safire asserted'the existence ofan axis Involving Sadr, Iran, Hezbollah and Syria. "We should break the Iranian-Hezbollah-Sadr connection in ways that our special forces know how to do", he wrote. But this line of reasoning appears particularly curious to Bakhash, who notes that the Sadr family, including Moqtada himself, is precisely the kind of Iraqi Shiite who would be deeply suspicious of Tehran. "Sadr's father was a strong Iraqi nationalist, like Moqtada himself", he told IPS. "He often used to question why there were in Iraq ayatollahs who spoke Arabic with. a Persian accent." Uke other experts, Bakhash believes that Iran has Indeed been heavily Involved with the Iraqi Shla community, but sees the leadership providing far more support to SCIRI and Its·Badr brigades than to Sadr, who, from Tehran's point of vieYl, is seen as untrustworthy. Bakhash also questions the neo-conservatlve assumption that Iran wants to destabilise Iraq now. "Obviously the Iranians are not unhappy to see the Americans discomfited in Iraq, but I don't think it's the policy of the Iranian government to destabilise Iraq right along its own border," he said. Middle East historian Juan Cole of the University of Michigan also questions the notion of a link between .https:/lw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secure~searclifonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoJD=:... 11/16/2004' ------------- - . ---_._------- Document Results o o Page 3 of3 ,I Iran and Sadr in the current uprising. While Sadr's views on theocratic government are consistent with , those of Iranian hardliners, according to Cole, his outspoken Iraqi nationalism poses a major challenge to Khameini's claim to authority over all Shiite religious communities, including those outside Iran. Contrary to the Journal's assumptions, adds Cole, Sadr'did not receive much encouragement from the Iranians leaders he met in Tehran. "The message he got •••was that he should stop being so divisive and should cooperate more with the other Shiite I~aders". Geoffrey Kemp, an Iran specialist at the Nixon Centre and Middle East adviser on former president Ronald Reagan's National Security Council staff, says he has little doubt the Iranians have Influence with several different Shiite groups, and that there might even be "rogue elements" inside Iraq who back Sadr. But he agrees that Tehran's strongest ties are with SCIRIand the Badr Brigades, who were trained by the Revolutionary Guard inside Iran during Hussein's rule. "TIle situation is far too complex to: make simplistic statements about what Iran is or is not doing," Kemp told IPS. "But to suggest that-this is an Iranian-inspired insurrection is a stretch". "The neo-conservatives are all so heavily invested In the success of Iraq.that instead of blaming the Pentagon for some extraordinary blunders, they want to blame everyone else -- the State'Department, the Iranians,4the Syrians for the mess that was partly of their own making." LOAD-DATE: April 12, 2004 View: Us.t I Full < I!I:U Document 2 of 2 edit Search I New Search f.r!nt I Download About lexlsNexl#! I Terms and Condition#! I Privacy POlicy .<;Opyclght 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https://w3.lexis.comllawenfsolution~~securedlsearchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=.... 11/16/2004 "I Document Results ALL INFORl'1ATION CONTAI~~D "HEREHI IS UNCLASSI FIED ~~ATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/S~Sg Page 1of2 search Within Results: I~~:_:::: ----.=-==-_--="1 LDlI Edit Search I New Search I!.tnt I D0".Vnload View: list I Full M Tag for Print a. Download o < prey Document 6 of 14 n~ > Copyright 2004 Federal Information and News Dispatch, Inc. Voice of America News April 19, 2004 SECTION: RADIO SCRIPTS - BACKGROUND REPORT 5-55191L LENGTH: 625 words HEADLINE: IRAN I IRAQ BYLINE: GARY THOMAS TEXT: WASHINGTON INTRO: An attempt by Iran to mediate an end to the fight in neighboring Iraq between the forces of a radical Muslim cleric and U-S troops was not successful. But, as correspondent Gary Thomas reports, the effort underscores Iran's bid to wield some clout In postwar Iraq. To Iran, the United States Is still, officially speaking, the Great Satan. And from the U-S perspective, Iran Is one of the two remaining members of what President Bush famously termed an axis of evil. But Iran sent a delegation to Iraq to try mediate an end to the standoff between radical Shl'lte Muslim cleric Moqtada al-Sadr and the U-S occupation authority - and the United States made no move to stop the effort. An Iranian diplomat was gunned down In Baghdad during the visit and the mediation subsequently broke down. Nevertheless, say analysts, the Iranian effort In Iraq was symptomatic of a broader political struggle In Iran for influence, power, and International legitimacy. Just how. much clout Iran has In Iraq - and just who In Iran wields it - Is murky. Juan Cole, a professor of Middle East and South Asian history at the University of Michigan, says the Iranian mission to Iraq is part of an effort by, President Mohammad Ali Khatami and his fellow reformists to regain some Influence they had lost'to the hardliners. President Khatami has pointedly distanced himself from Mr. al-Sadr. [COLE ACT] That faction has been under enormous pressure inside Iran. Of course, it was sidelined in the recent elections by the hardliners. And so reaching out and playing this kind of positive role in the region may be one way for the reformiSts to break back out of their isolation. [END ACT] But Michael Rubin, who was until last month a political advisor to the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad, says the Iranian role in Iraq was anything but positive. He says Iran is meddling and trying to set up Its own cells in Iraq. [RUBIN ACT] ~ ~hlnk having Iranian Involvement In Iraq is like having the arsonist volunteering to put out the fire. https:llw3.1exis.comJlawenfsolutions_secured/~earc.hfo~s/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=~.. 11116/2004 DocumentResults [END ACT] o Page2of2 Moq~da al-Sadr .. the cleric tumed Insurgent - is believed to have strong backing from the hardllne elements-in Iran. His mentor, say analysts, Is Ayatollah Kazem al-Husselni al-Hairi, a senior Shi'ite cleric in the Iranian holy city of Qom .. although how much Influence he actually exerts on Mr. al-Sadr Is not c1e~a:. And while supreme leader Ayatollah All K~amenei has welcomed the forced departure of Saddam Hussein .. who led a bloody decade-long war against Iran .. he has sharply condemned the U-S-Ied occl:lpation of Iraq. Mr. Rubin says Iran is actively helping'Mr. al::"Sadr's forces. [2ND RUBIN ACT] The Iranians have-been funding some of the radicals with arms, with Revolutionary Guards. The Iranian charge d'affaires In Baghdad is actually not a diplomat. He is a member of the Qods force,.which Is the unit of the Revolutionary Guards dedicated to the export of the Islamic revplutlon. The last.thing Iraqis want is for us to Involve non-Iraqis In this matter. [END ACT] But Professor Cole says Iran's role In Iraq is not as pervasive as Mr., Rubin and like-minded analysts portray. [2ND COLE ACT] There are persistent reports that Iran has, and the hardliners in Iran have, provided material support ~o Moqtada and his faction. I personally think those reports are overblown. I think this is largely an indigenous Iraqi movement, but it may have gotten some money. Lots of Iraqi groups.have gotten money from Iran, including some of the more secular politicians. [END ACT] Analysts.say Iran Is not likely to allow its once-powerful neighbor to be reconstituted without trying to have some influence over t~e matter. (SIG!'IED) NEB/GPT/RH/RAE LOAD-DATE: April 19, 2004 View: !J§t I Full < prey Document 6 of 14 next > Edit Search I New Search n f.rJ.Dt I Download About LexisNexl$ I Terms and Conditions I privacy policy s:opyr,gbt 2004 LexlsNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights re~erved• .h!tP~:lIwj.lexis.con1llaweiifsottitlOlis_securedlsearcbfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID===..., 11/16/2994 - - -- - - r ? ---~J search Within Results: __"';'".,..,,¥!..._.."""_=_~__"""=-"-' Bmm ·. , ALL INFOm'~TION CONTAIlmD ~REIN IS TJMCLASSIFIED ~ '-JbATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/s~g Page 1 of2 Edit Search I New Search ~nt I Download View: Yi$. I Full < ~ Document 2 of 14 ~ext > M Tag for Print & Download r;m;t). o Copyright 2004 The News and Observer Th~ News &. Observer. (Raleigh, North Carolina) June 6, 2004 Sunday Anal Edition , SECTION: NEWS; Pg. A26 LENGTH: 576 words HEADLINE: Ustening post; Ideas and issues under discussion in the Triangle BODY: llred of losing? Stay the course COMMENTARY From Carolina Journal, a publication of the John Locke Foundation, a commentary by editor Richard Wagner'!, "If you ever have a player who's afraid he's going to lose, take him out." A legendary baseball-managerin my hometown uttered that advice to a protege about 40 years ago. The statement, seemingly simple, actually embodies a much deeper philosophy of commitment, success and leadership In everyday life. That advice can be applied also to the nation's morale and the war on terrorism being waged, for now, In Iraq and Afghanistan. The losers in our society say we can't win in the Mideast. They say President Bush duped Americans Into thinking Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein' had weapons of mass destruction. They say we have entered a "quagmire" In Iraq, like we did in Vietnam. They said the same thing before U.S. troops liberated Afghanistan. The losers are the same people who refuse to recognize the simple fact that terrorism is nothing new. Islamic terrorists have been at war with the United States for about 30 years. Observers of recent history remember that the long string of terrorism began with the hijacking of airlines, the taking of hostages and the slaughter of innocent victims in the 1970s. Then it progressed, among other events, into the bombing of U.S. military barracks, U.S. embassies, the USS Cole and the World Trade Center. Then came Sept. 11•. Until then, the terrorists were at war with us, but we weren't at war with them. Americans woke up when al-Qaeda terrorists flew airliners into the World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon. Only a few years later, the losers lulled themselves into a false sense of security, closed their eyes ~nd went b~ck to sleep. 11ley're stili asleep today. . Now, according to some national surveys, the losers are infecting others with their disease. More Americans are beginning to doubt themselves and to lose their will to fight. file://C:\DOCUME-l\agbmkram~QCALS-l \Temp\H9DE4R6D.htm 11/16/2004 Some leaders, however, are slapping the nation with some cold facts. One of them, retired Lt. Gen. Thomas·McInemey, a military analyst for Fox News Channel, spoke at a recent luncheon sponsored by the John Locke Foundation. Some of his revelations were: o Page2of2 - Syria got $300 million from Saddam Hussein to hide Iraq's weapons of mass destruction; - The recent outbrea~othostilitie&l! radical Islamists to ensure that we do not get a successfurtumover in Iraq and Iraq becoming a growing democracy"; - Iran is sponsoring and funding Muqtada al-Sadr in the recent fighting In Iraq; - Terrorist organizations,. such' as Hezbollah and Hamas, are an arm of Iran and Syria; - Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Ubya, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and North Korea form a "web of terror" that supports terrorism. "If these web of terror nations did not support terrorism, terrorism Withers," he said. Ubya and Afghanistan are no longer on the list. . - Sadr, too, remembers Vietnam. One of his objectives is to sow discord in the United States so we will lose our resolve. . I believe McInerney and the president. For some Americans, losing Is a way of life. To them, America, likewise, is always a loser. They made Vietnam a self-fulfilling prophecy. Now they want to do the same in Iraq. If the losers are allowed to endure, sure enough, we will allow freedom to be held hostage again~ Our nation eventually not only could surrender, it could succumb. The enemy this time has entered our back yard and prepa[es to torch our home. LOAD-DATE: June 6, 2004 View: ~ I Full < p~ev Document 2 of 14 n~t > edit Search I New Search ~dnt I Download u About WIsNexfs I Terms and Conditions I privacy PAU~ CgRy(ight 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved., file:IIC:\D9CUME-l\agbmkram\L9CAL~""'1\Temp\H9DE4R6D.htrn 11/16/2004 ..t.." Document Results search Within Results: c- o ALL INFOR!lATION CONTAI~mD HEREIN IS U1iICLASS IFIED ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/~/1Sg -- - _:: ] mmm· Page 1of2 edit Search I New Search - P!1nt I Download ~ew: Ust I Full ~ Tag tor Print a. Download o Document 1 of 5 ~~ > Copyright 2004 U.P.I. United Press International June 8, 2004 Tuesday LENGTH: 908 words HEADLINE: Analysis: Despite Iraqi gains, Sadr remains BYLINE: By GAOl OECHTER DATELINE: WASHINGTON, June 8 (UPI) BODY: Despite a recent spate of positive political news Iraq-watchers of diverse stripes·agree that renegade cleric Moqtada Sadr remains the critical thorn in the country's side, and not likely to be extirpated any time soon. Incoming Iraqi Prime Minister Ayad Allawl formally outlawed on Monday the defiant Shiite cleric's Mahdi Army, a private militia of 2,000..3,000 fighters that has repeatedly clashed with U.S. forces in recent months, and barred Sadr and his lieutenants from holding public office for three years. The order is an exception to a new Iraqi policy of Including private militias and their leaders in a postwar political process In exchange for their disbanding and pledging to work with the new government, which is scheduled to take over sovereignty from coalition forces on June 30. Nine other Iraqi political parties and movements pledged on Monday to comply with the order. Juan Cole, a University of Michigan history professor and frequent commentator on the Middle East said that banning Sadr from mainstream Iraqi politics would only endanger the fragile truce between the Mahdi Army and U.S. forces in the holy ShIIte cities of Najaf and Kufa, a cease-fire that has held since Friday. "I think there Is every prospect of drawing (Sadr) Into the political process," Cole told United Press International Tuesday. "(Sadr's) forces can be potentially drawn off into the regular army and it Is better to do that than confront him." Among the obstacles to Sadr's Inclusion in mainstream Iraqi politics Is an outstanding warrant for his arrest Issued In April by an Iraqi jUdge, on charges that Sadr allegedly murdered a rival cleric last year. A State Department spokesman said Monday it believes Iraqi authorities should prosecute SadrI "It Is our view that Moqtada Sadr Is a subject of Iraqi law and that law should be applied to him, as well as to any other Iraqi citizen who has been accused of violating the law," Adam Erell told a briefing In Washington. But the Iraqi government could take advantage of the transitional nature of Iraqi politics to amend Sadr's current fugitive status, said Cole. "The charges ~galnst (Sadr) were arbitrary anyway, since no grand jury has met and had him charged. They could be allowed to lapse or given over to the clerics to handle Internally," he said. Turning the outlaw cleric into a legitimate political player would not necessarily neutralize him as a security th~at,.and may In fact increase his power; according to Amatzia Baram, a senior fellow at the https:llw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secu~d/searc.hfonnsl4oBr~)\_lVse.~p?Sear~hInfoID=...11/16/2004 United States Instltut~ of Peace, a federally funded think tan~. "can (Sadr) be bought off? He can be bought off, yes. But only as a stepping-stone to total power. Namely, he'll do the same thing that Saddam Huss~in has done, that Hitler has done. He'll cooperate up to a point and then he'll try to take over and replace the system," said Baram, who Is also a professor of Middle Eastern history at the University of Haifa In Israel. "Unless Sadr is captured or killed he will remain a thorn In the side of the new Iraqi government," agreed ,Nimrod Raphaell, a senior analyst at the Middle Eastern Media Research Institute, an organization that monitors and analyzes Middle East media reports. Document Results o o Page2of2 Whatever strategy the new Iraqi government ultimately pursues, experts agree that disbanding the Mahdi Army,. whether by force or persuasion, Is a practical challenge of ~Imost overwhelming difficulty. Unlike Kurdish militias and the Badr Corps -- the armed force of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution In Iraq, or SCIRI, which Is one of the groups that has reportedly agreed 'to disband -- Sadr's militia Is undisciplined and may not respond even to their leader's commands to lay down weapons. liThe Mahdi Army Is not a militia in the same way that the Badr Corps Is, and cannot be disbanded. It's just a congeries of ShIIte ghetto youth gangs, mainly from ,East Baghdad," said Cole. "They are like the Crlps and the Bloods in Los Angeles. As long as there are ghettos and as long as the poverty-stricken young men In them are armed, they will be something of a problem." Moqtada Sadr, 30, Is the fourth son of Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Muhammad Baqlr Sadr, a Shiite leader who was killed, along with two of his children, by agents of Saddam Hussein In 1999. The Sadr family traces Its origins to the prophet Muhammad and Is one of the most venerated In ShIIte Iraq. His fiery serm9.ns are characterized by Intense anti-American hostility and.afundamentallst Interpretation of Islam.similar to that promulgated by the Iranian government, from-whom he is believed to receive funding. . "His vision for Iraq is probably a government similar to that of Iran," said Raphaell. After Sadr's weekly paper, AI-Hawza, was dosed by the Coalition Provisional Authority on March 28, his forces took over holy ShUte shrines in the cities of Najaf and Karbala and declared open rebellion against the U.S.-led occupation. Fighters In the Mahdi Army occupied buildings and mosques In as many as six Iraqi cities In April, holding out longest in Najaf and Kufa. Those cities have been relatively quiet for about a week, following a cease-fire between American and Sadr forces mediated by mainstream ShIIte authorities. U.S~ forces appear to have given upon their threats to "capture or kill" Sadr and have reportedly decided to let the new Iraqi prime minister decide how to handle the rebellious cleric. LOAD-DATE: June 9, 2004 View: !J$. I Full Document 1 of 5 nmsl > Edit Search I New Search -- ~rint I Download I' About LexlsNexls I Terms and Conditions I Privacy POlicy Copyright 2004 LexlsNexls, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc~ All rights reserved. https:llw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=... 11116/2004 Edit Search I New Search Search Within Results: 1;....":.,,,;,. _~~t I Downloa~ -,....."_.......-~"".-"_~-.,,,,..--'l IDDI ..- a ALL INFOP.RATION COIJTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED Q DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw. J1sg Page 1 of9 View: Ust I Full _ Tag for Print &. Download _t:II!I!&Il o Copyright 2004 U.S. News a. World Report U.S. News&' World Report November 22, 2004 Document 1 of 2 ~> SECTION: SPECIAL REPORT; COVER PACKAGE; THE IRAN CONNECTION; Vol. 137 , No. 18; Pg. 34 LENGTH: 6480 words HEADLINE: Special Report: The Iran Connection BYLINE: By Edward T. Pound; Jennifer Jack BODY: In the summer of last year, Iranian intelligence agents in Tehran began planning something quite spectacular for September 11, the two-year a'nnlversary of al Qaeda's attack on the United States, according to a classified American intelligence report. Iranian agents disbursed $ 20,000 to a team of assassins, the report said, to kill Paul Bremer, then the top U.S. civilian administrator In Iraq. The Information was specific: The team, said a well-placed source quoted In the intelligence document, would use a Toyota Corona taxi and a second car, driven by suicide bombers, to take out Bremer and destroy two hotels In downtown Baghdad. The source even named one of the planners, Hlmin Bani Shari, a hlghranking member of the Ansar ai-Islam terrorist group and a known associate of Iranian intelligence agen~. . The alleged plan was never carried out:- But American officials regarded Iran's reported role, and Its ability to make trouble In Iraq, as deadly serious. Iran, said a separate report, issued in Nov~mber 2003 by American military analysts, "will use and support proxy groups" such as Ansar ai-Islam "to conduct attacks in Iraq in an attempt to further destablize the country." An assessment by the U.S. Army's V Corps, which then directed all Army activity In Iraq, agre~d: "Iranian intelligence continues to prod and facilitate the infiltration of Iraq with their subversive elements while providing them support once they ar~ in country." With the Pentagon's stepped-up efforts to break the back of the Insurgency before Iraq'S scheduled elections in late January, Iran's efforts to destabilize Iraq have received little public attention. But a review of thousands of pages of Intelligence reports by U.S.' News reveals the critical role Iran has played In aiding some elements of the anti-American· insurgency after Baghdad fell--and raises Important questions about whether Iran will continue to try to destabilize Iraq after elections are held. The classified intelligence reports, covering the period July 2003 through early 2004, were prepared by the CIA; the Defense Intelligence Agency; the Iraq Survey Group, the 1,400-person outfit President Bush sent to Iraq to find weapons of mass destruction; the Coalition Provisional Authority; and various military commands and units in the field, Including the V Corps and the Pentagon's Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force. The reports are based on ,Information gathered from Iraqis, Iranian dissidents, and other sources inside Iraq. U.S. News also· reviewed British Intelligence assessments of the postwar p~ase in Iraq. ' $ 500 a soldier. Many of the reports are uncorroborated and are considered "raw" Intelligence of the type seldom seen by those 'outside the national security community. But the picture that emerges from the sheer v~lume of the reports, and as a result of the multiplicity of sources from which they were generated, leaves little doubt about the depth of Iran's involvement in supporting elements of the insurgency and In positioning Itself to move quickly In Iraq If it believes a change In circumstances there dictates such action. "Iran," wrote an analyst with the Air Force Office of Special Investigations on Dec. 5, 2003, "poses the greatest long-term threat to U.S. efforts in Iraq." An analyst at the V Corps summarized m~tters this way: "Iranian intelligence agents are conducting operations in every major city file:/IG:\DOCUME-l\agbmkram\LOCALS-l~Temp\C0l6ZEQF..htlt! _ l1/i612004 o o Page2of9 with a significant Shla population. The counterintelligence threat from Iran Is assessed to be high, as locally employed people, former military officers, politicians, and young men are recruited, -hired, and trained by Iranian Intelligence to collect [Intelligence] on coalition forces." Even as Bremer's Coalition ProVisional Authority and the U.S.-led military were pressing last year to consolidate their grip on Iraq, the intelligence reports Indicate, the seeds of the Insurgency were growing, In some cases with funding and direction from Iranian government ~actions. "Iranian Intelligence will not conduct attacks on CF [coalition forces] that can be directlY linked to Iran," wrote' a senior Army analyst, "but will provide-lethal aid to subversive elements within Iraq ••• in the form of weapons, safe hOUSes, or money." In an interview, David Kay, the former chief weapons inspector for the Iraq Survey Group, said he believes that factions within the Iranian government have been plotting with and funding some insurgency groups. "I think we are In an intelligence war with Iran," Kay said. "There are Iranian lntellfgence agents all over the country [Iraq]." Another former American official, Michael Rubin, who worked for the Pentagon and the Coalition Provisional Authority, agrees. "Iran feels It should be the predominant power In the region," Rubin said. "With the U.S. out of there, they [will] have no real competition.n The Intelligence reports reViewed by U.S. News appear to supportthose assessments. Examples: Iran set up a massive Intelligence network in Iraq, flooding the country with agents In the months after the U.S.-led coalition toppled Saddam Hussein's regime. Sources told American intelligence analysts that Iranian agents were tasked with finding information on U.S. military plans and Identifying Iraqis who would ,be willing to conduct attacks on U.S. forces that would not be linked to Iran. Iranian Intelligence agents were said to have planned attacks against the U.S.-led forces and supported terrorist groups with weapons. Iranian agents smuggled weapons and ammunition across the border Into Iraq and distributed them "to Individuals who wanted to attack coalition forces," according to one report, citing "a source with good access." SeparC!tely, an Iraq Survey Group report said that Iranian agents "placed a bounty" of $ 500 for each American soldier killed by insurgents and more for destruction of tanks and heavy weaponry. " Iran trained terrorists and provided them with safe havens and passage across the border Into Iraq, several of the reports say. The Iranian-supported Ansar ai-Islam began carrying out bombings and other attacks against coalition forces and Iraqi citizens in tile summer of 2003. One report, describing an interview with a source, said: "There were approximately 320 Ansar ai-Islam terrorists being trained In Iran ••• for various attack scenarios including suicide bombings, assassinations, and general subversion against U.S. forces In Iraq." The reports linked Ansar ai-Islam to al Qaeda and to Abu Musab Zarqawl, the most wanted terrorist In Iraq. "Among the more capable terrorist groups operating in Iraq," an analyst wrote In another report, "are al Qaeda, the al Zarqawl network, as well as Ansar ai-Islam." Iran.has.been·a·prlncipal supporter of Moqtada al-Sadr, a radical Shiite cleric whose black-clad Mahdl Army fighters have clashed often with U.S.-led forces. Months before the worst of the insurgency In southern"Iraq began last April, U.S. intelligence officials tracked reported movements of Iranlan·money and arms to forces loyal to·Sadr. According to a VCorps report written In September 2003, "There has been an increase of Iranian Intelligence officers entering" Baghdad, Najaf, Karbala, Basra, and Amarah. Sa"dr's fighters later engaged in fierce battles wl~h coalition forces In each of those cities. "Double game." Iran's permanent mission to the United Nations In New York did not respond to repeated requests for comment from U.S. News. In a sermon given last April, Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi. Rafsanjanl, a leading political figure In Iran, said that Americans were "a very effective target" but that Iran "does not wish to get involved In acts of adventurism." Separately,.In New York last September, Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi denied that his country had funded or armed Sadr's Mahdl Army. U.S. government officials, questioned about the Intelligence reports reviewed by U.S. News, say the evidence of Iran's destabilization efforts in Iraq is persuasive. "We certainly do have a lot of evidence of Iranian mischief making," a senior Pentagon official said In an Interview, "and attempts [at] building subversive Influence. I would never underestimate the Iranian problem••.• Iran Is a menace In a basic sense." Looking at the overall problem in Iraq, however, the official identifies Sunnl Muslim extremists as the "hard core" of the insurgency. They Include for:mer supporters of Saddam and some foreign fighters-most prominently Zarqaw', whos.e network has claimed responsibility for some of Iraq's bloodiest file:/IC:\DOCUME-1\agbmkram\LOCALS-lyr~mp\C! 06ZFQF.hfl!l 11/16/2004 o o Page 3 of9 bombings and the beheading of American Nicholas Berg and other western captives. Some terrorists, the official noted pointedly, are also using Syria as an outpost and safe haven. More than a year ago, the Defense Intelligence Agency reached similar conclusions In a secret analysis headlined "Iraq: Who·Are We Fighting?" The analysis cited foreign jlhadlsts as· "potentially" the most "threatening." An analyst with the- Iraq Survey Group concluded that "[a]s time passes and more and more terrorists and foreign fighters come into Iraq, the situation will become more dangerous because you will get a more experienced enemy, with more training, resources, and experience.II Iran has obvious interests In Iraq. In the 1980s,. Iran and Iraq fought a brutal eight-year war that claimed more than a million casualties. Despite the hostilities, the ShIIte communities of both countries have deep ties. Shiites compose the majority of the population In both Iran and Iraq, accounting for 60 percent of the latter's 25.4 million people. Iraq Is home to some of Shiite Islam's most important holy sites, and thousands of Iranians have taken advantage of newly opened borders to visit them. During. Saddam's three decades of repression, Iran provided support and refuge for many of Iraq's Shiite religious leaders. Patrick Clawson, a leading expert on Iraq and Iran at the Washington Institute for Near East Polley, says It is not surprising that Iran Is heavily Involved In Iraq. "It only makes sense that the government of Iran would want to have a network of contacts with the Insurgents, develop friends, develop Intelligence sources, provide them Information about American assets and capabllities," he said In an interview. " ••• It is In their national Interest." At the same time, Clawson says, Iran Is playing "a double game"--stirrlng up trouble In Iraq while publicly professing support for Iraqi elections. Understanding Iran's precise motives In Iraq Is no simple matter. Ahmed Hashim, a professor of strategic studies at the U.S. Naval War College, says that the Islamic regime In Tehran does not always speak With one voice. "I think Iran has Its hand In a lot of what's going on [In Iraq], but we shouldn't assume the government Is unified," he says. "When you look'at th~ Iranian system of government, if you say Iran, It could actually be the Ministry of Intelligence and Security, the [charitable] foundations, or various agencies of the government. They act almost independently." Another Iran expert, Kenneth Pollack, who served In the Clinton White House as director of Persian Gulf affairs on the National Security Council staff, ,believes Iran does not want chaos in Iraq. "The Iranian leaders are terrified of chaos In Iraq," he says, "and the spillover" aspect. Iran, PoHack adds, wants a stable, "Independent" government headed by ShIItes. Whatever Its objectives In Iraq, Iran has a well-documented history of supporting terrorist groups. For years, the State Department has Identified Iran as the .world's pre-eminent state sponsor of terrorism. American officials say the regime has provided fundin'g, safe havens, training, and weapons to several terrorist groups, Including Lebanon-based Hezbollah.,The commission Investigating the 9ill attacks said In Its final report that al Qaeda has long-standing ties to Iran and Hezbollah. Iran favors spectacular attacks, officials say, citing Its alleged role In the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers In Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, that claimed the lives of 19 U.S. servicemen. Six of the Hezbollah terrorists Indicted In the attack "directly implicated" senior Iranian government officials "In the planning and execution of this attaCk," former FBI Director Louis Freeh wrote last year. A wolrs claws. F~eeh named two Iranian government agencies, the Ministry of Intelligence and Security, or MOIS, and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, an elite fighting unit and enforcer for the clerical regime. As the Insurgency developed in Iraq,·both played central roles In planning and funding some of the attacks on coalitionJorces, according to the Intelligence reports reviewed by U.S. News. Early on, MOIS and the revolutionary guard corps were tasked with the job of creating instability In Iraq, the reports say. In some cases, Iran's agents allegedly worked with former Saddam loyalists, an odd marriage but one that shared a common goal: to drive U.S. forces out of Iraq. The reports detail how Iranian agents sought to recruit former regime loyalists and how one former Iraqi Intelligence Service officer, who had close ties to Saddam's late son, Uday, reportedly setup a front company for Iranian Intelligence operations In Baghdad. Only weeks after Saddam was ousted, In April 2003, Iran publicly signaled support for Violence against the coalition. In a sermon on May 2, Ayatollah Ahmad Jannatl, secretary general of Iran's powerful Council of Guardians, called on Iraqis to stage suicide attacks to drive U.S.-led forces from Iran. The Iraqi people, he said, "have no other choice but to rise up and stage martyrdom operation~•••• The Iraqi people were released from the claws of one wolf and have been caught by another wolf." Two months later, U.S. News has learned, coalition forces uncovered a document describing a fatwa, or religious edict, that had reportedly been Issued In Iran for Its ShIIte supporters In Iraq. The fatWa urged "h~ly fighters" In Iraq to get close to the enemy--the U.S.-led troops. These fighters, the fatwa said, file:IIC:\DOCUME~1\agbmkram\LOCALS-l\re~p\G106Z¥QF..~tm 11/16/2004 " o Page4of9 should "maintain good-relations with the coalition forces" but afthe same time create "a secret group that would conduct attacks against American troops." U.S. analysts could not confirm that the ruling was issued by Iranian clerics, but they believe it was credible. Wrote one analyst: "It seems that they [the Iranians] want them [Iraqi Shiite supporters] to be close to the coalition forces and outwardly respect them so that they can gather Intelligence that will assist them in their mission." Before long, Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security stepped up Its Intelligence operations In Iraq, many of the Intelligence reports suggest. Agents set up "significant" Intelligence cells In key Iraqi cities, several reports said, Including Baghdad, Najaf, Karbala, Kut, Basra, and Klrkuk. MOIS agents also.set up a "listening post" In a city In southeastern Iraq to monitor the activities of U.S. forces. In southern Iraq, 10 Iranian agents reportedly began operating out of two rooms at a Shiite mosque. Iran, according to the reports, also sought to place spies within Bremer's Coalition Provisional Authority, then running Iraq's affairs, and they followed and photographed coalition forces. Four Iranians, believed to be MOIS agents, were detained In late July 2003 for photographing a hydropower plant near the central city of Samarra. Power plants became a frequent target of insurgents. In one case, U.S. Intelligence officials learned that a MOIS agent, a man named Muhammad Farhaadl, videotaped coalition operations In Karbala, a city south of Baghdad, then took the tape 'back to Iran. During the summer and fall of 2003, U.S. analysts' reports describe how MOIS and Its operatives sought to develop information from ShIItes In the south and from Sunnls in the north on the activities of U.S.-led forces. In the fall of 2003, an analyst for the Air Force Office of Special Investigations wrote: "Iranian intelligence has infiltrated all areas of Iraq, posing both a tactical and strategic threat to U~S. Interests." Bribes and border crossings. MOIS also sought to cultivate former Iraqi Intelligence officers who might help develop Intelligence on the plans and activities of the Coalition Provisional Authority and U.S.-led forces, several reports said. "Former lIS [Iraqi Intelligence Servlce]offlcers are highly sought-after targets by U.S. intelligence," said an October 2003 report issued by the Air Force Office of Special Investigations, "not only for their current and former knowledge of Iraqi activities but also because many US officers will likely have a wealth of Intelligence information on Iran. Iran knows this and will strive to recruit former ns officers before the U.s. Is able to do so. The environment is ripe for double-agent operations, and loyalties can never be certain.n The Intelligence reports detail precisely what Iran was after. Its "collection priorities" included finding out what weapons U.S. troops were carrying and what kind of body armor they were wearing. Iranian agents also sought Information on the location of U.s. Army and intelligence bases; on the routes travel.ed by U.S. convoys; on the operations of the Special Forces' elite Delta Force; and on the plans of the U.S. military and Intelligence Inside Iraq. A military report said a source had reported that the Iranians were pressing to find out whether the Israeli Intelligence agency, Mossad, was active In Iraq. According to the report, MOIS directed its agents "to collect Information on the Israeli Intelligence presence In northern Iraq." Iran's "primary objective In Iraq," wrote another analyst, citing a good source, "Is to create Instability so coalition forces will focus on controlling the unstable situation rather than concentrating on reconstruction efforts." MOIS agents carried cash, reports said, to bribe Iraqi border pollee In order to obtain safe passage Into Iraq. In reality, however, all the IranJans had to do was walk across the border at any number of crossing points, where they could blend In amid Iranians coming to Iraq to visit relatives, do business, and worship at ShIIte shrines, according to the Intelligence reports and several senior Army officers Interviewed by U.S. News. "The borders were wide open," says one senior officer. "It suggests that terrorists could come over pretty easily. My God, there were busloads of Iranians crossing· the border without Interference." Another U.S. Army officer was so concerned that Iranian spies and Islamic jlhadlsts were crossing Into Iraq that he visited a border site in a mountainous region northeast of Baghdad last January. "I saw over 1,200 people come over [to Iraq] In an hour, and there were no [coalition] troops there," the officer recalls. "I did not see them armed, but then a lot of them came across in carts and some In vehicles and donkeys, and you wouldn't know. If only 1 percent of them were combatants," he adds, "you can see the problem." Iranian agents f.1ad plenty of help waiting Inside Iraq. Numerous Intelligence reports say that members of a ShIIte militia group In Iraq known as the Badr Corps aided Iran In moving agents, weapons, and other materiel Into southern Iraq--sometlmes under the cover of humanitarian organizations. The Badr Corps has served as the armed wing of one of the most popular Shiite political parties In southern Iraq, the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, or SCIRI. The leaders of both SCIRI and the Badr Corps, which now calls Itself the Badr Organization, have maintained close ties to Iran for about two decades. file:/IC:\Do.CUME-l\agb~kram\LOGALS-l\Temp\Cl 06ZFQF.~!m "1 1116/2004 o o PageS of9 Iraqis associated with SClRI and Badr opposed Saddam's regime and fled to Iran In ~he ea~ly 1980s, where their organizations were established. They began returning to Iraq in droves after U.S.-led troops invaded Iraq in March 2003, prompting Defense Secretary Donald .Rumsfeld to warn the Badr Corps not to Interfere In Iraq. Badr leaders say they have no hostile Intentions toward U.S. forces, but their loyalties remain much In doubt. Just last month, Iraq's national intelligence chief, Mohammed al Shahwanl, accused the Badr Organization of killing 10 of his agents on orders from Iranian leaders. Badr, which denied the charges, was said to have disarmed this past summer, as part of an agreement with the new Iraqi government that would allow its members to serve in the new Iraqi Civil Defense Force~ Yet Badr's historical ties to Iran, as described in U.S. and British Intelligence reports, offer little In the way of reassurance. While saying that SClRI and Badr have "made some attempts to emphasize independence from Iran," a British Defence Intelligence Staff report on "Armed Groups in Iraq," dated Nov. 21, 2003, says that the Badr Organization retains "strong links" to ,Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps." The IRGC, the report says, "has funded, trained, and armed" the militia group, whose membership it estimated at between 18,000 and 20,000. The report says that some Badr members were unhappy with their leader, Abul Azlz ai-Hakim, who commands both SCIRI and Badr, and had returned to Iran. At the time, the report says, Badr was "well equipped" with "small arms, mortars and RPG s [rocket-propelled grenades]," T-55 series tanks and a "variety of artillery and antlalr pieces." Other intelligence reports say that an Iranian government agency--probably the IRGC--had provided Badr with global positioning systems to better target U.S.-led forces. Some of the most important Information on Iran has been provided by an Iranian exile group, the Mujaheddln..e-Khalq. The MEK fled Iran after the 1979 revolution and later relocated with Saddam's support to Iraq, where it continued to advocate the overthrow of the Iranian clerical regime. U.s~ forces now are guarding Its 3,800 members at Camp Ashraf, the MEK's sprawling compound northeast of Baghdad. Designated a terrorist organization by the State Department, the MEK neve.rtheless has provided American officials with Significant intelligence on Iran's nuclear weapons programs. The MEK, wrote one Army analyst, is "quite proficient at intelligence collection." Other analysts said that the MEK' . also had provided valuable on-the-ground intelligence to Army Special Forces after the invaslonlof Iraq. te: "The SF guys claim the [MEK] are a valuable intel asset," wrote an Army sergeant who had met'. frequently with the MEK, "and are generally reliable." At the same time, an Army team wrote that It.was.l' Important to be mindful that, given that its stated goal is to topple the government In Tehran, the MEK'stt' ~ reports "were designed to Inform as well as Influence American policy toward ••• the Iranian regime.~ ~ A red'truck. Relying on Its own agents inside Iran and other sources, the MEK has given Army personnel detailed reports on what it says have been Iran's efforts to destabilize Iraq. In its reports, some of which were reviewed by U.S. News, the MEK reported on the Intelligence-collection methods of Iran's MOIS, arms shipments from Iran to Iraq, and· the involvement In these operations of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps's so~called Qods Force, or "Jerusalem Force." In December last year, MEK intelligence officers provided the Army with a detailed report and maps on what it called "a widespread network for transferring and distributing arms from Iran to Iraq" through the Ilam region in ~estern Iran. The MEK said its sworn enemy, the Badr Organization, was involved In the network. According to the MEK's operatives, both Badr and the Iranian command staff were based in Iran at the border town of Mehran. "In order to control and manage the intelligence and terrorist activities in Iraq," a MEK intelligence officer wrote, "the Qods Force has recently moved part of its command staff from Tehran to the border city of Mehran." His report also Identifed the areas In western, northwestern, and southern Iran where Qods Force commanders operated, along with the identities of more than a dozen commanders. The MEK's reports contain detailed information on arms shipments. On Dec. 4, ~003, the MEK reported, Iranian agents moved 1,OOO.rocket-propelled grenades and seven boxes of TNT from western Iran to Iraqi resistance groups. A week later, Iran's Qods Force moved "a number of Mirage submachine guns" into Iraq In a "truck loaded with cement bags under which the arms were hidden," according to another report. later that month, the MEK said, an Iraqi working for Iran drove a red fruit truck..-a "cover for a consignment of arms," including RPG s, mortars, and Kalashnlkov rifles--across the border into Iraq. The dissident Iranian group also provided American intelligence officers with information on how Hezbollah was aiding Iran In gathering Intelligence in I~q. Hezbollah, a bitter enemy of Israel with close ties to Iran and Syria, collected information on American and, British troops, photographed them, then sent the information to Qods Force commanders In Iran, according to MEK intelligence reports. J;ile:I/C~\DQCQlvJE-l)agb~Iq-am\LOCAL~-I.\Temp\Cl06ZFQF.htm 11/16/2004 o o Page 6 of9 .' Intelligence officers for the MEK also said they had learned that Hezbollah had some 800 operatives In Iraq as of last January, including assassination teams. "The teams assassinate their opponents," a MEK intelligence officer reported, "and carry out sabotage operations." The MEK claimed that Hezbollah had assassinated an Iraqi man who had prOVided information to coalition forces. Other sources prOVided similar information, including Mossad, the Israeli intelligence agency. Mossad warned U.S. intelligence officials in October 4003 that Hezbollah planned to set up a resistance movement that would cause mass casualties, according to a report prepared by the Defense Intelligence Agency's Joint Intelligence Task Force--Combating Terrorism. Iran, the report said, was calling the shots. "Should such mass casualty attacks be considered," the task force wrote, "they [Hezbollah] must first receive approval from Iran." The Iranians "do not want the U.S. and the coalition to focus attention on Iranian support for terrorist networks or other anti-coalition activities they're involved with," said a report by an analyst for a U.S. Central Command support team in Iraq. "Iran Is also trying to ensure it has a great deal of influence in Iraq, and one way of doing that Is to supply weapons to anti-coalition groups." Iranian agencies put the intelligence they gathered to practical use, planning, funding, and training attackers, according to many of the intelligence reports reviewed by U.S. News. In November of last year, the Iraq Survey Group received information that Iran had formed small groups of fighters to conduct attacks in cities across Iraq. "Iran had reportedly placed a bounty on U.S. forces of U.S. $ 2,000 for each helicopter shot down, $ 1,000 for each tank destroyed, and $ 500 for each U.S. military personnel killed," the Iraq Survey Group reported. Iranian agents were also suspected in the assassination of at least two prominent Iraqis. In the fall of 2003, there were two reported plots against Bremer, the Coalition Provisional Authority administrator. The Iraq Survey Group, citing a source who "has provided reliable information In the past," said a senior Iranian cleric in Tehran set up a special 100member army, known as al Saqar, which means eagle in Arabic, to assassinate Bremer and carry out other terrorist attacks. The Eagle Army, the Iraqi Survey Group was told, had trained for 30 days at an Iranian terJ:0rist camp. This alleged plot and others reportedly planned against Bremer came to nothing. There were many reported plots against Bremer during his one-year tenure in Baghdad, and throughout his time there he was prOVided with blanket security. He declined to be interviewed for this story. Mastermind. Jihadlsts saw Iraq as an opportunity. In a report quoting a source who was not otherwise characterized, a U.S. Special Operations task force wrote that "the lebanese Hlzballah leadership believes that the struggle In Iraq is the new battleground in the fight against the U.S." In fact, other analysts wrote, Hezbollah and Ansar ai-Islam were among the most active groups in Iraq, although al. Qaeda operatives also were believed to be operating there soon afterthe invasion. Ansar ai-Islam Is a small group of Arabs and Iraqi Kurds that Is believed to have figured in some of the most violent attacks in Iraq. American and British Intelligence, the reports show, concluded that Ansar alIslam was working closely with Iran, and alsoal Qaeda, In Its terrorist attacks against coalition forces. Military intelligence reports suggested that the group was believed to be linked to two horrific bombings in Baghdad last year--the attack on the Jordanian Embassy on August 7, In which 17 people were killed, and the August 19 bombing that devastated the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad. That attack killed 22 people, including U.N. envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello. Intelligence reporting Indicated that the mastermind of the U.N. attack was Zarqawi, the terrorist who has continued to bedevil coalition forces, and that al Qaeda operatives also played a role. A "reliable source with good access" said that Zarqawl had coordinated his plans for attacks in Iraq with Ansar ai-Islam's top leader, Abu Abdullah al-Shafii. The reports did not link Iran directly to either the U.N. attack or the Jordanian bombing. But one British defense,report noted pointedly: "Some elements [of Ansar ai-Islam] remain In Iran. Intelligence indicates that elements" of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps "are providing safe haven and basic training to Iran-based AI [Ansar ai-Islam] cadres." Funneling money. A separate report from the British Secret Intelligence Service, quoting a source who "has proved fairly reliable,., said that Iranian government agendes were also secretly helping Ansar alIslam members cross Into Iraq from Iran, as part of a plan to mount sniper attacks against coalition forces. There were also multiple American intelligence reports Identifying Iran as a chief supporter of Ansar ai-Islam. U.S. intelligence received information that an Iranian was aiding Ansar ai-Islam "on how to build and set up" Improvised explosive devices, known as lED s. An analyst for the'U.S. Central Command offered this assessment: "AI [Ansar ai-Islam] is actively attempting to'improve lED effectiveness and sophisticationt As might be expected, given the volume of the intelligence reports reviewed by U.S. News, some of the file:!!C:\DOCUME-l\agb~kraro~OCAL~-l\Tt!mp\C106~QF.hOO 11116/2004 o Page 7 of9 information was contradictory. In some cases, Hezbollah, for Instance, was said to be planning direct attacks against coalition forces. In others, It was said to be working only behind the scenes in fomenting violence in Iraq. Perhaps Iran's most significant involvement.ln Iraq has been Its support for Moqtada al-Sadr, the .. radical, anti-U.S. cleric. His Mahdl Army militia engaged In a series of vicious battles with coalition forces in the holY.. southern.Shiite cities of Najaf and Karbala, and in the teeming Baghdad slum known as Sadr City, between-Aprirand.Oetober:thfsqtear. Uke most of Its operations in Iraq, the Intelligence reports indicate that the Iranian regime has tried to mask Its support of Sadr. He visited Tehran in June 2003 for a ceremony marking the death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinl, the spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution, but it is riot known whether he received any commitment from Iran at that time. U.S. intelligence reports say thatIran used Hezbollah to train and,provlde.funds·to~Sadr·sMahdi:Army'and: may'also have used front·companies'to~funnel~money:to:him:'l'For-a.time; the·reports=suggest;;Sadr appeared to be getting funds'from-a"senior-Shiite religious leader living In Iran, the Grand Ayatollah Kazem al-Haeri, who advocates an Islamic state In Iraq. But by mid-October 2003, according to a special operations task force, Haeri withdrew his "financial support" from Sadr. The ayatollah later publicly cut his ties with Sadr. .. There.was no such break with Hez~ollah•.lhe first sign that the terrorist group planned to support Sadr is reflected"ln a-July' 29; 2003; U:S: intelligence,report. Citing~Israeli·military-intelligence, -the report says Hezbollah "military activists" were attempting to establish contacts with Sadr and his Mahdi Army. The next month they did. By late August, according to a report prepared by aU.S. military analyst, Hezbollah had established "a team of30 to 40 operatives" in Najaf "In support of Moqtada Sadr's Shia paramiltary group." The report, based on a source "with direct access to the reported information," said that Hezbollah was recruiting and training members of Sadr's militia. A later report, citing "multiple sources," said that Hezbollah was "buying rocket-propelled grenades ..• antitank missiles" and other weapons for Sadr's militia. Intelligence analysts also tied Sadr to Hassan Nasrallah, the secretary general of Hezbollah. "Reporting also confirms the relationship between •.•• Sadr and Hassan Nasrallah," an Army report said. The report cited unconfirmed Information indicating that a top adviser to Nasrallah, who Is based In Lebanon, had, delivered funds to Sadr In Najaf. Other reporting indicated that the Mahdi Army may have received support from former Saddam supporters .and other antlcoalition groups. Intelligence analysts were aware, as early as the fall of 2003, that Sadr could become a serious problem. At that time, there had been no confirmed attacks on coalition forces, only Sadr's tough rhetoric, in which he denounced the United States and called the Iraqi Governing Council Illegal. But, as a British defense intelligence report said, "stockpiling of heavier weapons, along with public antl-CF [Coalition Force] rhetoric, could indicate a willingness to take more direct action against CF." "111e honeymoon Is over." Dlrect.action..was precisely what Sadr took, after Bremer ordered his Baghdad newspaper shut down, in March this year, accusing It of "inciting violence" against U.S.-led forces. Days later, after American soldiers arrested a Sadr aide, fierce fighting erupted between U.S. troops and Sadr's forces. In August, Sadr's Mahdl Army surrendered the Imam All Shrine in Najaf, and last month he reached a cease-fire with the United States and Iraq's Interim government. Sadr's fighters began turning in their weapons, as part of an agreement to disband, and Sadr signaled his Intention to get involved in the political process. He remains influential with many ShIItes, and American officials know that, if the Iraqi venture is to succeed, they must do everything they can to keep the majority Shiites happy.~ "Beware if we lose the goodwill of the Shl'ites. The honeymoon is over/' an Army captain wrote in October 2003, months before the battles with.Sadr's forces began. "Arresting Sadr, the son of a martyr, will only fuel Shiite extremists' animosity, and strengthen their recruiting efforts." Managing the Sadr situation, some government and intelligence officials say, is a microcosm of the far more difficult challenges America faces In responding to Iran's activities in Iraq. Iran clearly has the potential to stir up far more trouble than it has, partiCUlarly in the largely Shiite southern half of Iraq. But so far, as It continues its elaborate dance with the West over its ambitious nuclear program, the Islamic regime has yet to turn the heat up full blast In, Iraq, evidently secure in the knowledge that it can do so when and· if it sees the need to. "I would not put it past them to carry out spectacular attacks," says David Kay, the former chief U.S. weapons inspector in Iraq, "to demonstrate the cost of a hostile policy. That Is the policy issue--can we learn to live with Iranian nuclear capacity?" file:I/C:\DO.CUME-l\a~bmJ«at.ll\L9CALS-l\Tell).p\C10~ZFQ~.htm 1Iii6/2004 The Ties to Tehran -0 Page 8 of9 Agents from Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security and the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps infiltrated several Iraqi cities (yellow) to collect Information on U.S.-led forces and work with insurgent groups after the ouster of Saddam Hussein. Other Iranian agents crossed the long, porous, border with Iraq, intelligence reports said, to support t~e Mahdi Army and the Badr Organization. [MAP LABELS] IRAQ IRAN Tehran Iraq-Iran border crossings Hajj Umran Baneh Halabjah As Sulaymaniyah Khanaqln Mehran and Baramadad Chamsarl Hoveyzeh Darsiyah Shalamchah Khorramshahr Abadan Active Iranian intelligence cells Mosul Klrkuk Baghdad Karbala Kut Najaf Amarah Basra [LABELS-GLOBE INSET] IRAQ IRAN Area of detail Sources: U.S. intelligence and State.Department reports; United Nations Rob Cady--USN&WR AN UNHOLY ALUANCE BADR ORGANIZATION. This group served as the armed wing of a Shiite political party in Iraq known as the Supreme Council for IslalJlic Revolution. Members of the Badr group opposed Saddam Hussein's rule, and fled to Iran In the early 1980s. A British intelligence report says that Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps "funded, trained, and armed the group, as well as assigning IRGC personnel in a support file:IIC:\DOCUME-l\agQJ!1~m\LO~ALS-!\Te~p\CI96ZFQ;F.htm 11116/2004 o ,0 Page90f9 ,'''' capacity." Members returned to Iraq after the coalition invasion in March 2003. HEZBOLLAH (THE PARTY OF GOD) was created In 1982 after Israel invaded Lebanon. Hezbollah Is a Lebanon-based Shiite Muslim group inspired by the Iranian revolution and the teachings of the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinl. The organization is funded by Iraq. Syria also supports this group. ANSAR AL-ISLAM is a Sunnl Muslim group of Iraqi Kurds and Arabs established in December 2001. It is closely allied with al Qaeda and the terrorist network of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Intelligence reports indicate that elements of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps have provided safe haven and training for Ansar ai-Islam members. Reports also say that Ansar ai-Islam and al Qaeda have crossed into Iraq from Iran and Syria. Additionally, they suggest an Ansar ai-Islam tie with former members of Saddam Hussein's Fedayeen paramilitary force. . MAHDI ARMY. This is the armed militia group of the radical Shiite cleric, Moqtada al-Sadr. Intelligence reportS say that Iran used Hezbollah to train and provide funds to Sadr's militia and may have also used front companies to fund Sadr's attacks against coalition forces. Sources: U.S. Intelligence and State Department reports, United Nations GRAPHIC: Picture, CARNAGE. After the bombing of the U.N. headquarters In Baghdad. Two groups with ties to Iran are suspected in the August 2003 attack. (GEERTVAN KESTEREN--AGENTUR FOCUS / CONTACT)j 'Picture, HOLY MAN. Iran's Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati told Iraqis they have no other choice" but to rise up against U.S. forces there and drive them out. (VAHID SALEMI--AP); Picture, BEUEVERS. Members of Iran's elite Revoutiomiry Guard Corps. In Iraq, reports say, the guard helped plan and finance attacks on U.S.-led forces. (DAMIR SAGOU--REUTERS I CORBIS); Pictures: ALL HANDS. At prayers in a Shiite shrine in Karbala (left). A customs office on the Iraq-Iran border displays "terrorist "wanted" posters. (ABBAS--MAGNUMi HUSSEIN MALLA--AP); Pictures: TEHRAN TIES. Followers of Moqtada al-Sadr (left); Abdul Azlz ai-Hakim (right, with glasses), the head of the Supreme CoiJncii of Islamic Revolution in Iraq (PAOLO WOODS--ANZENBERGERj MURAD SEZER--AP); Picture, TARGET? Intelligence reports linked two alleged plots to ~iII Paul Bremer, the top U.S. official In Baghdad, to Iranian-backed groups. (GEERT VAN KESTEREN--AGEN11JR FOCUS I CONTACT); Picture, On the attack. A member of Moqtada al-Sadr's Mahdi Army preparing to fire a rocket-propelled 'grenade at an American tank In Baghdad (KAELAlFORD--PANOS); Picture, Ansar ai-Islam fighters in Iraq (CHANG W. LEi;--THE NEW YORK TIMES); Map, The 'lies to Tehran (U.S. intelligence and State Department reports, United Nations; Rob cady--USN&WR) LOAD-DATE: November 15,2004 View: Lls~ I Full Document 1 of 2 nm > Edit Search I New Search ~~n~ I Oownload About LtxisNexls I Terms and Conditions I Privacy Policy P>pyrlght 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. file:/IC:\pOCl!ME-l\ag~m~.m\LOtALS-l\Temp\C106ZFQF.htrn 11/16/2004 .- ".. f' • :pocument Results ALL INFORl·iATION CONTAINED 0 - . HERE IN IS mJCLASSIFIED 1"-\ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc ba~/1sg Pagelof2 j:dlt...S.earc;t.ll r~,-ey!-S.e.a(cb. frlnt I View: .Lls,t I Full M Tag ror Print &. Download < prex Document 17 of28~!!X;t> Copyright 2003 Agence France Presse Agence France Presse -- English July 7, 2003 Monday SECTION: International News LENGTH: 742 words HEADLINE: Iran brings Israel within missile range, digs in on tougher UN nuclear probe BYLINE: SIAVOSH GHAZI DATELINE: TEHRAN, July 7 BODY: Iran has conducted a final test of its Shahab-3 ballistic missile, the Iranian foreign ministry ,confirmed Monday, in a move that brings arch-enemy Israel well within range of the Islamic republic's armed forces. The announcement sparked Immediate alarm in Israel, and also came as Iran's clerical leaders dug in on their refusal to allow tougher UN inspections of their civil nuclear programme, seen by the United States as a cover for nuclear weapons development. "The test took place several weeks ago. The range of the missile is what we declared before," foreign ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi told reporterS, adding the test was the final one before the missile was handed over for operation by the country's army. Officials here have previously said the missile -- based on North Korea's No-Dong and Pakistan's Ghauri-II -- has a range of 1~300 kilometers (810 miles). It can reportedly carry a warhead weighing up to 1,000 kllogrammes. In Farsi, Shahab means "meteor" or "shooting star". Asefi was reacting to a report in the Israeli Haaretz newspaper last week which said Iran had conducted the test just over a week ago and was now capable of hitting the Jewish state, American forces in~the Gulf or the Indian subcontinent. "This is nothing new," Asefi said. "Apparently the Israelis are a bit late with their Information." In Israel, government spokesman Avi Pazner told AFP that the Jewish state was "very concerned" at the development. "We are very concerned, especially since we know that Iran is seeking to acquire the nuclear weapon," he said. Iran has fiercely denied accusations it has a nuclear weapons programme, and asserts its missile development is· purely for its own defence. But confirmation of the test came as Iran was set to face more scrutiny over its nuclear programme, with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) director Mohamed EIBaradel set to visit Wednesday to press demands for tougher Inspections. - But Asefl again rebuffed mounting international demands to immediately and unconditionally allow https:/Iw3.Iexis.comllawenfsolutions_securedlsearchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchlnfoID=... 11/18/2004 Document ,Results o· Page 2 0(2 tougher UN inspections of its nuclear facilities, asserting instead that drawn-out negotiat!ons may be necessary. "There is no have-to involved. We hope that in negotiations with Mr. EIBaradei, the two sides can cover subjects that allow us to build mutual trust,'· he said, adding that lIif not, negotiations must continue'·. The IAEA has been urging Iran immediately sign, ratify and implement an additional protocol to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that would allow its teams to conduct surprise inspections of suspect sites. So far the Vienna-based UN body is only allowed to ,pay pre-arranged visJts to declared sites, but Iran has been urged to open up its nuclea·r programme amid widespread fears it is also seeking t9 acquire a nuclear arsenal. EIBaradei has been backed up by G8 leaders and the European Union. Individual states, Japan, France, Britain, Australia, Russia and the United States, have also echoed the demand. Foreign diplomats here have asserted they are not prepared to see lengthy negotiations on the issue. But Asefi said that for Iran, the additional protocol problem is "not a black and white Issue·'. IIFor every problem there is a solution, and for this problem we must negotiate and we are fully ready to listen,II he told reporters. In June, EIBaradei said the Islamic republic had not fully respected the NPT by failing to inform the IAEA of some of its nuclear activities, including the import of uran'um in 1991. Iranian officials have dismissed the criticism.s as technicalities, and have consistently asserted they are ready to allow a tougher inspections regime, but only on the condition that other,NPT signatories first assist its nuclear power programme -- one of their treaty obligations. Asefi also dismissed threats from some EU quarters that negotiations over a trade and cooperatiop agreement -- which the EU hopes will YJeld progress on political, human rights and military concerns in Iran -- could be torpedoed by Iranls intransigence on inspections. liThe commercial cooperation accord would be profitable for both -sides, so this cannot be used as leverage and the Islamic republic will not accept such pressure,'I he said. I'Sanctions against the Islamicrepublic have been ineffective. The Europeans should be careful about what they say and avoid using threats." sgh-sas/ps Iran-missile-nuclear-IAEA LOAD-DATE: July 8, 2003 View: I Full < pte\{ Document 17 of 28 "~~t > Edit Sea'[ch' I New Search Pritlll D~Y{nlo~~ - all.Q.l!.LLexlsNexis I ~l!!!.s_cm.d_CondD:Loll~ I Privacy PoJL~ ~_o.RY.d9J:g 2004 LexisNexls, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https:/lw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchfonnsldoBrows~.asp?SearchlnfoID=... 11/18/2004 l?ocument Results ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED ~EIN IS UNCLASSIFIED ~ ~ 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/3ab/~ Page 10f4 ..... 'W .Search Within Results: [ =::::: :.. ::=.3 mTmJ ~dlt_S.ear.cb I .r:teYi_S.eatcU P.rJot I .Q,ownlo.a_d View: J..Ist I Full < p.t.ex Document 10 of 28 J1.ext > M Tag for Print &. Download 1Bm1 , [] Copyright 2003 Defense &Foreign Affairs/International Strategic Studies Association Defense &Foreign Affairs Daily July 25, 2003 Friday SECTION: Vol. XXI, No. 111 LENGTH: 2761 words HEADLINE: Iranian Clerical Leaders Continue to Defy Opposition, Causing Hardening of Position by its Allies BODY: Analysis. By Jason Fuchs, GIS staff. Iran's clerical leadership has begun to harden Its position against internal and perceived US-supported opposition following its successful suppression of the July 9, 2003, protests against the Administration. At the same time, the clerical leadership has embarked on a campaign -- which repeats a process successfully undertaken on several occasions In the past -designed to show that it was cooperating with the US and other states in the "war on terror" when, in fact, it continues to harbor major anti-Western terrorists.<1> Reports on July 22, 2003, to the effect that it had detained ~enior al-Qaida leaders were almost identical to remarks made over earlier months to the US, Saudi Arabia and Egypt. No evidence has been provided that the Iranian claims were true, and nor have any such senior al-Qaida terrorists been handed over to Saudi Arabia and Egypt, as promised, despite the fact that Saudi Arabia had -- as part of a supposed reciprocal deal -'! handed over Iranian terrorists to the Iranian authorities. Suggestions that the Iranian clerics had detained, and would hand over, al-Qaida deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, were ridiculed by informed Tehran sources, following the hints by Iranian clerical sources to Western media that such an prisoner was being held. Sources in Iran indicated that the.psychological operations initiative had worked in the past to·suppress US support for the Iranian opposition, and they noted that senior Iranian Administration officials believed that it would work again; , , MeanWhile, the successful Iranian suppression of the mounting waves of Internal opposition, supported by the US, also gave encouragement to Iran's allies and other anti-Western states.<2> In the wake of the st1:date Year="2003" Day="9" Month="7" July 9, 2003 'I demonstrations marking the fourth anniversary of the 1999 student demonstrations in Tehran, the Iranian leadership, satisfied with the outcome of its suppression of the protests, appeared resurgently defiant of US-Western demands for transparency regarding the indigenous Iranian nuclear program and, by late July 2003, Tehran's allies, both regional and otherwise, appeared to have taken note. The jamming of US-based satellite feeds into Iran that began on st1:date Year=".2003" Oay="S" Month="7" July 5, 2003 , reportedly from sites in Cuba, emphasized this. Cuba's blocking of the transmissions, which continued through July 24, 2003, served as a reminder to the US Bush Administration that states like Cuba, Syria, and Libya _.. referred to as the rrjunior varsity axis of evil" by a Bush AdministratioQ official in April 2003 -- continued to look to Tehran as a barometer for their own dealings with the US. There was now also growing US concern over the status of the Iranian nuclear weapons program, following reports, reportedly confirmed by both US and Israeli Intelligence services, tha~ Pakistani nuclear weapons technology had now been acquired and had accelerated ~he pace of Iranian Indigenous nuclear development. Significantly, whil~ the North Korean (OPRK) Administration of Mar. Kim Jong-il out~tripped Iran in real militarY terms, it too had looked to Tehran in the aftermath of th~ US-led Coalition-Iraq War of Marchhttps:/ 11/18/2094 · .. :Oocument Results o Page 2 of4 April 2003. Reports of a second DPRK nuclear facility In mid-July 2003 along with the North Korean declaration tnat it had· produced enough fissile material to build an additional six nuclear weapons had, by late July 2003, refocused international attention on the DPRK nuclear program, with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) citing the the Kim Jong-il Administration as the greatest threat to world peace. The DPRK 's continuing diplomatic offensive against the US appeared to have been at least partially resultant of the continuing hard-line Iranian stance, Insofar as long-standing and continuing diplomatic and military understanding between Pyongyang and Tehran. Indications bystl:date Vear=1I2003" Day="24" Month="711 July 24, 2003, were that Pyongyang would continue to heighten tensions on the Korean peninsula, parallel to the increasing US pressure on Tehran and Dama~cus • An exchange of fire between North and South Korean troops along the demilitarized zone (DMZ) on July 17, 2003, appeared to reaffirm this intent. GIS/ Defense & Foreign Affairs Daily had extensively reported on the North Korean military nuclear capability and related delivery systems. In a January 9, 2003 , report entitled Iraq, Iran, North Korea and WMD: Threat Activated, i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"Defense & Foreign Affairs Daily noted: "Even by early 1994, it was known that the DPRK had 10 nuclear warheads of SOkt yield deployed on ballistic missiles, plus two additional SOkt devices suitable for vehicle or aircraft delivery. i style="msobidi- font-style: normalllDefense & Foreign Affairs sources believe that the number of warheads available to the DPRK would now be substantially higher, given the fact that it has had an additional eight-years to work on the program." As Defense &Foreign Affairs Daily reported in late June 2003, the Iranian leadership had evaluated the new realities of the post-Saddam Middle East and, increasingly threatened both by the neighboring US military presence In both Afghanistan and Iraq and demonstrations within Iran, decided to initiate an anti-Western offensive for the very survival of Iran as an Islamic Republic. A i style="mso-bidi-fontstyle: normal"Defense & Foreign Affairs Daily report on June 30, 2003, In particular noted the assemblage of a so-called l'Anti-July 9 Crackdown Committee" to suppress the planned July 9, 2003, anti-Government demonstrations. The fruits of these efforts were made evident by the Government's largely successful containment of the st1:date Year=1I2003" Day="9" Month=1I7" July 9, 2003, protests, which, though sizable in number [upwards of 10,000 according to reports] failed to act as any sort of catalyst to spur further Widespread support and/or action within the Iranian populace or military. While the protests of stl:date Year=1I2003" Day=1I911 Month="7" July 9, 2003, may have played a key role In the anti-Government movement, it was decidedly not the decisive turning point that some within the Iranian opposition had hoped for. ~ntslIntranetlInformation/Sentinel/2009/June/12.htm 6/l2/2009


    The result of this perceived success was that the ayatollahs appeared more willing than ever to oppose US and Western demands. For th~e Iranian leadership, the effective suppression of the protests had served as a much-needed victory against the US and the West. Whether the West actually saw events in these terms was immaterial; in the run-up to st1:date Year="200311 Day="9" Month="7" July 9, 2003 , particularly.during the protests of June 2003, state-run Iranian media made clear in stark terms that the anti-Government demonstrators did not represent the Iranian people and were instead agents of the US or other Western "dlsruptors". On st1:date Year="2003" Day="18" Month="7" July 18, 2003 , the Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA) reported that i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"Ayatollah Ahmad Jannatl had told worshippers attending Friday prayers at Tehran University that stl:date Year=1I2003tl Day="9" Month="7- July 9, 2003, was "a day of disgrace for the US and its agents, as their efforts did not succeed" and characterized the July 9 protests as "minor" and "Insignificant"_. This style of rhetoric served more than one purpose for the Iranian Government. While these comments served to minimize the support base of the protestors they also gave the ayatollahs an opportunity to finally win a battle against the West. Iran had proved incapable of denying Western victories in Afghanistan or Iraq and appeared, by late July 2003, to have grown increasingly frustrated with the Islamic world's inability to respond to the US-led Coalition invasion of Iraq with significant attacks on the Western home front. Thus, while efforts to rectify these situations were well underway by June-July 2003, the "defeat" of the stl:date Year="2003" Day="9" Month="7" July 9, 2003 , protests served as a welcome interim victory, and doubtless a morale booster amongst the Iranian leadership. Iran's aggressive strategic stance toward the US , Israel, and the West was emphasized on stl:date Year=12003" Day="2011 Month="7" July 20, 2003 , when the Iranian Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-Khamene'i, officially Inaugurated the Shahab-3 ballistic missile. The Shahab-3 reportedly has a range of between 1,300 and 1,500 kilometers and Is capable of carrying a 1,000-760 kilogram https:/Iw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchforms/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=... 11/18/2004 .. .. D,. ocumen-t Results o Page 3 of4 L " warhead. The Iranian Government and Western media had reported since early July 2003 that the missile had been successfully tested in June 2003. The July 20, 2003 , ceremony marked the missile's entrance into operational service, according to i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"Ayatoliah Khamene'I, who remarked: "Today our people and our armed forces are ready to defend their goals anywhere." However, the authoritative Middle Eastern web-based information service,, which clearly has strong sources within the Israeli intelligence community, stated in astl:date Year="2003" Day="23" Month="7" July 23, 2003 , dispatch that the missile had, in fact, failed its most recent test. According to the report, Iranian officials were, as of late July 2003, in North Korea attempting to expedite shipment plans for new engines in hopes of fixing the i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"Sh a i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"hab-3 's remaining defects. It remained unclear whether the st1:date Year="20031 ' Day="23" Month="7" JUly 23, 2003 , report of North Korean-Iranian missile shipments was linked to the arrival of a large Iranian cargo ship to a North Korean port at Haeju Harbor. in the Yellow Sea during early July 2003. On st1:date Year="2003" Day="9" Month="7" July 9, 2003 , an unnamed South Korean official had speculated to the South Korean JoongAng Daily that the Iranian cargo ship had taken on small patrol boats. [The Iranian Navy maintains at least/three Zafar -class (North Korean built Chasho -class) FAC(G) patrol boats purchased from North Korea in the early 1990s. Western intelligence agencies believed that an additional six patrol boats had been shipped to Iran In December 2002 in a package sale including two gunboats and five semi-submersibles capable of carrying two torpedoes each.] Thus, with uncertainty as to the current strategic viability of the Sh a hab-3 missile, what appeared most evident by late JUly 2003 was the Importance which the Iranian Government continued to place on propaganda and the projection of force. The message of the missile test -- failed or otherwise -- had been aimed directly at the US , Israel, and the West. And, though, the test gained only the passing attention of most US and European media, Israeli news outlets paid close watch, with the daily i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"Yedioth Ahronoth blaring across its front page during mid-July 2003: "The Iranian threat -- the missile that can hit every house In Israel". The importance of the missile test, insofar as achieving a strong Iranian front to the West, could not be overstated. Iran had long depended on the threat of Widening any US-led war in the Middle East to include Israel as a major deterrent to US action against the Tehran-Damascus-Baghdad axis.US Pres. Bush had proved willing to risk that eventuality to achieve US strategic goals in removing the Iraqi Administration of former Pres. Saddam Hussein. With this US decision, the Iranians had hoped for Saddam to make good on this long-promised threat, not only to punish Israel, but also to deter further US action against Iran or its staunch ally Syria • The Iraqi inability to widen the war to Israel made the clerics recognize, more than ever, the necessity for a demonstration of the Iranian capability to strike Israel. The some 10,000 medium-to-short range rockets in Southern Lebanon, controlled jointly by Tehran, Damascus, and, to a degree, HizbAllah, were well within the Iranian sphere of influence, yet, Tehran's Willingness to rely on its neighbors to attack Israel if necessary appeared to have waned in the wake of the Iraqi failure. US efforts in June 2003 to'sway the HizbAllah from the Iranian sphere of influence, though fruitless by late July 2003, may also have raised the attention of the Iranian leadership. Thus, Tehran sought to warn the US against taking action toward "regime change" In Iran by reminding Washington that it retained the ability to widen any conflict with the US to include Israel by means within its own borders. Although perhaps unnecessary, this should have registered in Damascus as a reminder that Syria remains str~tegically dependent on Iran, and not the other way around. Notably, Cuba's blocking of US-based satellite feeds into Iran, which continued as of July 24, 2003, signaled that Havana continued to pay close attention to Tehran's policies vis-a-vis the US as an indicator for its own relations with Washington. Initially, following the September 11,2001 , attacks, Havana had shown a more conciliatory attitude toward the US, most notably by remaining relatively acquiescent to the US use of Guantanamo Bay as a detention camp for al-Qaida detainees. The Russian closure of the Lourdes Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) facility follOWing the September 11, 2001, attacks on the US, though begun in August 2001, also seemed to indicate a more amiable Cuban posture. Yet, Iran's unflinching stance in the face of the US pressure to end support for terror groups, abandon its indigenous nuclear weapons program, and.begin a process of political and economic liberalization appeared to have affected Havana's strategic approach. By late July 2003, it seemed clear that Cuba would continue a policy of overt hostility. towards the US • This was evidenced by the Cuban decision to help Iran block US satellite feeds into Iran, particularly at a time as sensitive as the stl :da~e Year="2003" Day="9" Month="7" July 9, 2003, protests, for which the US had voiced support. A denial issued by the Cuban Foreign Ministry on Juty 19, 2003, made no attempt to mask this hostile tone, https:/Iw3.1exis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchforms/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=... 11/18/2004 Document Results o Page 4 of4 declaring: "This is a new campaign of anti-Cuban lies ••• adding to a long list of hostile and aggressive actions that the imperial administration of George W. Bush has taken against our country." So, as July 2003 came to a close, Iran's aggressive stance came, unintentionally, with intense political pressure on the.U5 Bush Administration,' The Democrats, the US opposition party, continued to pursue Pres. Bush on the question of the Iraq War's legitimacy, the continuing (although low) US death toll In US-occupied Iraq, and the US economy. Damascus, Pyongyang, Havana, and Tripoli, thus, seemed to have one eye on the emboldened Iranians and another on Pres. Bush's slipping poll numbers. Tehran and its allies appeared ever more confident that in spite of the US-declared "war on terror" their respective governments might yet outlive the US Bush Administration. . Footnote: 1. The US Central Intelligence Agency "confirmed" to US media company ABC that al-Qaida senior military figure Saif al-Adel was being held by Iranian authorities. However, GIS sources in Tehran indicated that the "detention" was, if it could be described as that, was almost certainly symbolic. Egyptian authorities have for some months been demanding the extradition of Salf al-Adel, an Egyptian national, for trial. However, reports surfaced on July 24, 2003, that because·he was "of Libyan origin", Libya had requested his extradition to Tripoli for trial. Given the close Iranian-Libyan relationship -particularly given the fact that Libya essentially has taken responsibility for the Iranian-managed bombing of Pan Am PA103 flight over Lockerbie, Scotland, in 1988 -- it seems almost certain that this move was a canard designed to demonstrate "Iranian compliance" in the "war on terror", while still ensuring that Saif al-Adel was able to be safeguarded. 2. International pressure on Iran's clerics is, however, far from over. The Canadian Ambassador to Tehran was recalled on July 23, 2003, over Canadian protests that Iranian-born Canadian photojournalist Zahra Kazemi was tortured, possibly raped, and th~n killed by Iranian officials. See also: Defense & Foreign Affair~ Daily, ~uly 10, 2003: Iranian Protests Take Place Despite Massive Suppression; Worldwide Expatriate Protests Against Clerics • LOAD-DATE: July 24, 2003 View: L1s.t I Full < p..t.ex, Document 10 of 28 ne_~t> Edl,t...S.ea(ch. I ~e.w...S.ea(cb. frJpt 1.Q.o~lQad. - About lexisNexis I ])mns and Qmditions I Privacy POlicy ~..Y.{1ght 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. ~ttps:/lw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_ secured/searchformsldoBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=... 11/18/2004' ~ J , . i ·t DEB~file- Iran-Based Al Qaeda Threat Much Closer than Shehab-3 Page 1 of2 " 0 ALL INFOPHATImr CONT&' HEREIN IS LmrCLASSIFIED DEBKAfile - We start where the media stop DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg Iran-Based AI Qaeda Threat Much Closer than Shehab-3 DEBKAflle Special Analysis JIIly 22, 2003, 9:30AM(GMT+02:00) Israel has more cause for concern from the presence ofsenior alQaeda operatives in Iran than from the prospect of Iran shooting a Shehab-3 medium-range missile any time soon, despite the handover ceremony Iran's bellicose spiritual leader Ali Khamenei staged with Iran's Revolutionary Guards on July 20. According to DEBKAjile's military experts, the missile is not yet operational; neither is it precise enough or capable ofdelivering an unconventional warhead. The Shehab-3 will need another two years at least to be ready for service. Only then, will Israel's anti-missile Arrow missile system be required to live up to the Israeli defense minister Shaul Mofaz's encomium, that the Arrow is Israel's answer to the Iranian missile. 'r:{ I1f,.;' .: • .~ r', '-.f. :.... ,< ~ Mussab Zarqawi - At .. Qaeda's ticking bomb in Iran Meanwhile, the Shehab-3 is meanwhile grounded by two daunting obstacles: A. The fmal version ofthe missile's engine is far from complete; tests are still mnning on various North Korean versions including the Nodong-l upgraged with Russian technology and Iranian improvements. DEBKAjile's intelligence sources report that Iranian missile engineers and operators went to North Korea at the end ofJune to speed delivery ofthe new engine parts ordered and paid for last year, after the first version engine proved faulty. Some ofthe missiles test-fired crashed shortly after launch. While pressing for delivery of the engine parts, Tehran is cocking an anxious ear to the war ofwords flying between Washington and Pyongyang. Iran's leaders fear that sooner or later the disputants will come to an understanding over North Korea's nuclear weapons program rather than letting it slide into outright confrontation. For Iran's program, this spells curtains in more than one way. 1. The moment North Korea's nuclear program accepts a regime ofcontrols and limitations, the full blast of international heat, especially from Washington, will veer round to compel the Iranians to fall in line and give up the development ofa nuclear bomb. 2. North Korea will be bound under such an agreement by non-proliferation clauses banning the export ofnuclear and missile technologies alike. Once the Pyongyang door is slammed, Iran can forget about North Korean assistance in bringing its ballistic missile engines up to scratch. Tehran is therefore racing to get what it can out ofNorth Korea before Pyongyang resoles its dispute with the Washington. B. The Iranian program faces another major hurdle. Their twin object is to produce enough enriched uranium for the manufacture ofnuclear bombs and warheads by the latter halfof2005, also completing the development ofdependable engines for their ballistic missiles in the same time frame. Ifall goes according to plan, Tehran will by that date have a nuclear weapon plus several missiles for delivering it. However, it is hard to imagine the United States and/or Israel allowing the Islamic RepUblic to reach that point unopposed These difficulties place the Shehab-3 menace in the middle distance and bring the Iran-based al Qaeda threat to the Middle East including Israel into much sharper focus. TIle thinking in Jerusalem is that since the Islamic theocrats did not semple to give al Qaeda logistical backing from their towns for the May 12 string ofsuicide attacks against Riyadh, they will be as willing to help the same terrorists mount strikes against Israel. Tuesday, July 22, Tehran again denied granting the network's leading lights sanctuary, contradicting President GeorgeW.. Bush's accusat~on the day before that Syria and Iran harbored and assisted terrorists. He also warned them they would be held accountable. 11/29/2004 D'. BBKAfile ~.·'I' Ai 'f'\baeda.Threat Much Closer tha.n Shehab-3G> Page 2'of2 .I, . '1 ~o one~ows for',sure ifIran:~ al Qaeda "guests" ~~e enjoying a comfortable fonn ofdetention or are preparing the next wave ofteriorist' attacks with local connivance. (See also earlier DEBKAftle story on this page.) The theory going round some circles in Washington is that Iran's logistical aid in the Riyadh attacks was meant to hint to the US government at the extent ofdamage the Iranians are capable ofcausing US interests in Iraq and other parts ofthe Middle East if the heat is not reduced on the nuclear issue. Israel is keeping a very close eye on the Jordanian-born terror master Mussab Zarqawi, who just before the Iraq War was assigned; according to Israeli security'sources, with executing ~ 9/1 I-scale attack in Israel. Six months ago, Zarqawi was sighted several times in Damascus, Beirut and places in Western Europe. He always went back to Iran after what are believed to have been t:ecruiting missions for the atta~k from among the al Qaeda group sheltering in southern Lebanon and operatives who infiltrated I~f'lel and the West Bank. ' Zarqawi could not have move~ around south Lebanon without the knowledge and assent ofSyrian army intelligence and the Iran-backed Hizballah. There is nothing to say that Zarqawi b~ck in Iran ever gave up preparing for his Is~el assignment. Ifsuch an operation is indeed afoot, then the Iran-based al Qaeda would be a greater and'more tangible threat to Israel than any semi-functioning Iranian missile. US-Israel Postscript DEB~jile's Washington sources disclose tha! President Bush's accusations against Syria and Iran on Monday we~ also mea!!t for the ears ofIs~aeli Ariel Sharon, who has been invited for talks in the White House on July 29. On Friday, July 25, the Palestinian prime minister Mahmoud Abbas will be received by the US president in Washington for the first time. He is coming with ashopping list, at the top o(which is a demand that Israel free a large number ofterrorists from its prisons, including terrorists "with blood on their hands" and Hamas andJihad Islami members. Sharon, limited by government decisions from setting the latter categories loose, sought to create a diversion by developing an independent peace channel to Damascus. By attacking Syria as a sponsor ofterrorists, Bush effectively blocked Sharon's ploy. The implication is that if the Israeli leader is not too squeamish to do ~usiness with ~ard.line regimes like that ofBashar Assad which-harbor al Qaeda and Hamas and Jihad Islami command centers, it can certainly bring itselfto make concessions to t~e non-terrorist Abb~s and his interior minister Dahlan. - There are indications that the Bush administration is cross with Sharon for his Syrian initiative and, to make things worse, using aUN official, Middle East envoy Terje Roed-Larsen as his go-between. Bush ha,s no great love for UN officials and even less for silrprises, especially when they come from Sharon who until now worked in perfect harmony with the White House. . .. From the us capital, the israeli prime minister is seen to be' shutting out ofhis counsels his defense and foreign ministers, Shaul Mofaz and'Silvan Shalom - both,ofwhom he has found indiscreetly forthcoming to the media on govemmentpoJicy, an~ barri~adi!lg himselfbehind a hard shell in readiness for his White House talks. Quite aside from the real concerns posed by al Qaeda in Iran, Syria and Lebanon, Bush advisers are intent on cracking the Israeli leader's shell so as to bring him round to advancing the concessions on the list brought by Palestinian leaders. ' Coprright 2000-2004 DEBKAfile. All Rights Reserved. ". 11/29/2004 'I Search Within Results: L:~=:: ~ : :::.. ~J mD -...i Document Results ALL INFORMATION CONTAI~mD ~REIN IS UlJCLASSIFIED ~ \JITE 07-29-2010 B?:t 60324 1J.C baW/Sab/W Page 1 of8 .EcUt_S~ea[cl1l N~w...S_ea(ch frJnt I Qo..wl')lQ.a~d. View: J..lst I Full < pr.e~ Document 10 of 33 J1~~t > ¥ Tag for Print & Download Copyright 2004 Gale Group, Inc. ASAP Copyright 2004 Middle East Forum Middle East Quarterly March 22, 2004 SECTION: No.2, Vol. 11i Pg. 45i ISSN: 1073-9467 IAC-ACC..NO: 118416733 LENGTH: 5232 words HEADLINE: How to tame Tehran. BYLINE: Berman, IIan BODY: Over the past year, Iran has become a major cause of concern in Washington. The Islamic Republic has been discovered to possess a robu'st nuclear program, of a scope well beyond p~evious estimates. It has also made substantial breakthroughs in its ballistic missile capabilities. Less noticed, but equally significant, has been Tehran's growing activism in the Persian GUlf, the Caucasus, and Iraq. There is a vision and a method to Iran's policies. In the words of Mohsen Reza'i, secretary"of Iran's Expediency Council, Iran believes it is destined to become the "center of international power politics" in the post-Saddam Hussein Middle East. (1) Iran's new, more confrontational strategic doctrine even has a name: "deterrent defense." According to foreign minister Kamal Kharrazi, this national security concept is designed to confront "a broad spectrum of threats to Iran's national security, among them foreign aggression, war, border Incidents, espionage, sabotage, crise~ d~rived from the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), state terrorism, and discrimination in manufacturing and storing WMD." (2) Under the rubric of "deterrent defense," Iran is exploiting U.S. preoccupation with Iraq to build capabilities that will establish its hegemony in its immediate neighborhood and enhance its role across the Middle East. Iran's moves, if unchecked, will create a grave and growing challenge to U.S. aims in the region. At stake are nothing less than the geopolitical balance in the Middle East and the long-term achievement of U.S. goals, from stability in Iraq to regional peace. How has Iran's policy changed? And what can the United States do to thwart Iran's new drive? STRATEGIC AMBITIONS For years, policymakers in Washington had suspected Tehran's rulers of pursuing an offensive nuclear capability. They had viewed with alarm the growing strategic ties between Iran and Russia and had publicly expressed concerns that the centerpiece of that cooperation, the $ 800 million light-water reactor project at Bushehr, could lead to significant Iranian nuclear advances. Then, in the summer of 2002, an Iranian opposition group disclosed the existence of an extensive uranium enrichment complex at Natanz in central Iran. This revelation and a series of subsequent discoveries by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)--ranging from advanced clandestine nuclear development to the presence of trace weapons-grade uranium-"revealed the true extent of Iran's nuclear endeavor. This effort turns out to have been far broader and more mature than originally believed. Iran is now https:/ 11118/2004 Document Results o o Page 2 of8 thought to have some fourteen other facilities, including heavy- and light-water reactors in Isfahan and Arak, and suspect sites In Fasa, Karaj, "and Nekka. Together, these constitute all the makings of an ambitious national effort to develop nuclear weapons. (3) Iranian officials, meanwhile, have hinted at the existence of still other, as yet u-ndisclosed, facilities essential to the country's nuclear program. (4) Iran appears to have agreed to suspend its uranium enrichment activities under an October 2003 deal with France, Germany, and Great Britain. Similarly, international pressure succeeded In prompting Iran to sign the Additional Protocol to the 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), permitting snap inspections and invasive monitoring of segments of Iran's nuclear sector by the International Atomic Energy Agency. However, two of Iran's main atomic suppliers,' Russia and China, wield veto power on the United Nations Security Council, making it improbable that Iranian nuclear violations would result In meaningful censure. And in fact, ongoing IAEA deliberations have so far failed to yield decisive international action, despite mounting evidence of Iran's atomic breaches. There is also a lingering uncertainty over Tehran's nuclear time line. While informed American observers contend that Iran is still some two years (and possibly longer) away from an offensive nuclear capability, (5) others believe that an Iranian bomb could materialize much sooner. In November 2003 testimonybefore the Israeli parliament's Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, Mossad chief Meir Dagan warned that Iran could reach a "point of no return" in its nuclear development by mid-2004, following which time an Iranian offensive capability would become a virtual certainty. (6) President Bush has himself warned that the United States "will not tolerate" a nuclear-armed Iran. (7) But if estimates are off, even by a few months, Iran could present the world with a nuclear fait accompli. At the same time, major breakthroughs in Iran's strategic arsenal have made it an emerging missile power. In June 2003, the Islamic Republic conducted what it termed the final test of its 1,300" kilometer range Shahab-3 ballistic missile. The launch was a success, confirming Iran's ability to target U.S. allies Israel and Turkey, as wen as U.S. troops in the Persian Gulf. Since then, with great fanfare, the Islamic Republic has inducted the advanced rocket Into its Revolutionary Guards (the Pasdaran). (8) This potential for proliferation is hardly the only worry. If recent signals are any indication, the Shahab3 has already evolved well beyond its.officially declared capabilities. In September 2003, at a military parade commemorating the anniversary of the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq war, the Shahab-3 was officially described as possessing a range of 1,700 kilometers. (9) Additionally, opposition groups have charged that Tehran's overt missile development actually masks a much broader clandestine endeavor-.-one that includes development of the 4,OOO-kllometer range Shahab-5 and even a follow-on Shahab-6 Intercontinental ballistic missile. (10) Such efforts have only been strengthened by Iranian perceptions of U.S. policy. The Bush administration's rapid dispatch of Saddam Hussein's regime, and its contrasting hesitancy in dealing with a newly nuclear North Korea, has had a profound impact on Iran's calculus. North Korea's nuclear maneuvers, and its ability to successfully stymie U.S. strategy, have led Iranian officials to express their admiration for Pyongyang's resistance to U.S. "pressure, hegemony and superiority.II (11) There has indeed been some internal debate in Iran about the risks of stepping over the nuclear threshold. Yet even leading Iranian reformers appear to have gravitated to the notion that nuclear weapons are necessary to shift the regional "equilibrium." (12) CHARM OFFENSIVE These strategic advances, however, are only part of the picture. In tandem with Iran's nuclear and ballistic missile breakthroughs, a significant transformation has also begun in Iranian foreign policy. For Tehran, the overthrow of Hussein's regime has only fueled mounting fears of a danger0t!s str~tegic encirclement. The U.S. destruction of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan had already ensconced the proWestern-- albeit fragile--government of Hamid Karzai In Kabul. For Iran, the extremist Sunni Taliban posed an ideological threat, but a U.S. foothold on Iran's eastern border is regarded as even more threatening. Regime change In Baghdad, therefore, confronted officials in Tehran with the two-fold danger that Iran could be pinioned between two U.S.. client-states, and that Iraq's fall might be a prelude -to a similar U.S. drive to transform their country. In response, Iran formulated its new strategic doctrine of "deterrent defense." In practice, this has entailed a major expansion of Iran's military capabilities. Heavy defense expenditures, and ongoing strategic partnerships with both Russia and China, have made possible a far-reaching national military https:/Iw3.1~xis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=...11118/2004 J?ocument Results o o Page 3 of8 ,: rearmament. Defense acquisitions made over the past several years have steadily broadened Iran's strategic reach over vital Persian Gulf shipping lanes, to the point that Tehran now possesses the ability to virtually control oil supplies from the region. (13) Iran has also increased its diplomatic activism In the region, redoubling its long-running efforts to erect an independent security framework as a counterweight to the expanding U.S. military footprint. (14) As part of this effort, in February 2004, Iran codified an unprecedented military and defense accord with Syria"-one formally enshrining an Iranian commitment to Syria's defense in the event of a U.S. ~r Israeli offensive. Iranian officials have subsequently made clear that these mutual defense guarantees also extend to Lebanon-and to the Islamic Republic's most potent regional proxy: Hizbullah. (15) Iran has also raised its military and diplomatic profile in the Caucasus. In April 2003, foreign minister Kharrazi embarked on a diplomatic tour of the region intended to marshal support for a common regional security framework for Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran, and Turkey as an alternative to cooperation with "external forces." (16) But lukewarm regional responses have prompted the Islamic Republic to nudge these·countries into alignment through less subtle means. In mid-October 2003, Iran commenced large-scale military maneuvers In its northwest region, near Azerbaijan. The exercises, reportedly the largest conducted by Iran in recent memory, massed troops on the Iranian-Azeri border in a Clear show of force aimed at dissuading the former Soviet republic from expanding cooperation with the United States. (17) A corresponding Iranian naval buildup Is now visible In the Caspian Sea in response to Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan's growing military relationships with Washlngton~ U.S. advances in the region are regarded by Iran as potential threats, but paradoxically they have also presented Iran with opportunities that it has been quick to exploit. * The coalition campaign against ~addam Hussein's regime succeeded in eliminating the threat posed by Tehran's most Immediate adversary, thereby cementing Iran's dominant regional standing, Iran has exploited'the postwar political vacuum In Iraq to foment Instability through a variety of measures, ranging from political support of radical Shi'ite·elements to an increase in drug trafficking. (-18) This broad offensive has reportedly included the Infiltration of hundreds ,of Pasdaran operatives into Iraq where they"have engaged in active recruitment,·influence operations, and assassinatlons--at a cost to Iran of some $ 70 million per month., (19) * Hussein's overthrow has also effectively defanged a lingering threat to Tehran: the MUjahldeen-eKhalq Organization (MKO), a wing of the National Council of Resistance of Iran. Since the spring of 2003, coalition forces under a U.S.-imposed cease-fire have curtailed the anti-regime group's operations In Iraq. And a subsequent December decision· by Iraq's new governing council has labeled the MKO-preViously tolerated and even supported by the Baathlsts--as a terrorist organization. (20) * To Iran's east, meanwhile, the fall of the Taliban has removed an ideological competitor for Muslim hearts and minds while lingering factionalism and tribal rivalries have allowed Iran to perpetuate Afghanistan's instability. Iran Is clearly determined to remake its strategic environment in its favor. Iran J'las mobilized its technological resources to give it greater reach and has used political, economic, and military clout to encourage a tilt in its direction in its immediate neighborhood. Paradoxically, the United States, by breaking up the old order in states neighboring Iran, has given Tehran hitherto unimagined opportunities to influence the reg ion. FALSE STARTS Can International diplomacy deflect Iran's newe~t drive for regional hegemony? It hardly seems likely. From 1991 to 1997, the European Union (EU) engaged in a "critical dialogue" with the Islamic Republic, attempting to moderate Iran's radical policies through trade. But by 1997, critical dialogue had actually achieved exactly the opposite result, infusing Iran with much needed currency while failing to alter Tehran's support for terrorism, its pursUit of WMD, and its violations of human rights. Diplomacy has had a limited effect because the EU countries have allowed their economic interests to· undercut their diplomatic efforts. For example, in late 2002, In the midst of revelations regarding Iran's advanced nuclear development, the EU signaled its intention to commence new negotiations with the Islamic Republic on a sweeping trade and cooperation pact. (21) The United States has also wavered in its application of diplomatic pressure. The May 1997 election of https://w3.1exis.comllawenfsolutions_securedls~archforms/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=... 11118/2004 Document Results o o Page4of8 soft-line cleric Mohammad Khatami to the Iranian presidency--and his subsequent, much-publicized "dlalogue of civilizations" intelView on CNN--convinced many in Washington that Iran was moving toward pragmatic accommodation. Since then, U.S. policymakers, despite reiterating their continued commitment to containment of Iran, have time and again qualified Iran's membership in the "axis of evil." Most notably, Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage, in a February 2003 interview with the Los Angeles Times, distinguished between Iran on the one hand and North Korea and Iraq, on the other-on account of Iran's "democracy." (22) This, too, is an illusion. The Islamic Republic In recent years has engaged in a widening governmental campaign of domestic repression--one that includes stepped-up crackdowns on the press and the brutal persecution of regime opponents. The repression reflects a governmental effort to grapple with the groundswell of political opposition that has emerged among Iran's disaffected young population in response to the country's rising unemployment and economic stagnation. At the same time, Iran's theocrats remain deeply antagonistic to all U.S. overtures. This was demonstrated most recently by the· quiet contacts between Washington and Tehran in the aftermath of the devastating December 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran. Despite deep support for dialogue among reformist parliamentarians, clerical hard-liners opposed to such a rapprochement ultimately cut short the contacts. (23) If the United States wants to alter Iran's behavior, It cannot expect results from the tried-and-failed approaches of "critical dialogue," "dialogue of civilizations," and other false starts. U.S. OPTIONS Yet a policy that reassures allies, deters Iranian aggression, and curbs Iran's expansionism is more than feasible. It requires the United States to do four things: broaden containment to include counterproliferation; revive Gulf defense alliances; mobilize Turkey; and woo the Iranian people. Expanded containment. Far and away the most urgent task now facing Washington is arresting Iran's nuclear progress. Over the past year,· U.S. policymakers have expressed increasingly vocal concerns over the corrosive global potential of an Iranian nuclear breakout, ranging from a nuclear arms race in the Middle East to Tehran's growing capacity for nuclear blackmail. Yet the United States could assume a more proactive role In preventing nuclear technology transfers to Iran. This is the concept behind the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), the counter-proliferation partnership launched by President Bush In May 2003. (24) Since Its inception, the PSI--designed to prevent the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by rogue nations through more aggressive intelligencesharing and interdiction efforts--has already charted some notable successes vis-a-vis North Korea, inclUding a clampdown on illicit North Korean smuggling operations by both Australia and Japan. And recent maneuvers by PSI-member nations in the Coral Sea and the Mediterranean suggest a growing role fpr the alliance in the Middle. East, both as a mechanism to intercept illicit WMD trafficking in the Persian Gulf and as a means to target proliferation networks (such as the recently unearthed nuclear ring led by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan) now active in the region. But the PSI is not the only tool In Washington's arsenal. In the Caucasus and Central Asia, the United States Is quietly moving ahead with Caspian Guard, an initiative designed to bolster regional security through expanded maritime patrolS, aerial and naval sUlVeillance, and border protections. As part of this effort, the United States has stepped up military exercises with Azerbaijan and has committed some $ 10 million to strengthening the former Soviet republic's naval capability and border security. This includes beefing up Azerbaijan's communications infrastructure and helping to carry out counter-proliferation operations. (25) SimilarlyI' under a five-year defense accord signed with Kazakhstan in 2003, Washington has bankrolled the construction of a Kazakh military base In tl)e Caspian coast city of Atyrau and has allocated millions to equipment and training for the Kazakh army, maritime and border-patrol forces. (26) Central to this effort is the prevention of WMD proliferation through the region, not least the transfer of technology from Russia to Iran. The early successes of the PSI and Caspian Guard suggest that both initiatives can and should be expanded to address more comprehensively the threat from the Islamic Republic. https:/ 11/18/2004 D. ocument Results o o Page 5 of8- Reviving Gulf defense. Over the past several years, fears of a rising Tehran have begun to drive many Arab Gulf countries toward accommodation with Iran. For example, such concerns led Oman to establish a modus vivendi with the Islamic Republic through the codification of a sweeping agreement on military cooperation in 2000 (albeit one that has since been denied by Oman). (27) Kuwait subsequently followed sUit, striking a similar bargain In October 2002., (28) Even Saudi Arabia, preViously a strategic competitor of Iran, capitulated on a long-discussed framework accord with Tehran in late 2001, in the wake of two multi-billion-dollar Russo-Iranian defense accords. (29) But for many of these countries, such bilateral partnerships are a product of necessity--a function of ttie inadequacy of national defenses and regional alliances In addressing Iran's rising expansionism. The distrust of Iran still runs very deep. As a recent editorial in London's influential·Arab-language Ash-Sharq al-Awsat newspaper emphasized, Iran now poses a threat to "Saudi Arabia, Oman, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan, which share with Iran a land border of 5,400 kilometers and a sea border of 2,400 kilometers .,. The Iranian nuclear danger threatens us, first and foremost, more than it threatens the Israelis and the Americans!' (30) \, Such worries have prompted the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), comprised of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, to initiate a feasibility study for an alliance-wide antimissile system. At the same time, individual countries in the Arab Gulf (most notably Saudi Arabia and Kuwait) have initiated efforts to upgrade their individual missile defense capabilities. (31) Recently uncovered nuclear contacts between Saudi Arabia and Pakistan suggest that at least one of Iran's neighbors has begun to actively contemplate the need for a strategic deterrent against the Islamic Republic. (32) All this suggests that a U.S. strategic initiative toward the Arab Gulf may find ready customers. On the one hand, a deepening of Washington's bilateral military dialogue and defense contacts with individual Gulf nations might lessen regional dependence not only on .Iran but on an increasingly volatile and unpredictable Saudi Arabia as well. (33) On the other hand, the creation of a formalized American security architecture over the region could reinvigorate Washington's regional partnerships while excluding and isolating Iran. (34) Common to all of these efforts is the need to prOVide Tehran's neighbors with the tools to counter its growing potential for nuclear and ballistic missile blackmail. Talking Turkey. Ties between the United States and Turkey have been tepid since Ankara's unexpected refusal to grant basing rights to U.S. troops on the eve of the spring 2003 Iraq cam'paign--a move that torpedoed U.S. plans for a northern front against Hussein's regime. Since then, however, policymakers in . both countries have begun to mend fences. As· part of that process, the United States should insist that Turkey do more to hedge Iranian ambitions in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Unfortunately, Turkey's historic role as a strategic competitor of Iran has been substantially eroded. Indeed, over the past two years, Ankara has steadily drifted toward a new relationship with Tehran. Much of this movement has been underpinned by energy. Turkey's growing dependence on Iran--which could provide roughly 20 percent of total Turkish natural gas consumption by the end of the decade (35)--has diminished Ankara's economic leverage vis-a-vis Tehran. But politics play an important role as well. Since Its assumption of power in November 2002, Turkey's Islamist Justice and Development Party (AKP) has gravitated toward closer ties with its Muslim neighbors under the guise of an '·independent'· foreign policy, Iran has been one of the chief beneficiaries of these overtures, and bilateral contacts and economic trade between Ankara and Tehran have ballooned over the past year. This political proximity has only been reinforced by common worries over Iraqi instability in the aftermath of Hussein's ouster. Nevertheless, Ankara's deep ethnic and historical ties to the countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia make it a natural counterweight to Iranian-sponsored religious radicalism In those regions. Given Turkey's deep interest in expanding trade and development in the Caspian, Turkey also remains suspicious of Iran's maneuvers there. Meanwhile, Tehran's ongoing sponsorship of terrorism, including the Kurdish variety, has put Iran and Turkey on very different sides of the war on terrorism. These commonalities have led observers to suggest that Turkey's most constructive role might be as a force multiplier for U.S. interests in its "northern neighborhood." (36) In fact, Ankara and Tehran's divergent strategic priorities--on everything from Central Asian Islam to Caspian energy to the future political composition of postwar Iraq--suggest that Turkey and Iran could become competitors again. The United States should encourage such competition by creating incentives for Turkey to play Its historic https:/ 11118/2004 I;>ocument Results role. o , Page 6 of8 Wooing the Iranians. One of the Bush administration's most enduring challenges in prosecuting, the war on terrorism has been effectively communicating its goals and objectives to a skeptical Muslim world. Over the past two and a half years, that need has spawned an expanded public diplomacy effort. This has included media outreach on the part of top administration officials like National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State Colin Powell, and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. Iran, however, has been included only belatedly in these plans. More than nine months after September 11, with U.S. officials saturating the airwaves of Arabic networks like Qatar's al-Jazeera, not one highranking U.S. official had granted an a Persian-language television outlet. (37) (This is despite the existence of dissident channels, such as the Los Angeles-based National Iranian Television [NITV], capable of effectively carrying the U.S. message.) Even when the United States did finally overhaul its public diplomacy toward Iran with the launch of the Persian-language Radio Farda in' December 2002, the station's entertainment-heavy format led criti~ to complain that the United States had diluted its democratic message. (38) Since then, broadcasting to Iran has continued to be funded at minimal levels, despite Congressional. efforts to expand outreach. Such a lackluster effort reflects continuing confusion within the U.S. government about' exactly whom to engage within Iran. In fact, the success of, public diplomacy hinges upon a clear American vision of Iran's desired direction and the sustained political will to assist Iran in reaching that goal. In that light, there should be only one answer to the question of whom to engage: the nascent democratic opposition. The United States should demonstrate its support for that opposition by expanding expatriate and government-sponsored broadcasting, using it to highlight and criticize Tehran's bankrupt clerl~al rule. (1) Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA), Mar. 5, 2003. (2) Iranian foreign minister Kamal Kharrazi, cited In Saisat-e Rouz, Feb. 18, 2003. (3) Defense News, Jan. 12, 2004; Michael Rubin, "Iran's Burgeoning WMD Programs," Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Mar.-Apr. 2002, at,mglb.grg@rtlclgs/0203 irnl._btm~ (4) Ahmad Shlrzad, Iranian member of parliament, Nov. 24, 2003, remarks before legislative session, RFE/RL (Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty) Iran Report, Dec. 8, 2003. (5) "Iran: Breaking out without QUite Breaking the Rules?" Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, May 13, 2003, at ~tp.;.lIwww.DP_e~eb....o.mLP..aQ..esLk~w.J1tm. (6) Ha'aretz (Tel Aviv), Nov. 18, 2003. Israeli officials have further threatened to t~ke.preemptive military action, if necessary, to prevent this from happening; Agence France-Presse, Dec. 21, 200~. (7) The New York Times, June 18, 2003. (8) Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran Network 1, July 20, 2003. (9) Agence France-Presse, Sept. 22, 2003. (10) Middle East Newsline,Oct. 25, 2002. (11) IRNA, Dec. 14, ,2003. (12) The Washington Post, Mar. 11, 2003. (13) Vice Admiral Lowell E. Jacoby, Defense Intelligence Agency director, "Current and Projected National Security Threats to the United States," statement for the record, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Feb. 11, 2003, at http.;Uwww!fsts~o.rglIr~/congress/2003_hr/021103jacoby.html. (14) M. Javad Zarif, Iran's ambassador to the United Nations, commentary in The New York Times, May 10, 2003. (15) IRNA. Feb. 27 and Feb. 29. 2004; Ma'ariv (Tel Aviv), Feb. 29, 2004. 11/18/2004 .. D, ocument Results o Page 7 of8 \ (16) !tar-TASS (Moscow), Apr. 29, 20Q3. (17) Uch Nogta (Azerbaijan), Oct. 22, 2003. (18) See, for example, AI-Hayat (London), Nov. 28, 2003, and Jan. 5, 2004. (19) Ash-Sharq al-Awsat (London), Apr. 3, 2004. (20) The New York Times, Dec. 19, 2003. (21) Xinhua News Agency (Beijing), Dec. 12,2002. (22) Los Angeles Times, Feb. 16, 2003. (23) Mohsen Armin, deputy chairman of the National Security and Foreign Relations Committee, Iranian Islamic Consultative Assembly (majles), Iranian Labour News Agency (ILNA), Jan. 4, 2004. (24) Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Poland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States currently make up the core membership of the PSI, while over sixty other nation--including Turkey--have voiced their backing for the initiative. (25) Associated Press, Jan. "3, 2004. (26) Radio Free Europe, Oct. 8, 2003. (27) Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran Network I, Apr. 10, 2000. (28) Xinhua News Agency, Oct. 2, 2002; Reuters, Oct. 3, 2002. (29) Middle East Newsline, Apr. 18, 2001. (30) Ash-Sharq AI-Awsat (London), Oct. 8, 2003. (31) Defense News, May 23 and Dec. 1, 2003. (32) the Washington Time, Oct. 22, 2003. (33) For more on existing defens~ ties between the United States and the Gulf states, as well as the potential for their expansion, see Simon Henderson, The New Pillar: Conservative Arab Gulf States and U.S. Strategy (Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2003). (34) See, for example, Kenneth Pollack, "Securing the GUlf," Foreign Affairs, July-Aug. 2003, pp. 2-15. (35) "Turkish Energy Policy,'1 Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, at .I:)ttp:l!www·mfa,gO\£.trlgrypS'/aO/goUcy,htrn· (36) Soner Cagaptay, "United States and Turkey in 2004: Time to Look North," Turkish Policy Quarterly, Winter 2004, at http_:lLwww.wa.shlngt.9ni_~stitu_t~...!.o..rgll1.lepJ9Lca.9~pJacyalgaptay020204.pdf. ' (37) Interview with Iranian dissident, Washington, D.C., July 2002. (38) See, for example, Jesse Helms, "What's 'POpl in Persian?" The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 16, 2002; Jackson Diehl, "Casey Kasem or Freedom?" The Washington Post, Dec. 16, 2002• . REGIME CHANGE The United States has been guilty of sending mixed signals to Iran over the past few years. Most significantly, it has apologized for the Central Intelligence Agency's role in the coup of 1953--an early case of regime change--and it has declared Its goal in Iran to be behavior modification rather th~n regime change. The mixing of signals simply reflects a confusion·of policy--a confusion that has become positively dangerous, both to U.S. interests and the security of Iran's neighbors. https:/lw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=... 11118/2004 ..'. . D.ocument Results o o Page 8 of8 '. In fact, the U.S. objective in Iran is closer to the regime change it imposed on Iraq than to the behavioral change it brought about in Libya. The Iranian regime is not one mercurial man, whose behavior can be reversed by determined action. Iran has a ruling elite with many members, a shared sense of history, and a consistency of purpose that has been tested in revolution and war. This regime will not change, which is why the ultimate objective of U.S. policy must be to change it. That should not be forgotten, even if regime change in Iran cannot be pursued by the military means used in Iraq. Short of military intervention, the United States needs a comprehensive strategy to block Iran's nuclear progress, check Iran's adventurism in the Persian Gulf and the Caucasus, and give encouragement to the Islamic Republic's nascent domestic opposition. Through a strategy that bolsters Iran's vulnerable regional neighbors, rolls back its military advances, and assists internal political alternatives, Washington can blunt the threat now posed by Tehran--and set the stage for the later pursuit of its ultimate objective. Hijab Couture TEHRAN -. Since Iran's Islamic revolution in 1979, hijab, the obligatory dress code, has required women to wear clothes which disgUise the shape of the body and cover the hair. Fashion shows are normally held secretly In private homes. But last month the Iranian authorities allowed designer Mahla Zamani to hold one in public. It. was an all-female affair and photographers were banned. The snow was denounced by Tehran's conservatives as a plot to undermine Islamic values. lilt is a hypocritical attempt to realize the evil aims of foreigners by snatching the Islamic covering from Muslim' Iranian women," thundered the conservative Jomhuri-ye Eslami daily. Zamani introduced a collection of traditional Persian designs that may augur a sartorial sea-change In what is Islamically permissible. "It is a cultural endeavor to revive traditional costumes. Why shopld we get fashion from the West?" she said. But another patron thought the designs did not match up to those of Western designers. "The patterns are not elaborate and complex enough to be compared with Western designs, especially couture,n said Leela, a 25-year-old aerobics Instructor. Reuters, Nov. 20, 2003 IIan Berman is vice president for policy at the American Foreign Policy Council in Washington, D.C., where he directs research and analysis on the Middle East and Central Asia. IAC-CREATE-DATE: August 18, 2004 LOAD-DATE: August 19, 2004 View: .L1st I Full < p.r...e.Y. Document 10 of 33 next> J:dit_S_ea.o:b I tie!iLS.eAtch PrlQt I .P..o.rmlOjl~ct ~b_out.Lexis.N~~is I Ier:m:; I P.dY.~cy_e.oJ{~ ,Copyogllt 2004 lexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https://w3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchforms/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=... 11118/2004 o ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED f':\ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/~lSq Dec. 5, 2004 0:09 JUpdat~d Dec. 5, 2004 12:00 Exclusive: How the FBI set up AIPAC By JANINE ZACHABIA AIPAC, the powerhouse pro·Israel lobby currently embroiled in allegations of spying for Israel, was set up by the FBI, The Jerosa/em Post has learned. FBI agents used a courier, Pentagon analyst larry Franklin" to draw two senior AIPAC officials who already knew hil'!'l into accepting what he described to them as "classified" information, reliable government and other sources intimately familiar with the investigation have told the Post. One of the AIPAC pair then told diplomats at the Israeli Embassy in Washington about the "classifiedt • information, which claimed Iranians were monitoring and planning to kidnap and kill Israelis operating in the Kurdish areas in 1J0rthern Iraq, the Post has been told. It is unclear whether the "classified" information was real or bogus. AIPAC (the American Israel Public Affairs Committee) denies any wrongdoing. Knowingly transferring classified information to a foreign power can be a breach of US~ espionage statutes. Legal experts have told the Post that passing on bogu~ ctassified information may be used to demonstrate intent to violate the law but does not itself constitute a crime. Frank~in, an Iran expert, was already under investigation by the FBI for allegedly passing classified information to AIPAC when, the Posts sources say" FBI counterintelligence agents approached him to play a central role in the setup operation this past summer. The FBI had been monitoring AIPAC's activities for some two years when, last year, its agents observed two AIPAC official~, Steve Rosen, director of foreign policy issues" and Keith Weissman, a senior Middle East analyst with the lobby, at a lunch meeting with.Franklin in Washington. At this lunch, it has been widely reported, Franklin allegedly briefed the AIPAC pair on the content of a draft national security presidential directive on Iran. Details of the draft, which included proposed measures the US could employ to destabilize the Iranian regime" were already circulating a! the time. According to some reports, an Israeli diplomat at the embassy in Washington, Naor Gilon, was also present at the lunch. Earlier this year, the FBI informed Franklin that, as a consequence of the lunch meeting, he was under investigation. The Pentagon analyst, hoping for leniency" agreed to cooperate with FBI agents in what would become the setting up of AIPAC, a process designed to bust the lobby for passing secrets to Israel. 4ll~~/f-; G~\t'\JJ~~~l~-!JC- .~~c ~_8MV_I~ . The FBI agents told Franklin to request a meeting with Rosen and Weissman. He initiated contact with the AIPAC pair,_and told them that he needed to discuss a ticking-bomb situation. ,. r o Franklin was then dispatched to meet the two AIPAC officials and outline the alleged threat to Israelis in northem Iraq, the Post has been,told. Saying his access to the White House was limited, Fran,klin also expressed concern that the Bush administration was underestimating the extent to which Iranian agents were operating in Iraq and asked the AIPAC officials to stress this point in their meetings with US officials. The agents' hope, plainly, was that the AIPAC pair would be so troubled by the apparent life-and-death content of the information from Franklin as to risk a breach of US espionage statutes and transfer ~hat they believed to be classified material to a foreign power" Israel. And that, the Post has been told, Is precisely what happened. Franklin, according to news reports, cooperated with the FBI until about two months ago. In early October, he abruptly stopped working with authorities, dropped his court-appointed attorney and sought the legal counsel of Plato Cacheris, a prominent Washington defense la~er who has represented numerous accused spies. Continued "Obviously his was a bad deal," says one source familiar with Franklin's decision to stop cooperating with the bureau. News of the initial Franklin-AIPAC lunch broke last summer: CBS led its August 27 Nightly News broadcast with a report of a "full-fledged espionage investigation underway," saying the FBI was about to "roll up" a suspected Israeli "mole" in the office of the secretary of defense in the Pentagon. CBS reported that, using wiretaps, undercover surveillance and photography, the FBI had documented the passing of ~ classified presidential directive on Iran from the suspected mole to two people who work at AIPAC. Sources familiar with the matter, however, said no documents exchanged hands. CBS's sensational allegation immediately conjured up memories of the Pollard affair, the 1985 arrest and SUbsequent conviction in 1987 and life imprisonment for espionage of US naval intelligence analyst Jonathan Pollard for passing classified information to Israel. The investigation into Franklin and the AIPAC officials continued qUietly, with IitUe subsequent media coverage, i!" recent months. No indictments were issued and most reports scaled back the accusations aJJainst Franklin from alleged espionage to mishandling of classified evidence. But the"investigation burst back into prominence last Wednesday, when FBI agents made their first visit to AIPAC's Capitol Hill offices since Augu~t. Armed with a warrant, the agents seized computer files relate<t to Rosen and Weissman and issued subpoenas to four senior officials at the lobby, requesting that they appear before a grand jury later this month in the Eastern District of Virginia. Agents had copied Rosen's computer hard drive during their previous visit. ;... ., \. o o The four subpoenaed officials, who are considered witnesses,.not targets, of the"investigati0l"!, are AIPAC Exe~utive Director Howard Koh·r, Managing Director Richard Fishman, Communication~ Director R~nee Rothstein and Research Dir~ctor Rafi Danziger. A Washington criminal justice expert said Friday that the issuing of the subpoenas suggested the FBI was "getting ready to indict." AIPAC has repeatedly denied any wrongdoing. "AIPAC has done nothing wron"g•.Neither AIPAC nor any member of our staff has broken any law, nor has AIPAC or its employees ever received information they believed ~as secret or classified. We continue to cooperate fUlly with the governmental authorities and ~elieve any court of law or grand jury will c:onclude that AIPAC employees have always acted legally, properly and appropriately," AIPAC said in a statement. "Despite the fals~ and baseless allegations that have been reported, AIPAC will not be distracted from our central mission of supporting America's interests in the Middle East and advocating for a strong relationship with Israel," the statement said. AL~FORMA.TION CONTAUJED' 0 HE~ IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg BEHIND THE HEADLINES FBI waited more than a year to make.move against AIPAC By Edwin Black WASHINGTON, Dec. 21 (JTA) .:-. The FBI's investigation of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee did not go into high gear until more than a year after the Pentagon's top Iran analyst allegedly passed foreign policy strategy information to two AIPAC officials. ,.. The investigation only intensified in July 2004, when the FBI allegedly directed the same Pentagon analyst, Larry Franklin, to conduct a sting operation against AIPAC officials, providing them with purPo.rtedly classified information to pass on to Israel, according to sources close to the investigation. , ' A month later, the FBI raided AIPAC offices, confiscating files from two senior staffers. On Dec. 1, the FBI returned to the headquarters of the pro-Israel lobby, searching staffers' offices. The FBI also issued SUbpoenas to four AIPAC staffers to appearbefore a grand jUry at the end of this month. Most accounts of the AIPAC investigation have focused on the Franklin lunch with Steve Rosen, AIPAC's director of foreign policy issues, and Keith Weissman, an Iran specialist, a meeting, it has been learned, that occurred on June 26, 2003, at the Tivoli restaurant in Arlington, Va. The chronology is important, say several sources with direct access to the prosecution's case, because it suggests that that meeting produced insufficient grounds for the FBI to pursue a case against AIPAC. "We always wondered why there had been no contact by the FBI from .June2003 to August 2004,· when AIPAC's headquarters were raided, said a source familiar with the government's investigation. "That's more than a year." ~ "It never made sense, if this violation" that is alleged to have taken place at the Tivoli lunch "was so serious," the source said•. Instead, the probe of AIPAC appears to have intensified only after the FBI monitored a call between Franklin and reporters at CBS News in May 2004, in which he allegedly disclosed information about aggressive • Iranian policy in Iraq. One of those reporters was Adam Ciralsky, a former attorney at the Central Intelligence Agency who sued the CIA after he quit in 1999 on the grounds that he was harassed for his Jewish rpots and connection to Israel. After the call in May, the FBI's counterintelligence division, headed by '" '. o David Szady, who also·supervised the alleged campaign against Ciralsky, confronted Franklin, according to sources familiar with the case. o Threatened with charges of espionage and decades of imprisonment, Franklin was deployed to set up a sting against AIPAC, the sources say. According ~o sources, he was also involved in initiating contact with some neoconservative defense experts, several of them Jewish, who supported Ahmad Chalabi. Chalabi, the president of the Iraqi National Congress, ha~ deep tie~ to Bush administration officials. Chalabi's political adviser;, a non-Jewish American, was also targeted" according to sources. Chalabi is at the vortex of a Pentagon-intelligence community squabble ov~r pre- and post-war policy in Iraq. AIPAC had been under intense scrutiny by the FBI throughout early 2003, but the law enforcement officials had seen nothing to justify prosecutorial action, sources said. At the Tivoli restaurant lunch with AIPAC, Franklin allegedly verbally mentioned information from a classified Pentagon policy paper purportedly written by defense expert Michael Rubin while Rubin was still at the Pentagon. But Franklin did not actually pass along the document, according to multiple sources familiar with the document and the pro~ecution's case. . Rubin is now at the American Enterprise Institute,. a conservative thil1k ~~ .- The Pentagon policy paper reportedly proposed an American strategy to destabilize Iran in the face of its growing nuclear potential, according to the sources. The Tivoli lunch didn't trigger an immediate prosecution: No document was passed, sources say, and while the verbal information allegedly was drawn from a Pentagon document that did enjoy ~ low-security classification - as do many such planning debate documents in Washington - much of its content already had been aired in the media. AIPAC steadfastly has denied that it violated any laws, and insists it is the victim of a witch-hunt. Franklin refused to speak about the matter. Franklin had been under increased scrutiny since disclosure of a secret meeting in Decen:'ber 2001 with former Iranian spy and arms merchant Manucher Ghorbanifar that some in the Washington establishment claimed was unauthorized. Ghorbanifar was on a CIA "burn list- of individuals who could n~t be contacted, according to informed "', o intelligence community sources. o Franklin didn't know it, but the FBI's counterintelligence division was monitoring his May 2004 phone conversation with the CBS reporters, including Ciralsky. - , In the conversation with CBS, Franklin's remarks reportedly revealed sensitive intelligence intercepts, potentially compromising sources and methods of intelligence gathering, according to some sources aware of the call. Others aware of the call say the FBI would,be hard-pressed to prove Franklin's comments actually breached national security. Friends and colleagues describe Franklin as a dedicated pUblic servant deeply concerned ~bout growing Iranian influence in Iraq., "He ran off at the mouth. and hated the intelligence community for what he saw as recklessness." one colleague said. "He was Willing to take matters into his own hands for what h~ saw as the good of the nation." Another who knows him added, "Franklin spoke to CBS reporters in an effort to ring an alarm" about White House indifference to a looming threat. "but it was clearly wrong if it involved classified information." Shortly after the CBS call. agents from Szady's FBI counterintelligence division confronted Franklin, sources say., During this time, Franklin was not represented by an attorney, and the governmen~ placed him on unpaid leav~ .. Franklin, who is the sole breadwinner for five children and a wheelchairbound Wife, was terrified by the threats, according to multiple sources familiar with his situation. Szady's FBI counterintelligence division then devised a strategy to use Franklin as a plant to set up AIPAC" ac~rding to sources. FBI officials refused to discuss the matter. The FBI sting, first reported by Janine Zacharia in The Jerusalem Post, allegedly directed Franklin to offer AIPAC officials supposedly urgent classified information about Iranian plans to kidnap and murder Israelis operating in northern Iraq. Whether the information was manufactured or accurate is not ~Iear. The exact date and location of the sting, which came in the form of a meeting, have not previously been disclosed, but according to sQurces with access to prosecution information, it took place on July 21,2004, at a suburban Virginia mall. . Believing they had a life or death situation on their hands, AIPAC officials reportedly contacted the Israeli Embassy, thereby prompting action by the FBI counterintelligence division. o AIPAC officials declined all comment on the July meeting. However, one source familiar with access to the prosecution'~ case against AIPAC asked, "If the June 2003 incident was strong enough to prosecute, why did the government need Franklin to perp~trate a ~ting more than a year later? Answer: The first encounter aid not amount to anything. The FBI needed more." Among those Franklin was directed to call as part of an alleged series of sting operations was Francis Brooke, Chalabi's political adviser in Washington. Brooke said he turned aside Franklin's request for information on the code-breaking information Chalabi is accused of prOViding to Iran, telling him "it is dung." During June, July and August, Franklin, still apparently being directed by the FBI, made a series of calls to prominent personalities conversations that have been labeled by the recipients as "weird,· "curiou~".and "totally out of keeping for Larry." At least some of these calls were at the behest of Szady's counterintelligence unit, according to several sources, but it is not known which. Around late June 2004, Franklin called Richard Perle, an American Enterprise Institute defense policy strategist and a key planner of the 2003 war in Iraq, according to several sources familiar with the call. Perle is former chairman of the Pentagon's Defense Policy Board and a close associate of Paul Wolfowitz, the undersecretary of defense•. Perle was just dashing out the door and readying for summer travel, and did not enter the call into his telephone logs, the sources said. But he felt the call was "weird" and took no action, according to on~ source. Perle declined to comment on the call. In August 2004, Franklin also called Ciralsky, who by this time had moved to NBC News, where he was covering security developments in Iran, sources said. Franklin apparently tried to set up a meeting with Ciralsky, but no such meeting ever occurred, according to sources familiar with the call. Ciralsky declined all c9mment. By the end of August, Franklin ~ad been assigned a court-appointed attorney whose name was sealed under court order, according·to sources familiar with Justice.Department filings in the case. That attorney advised Franklin to sign what sources familiar with the case termed "a really terrible plea agreemenr tJlat would have sU~jected him to a very long prison term under the most severe espionage laws. In September, a friend referred Franklin to renowned Washington defense attorney Plato Cacheris. In the past, Cacheris has represented accused spies and eve~ Monica Lewinsky. Franklin fired his court.. \, o appointed attorney and Cacheris began representing him pro bono., o Meanwhile, on Aug. 27,2004, the FBI counterintelligence division raided AIPAC. The raid and the information about a Pentagon "mole" working with AIPAC were immediately leaked to CBS. Leslie Stahl led with the story on the network's evening news. On its Web site, CBS headlined, "The FBI believes it has 'solid' evidence that the suspected mole supplied Israel with classified materials that include secret White House policy deliberations on Iran." A picture of the FBI's Szady was prominently displayed next to the headline. FBI investigators again searched AIPAc's headquarters on Dec. 1. The agents subpoenaed four top officials to appear before a grand jUry in Virginia. The four are Howard Kohr, the group's executive director; Richard Fishman, the managing director; Renee Rothstein, the communications director; and Raphael Danziger, the research director. FBI officials refused to discuss the search and subpoenas. Szady" who has been decorated twice by the CIA for distinguished service, answered one critic by writing, "I am not at liberty to comment on pending investigations." An FBI source with knowledge of Szady's investigation bristled at the intense media coverage of the counterintelligence division's tactic. Said the source: aWe are just following the evidence and seeing where it leads." Meanwhile, four congressional Democrats have asked the Bush administration to brief Congress on the FBI probe., In a letter last week to President Bush, U.S. Reps. Robert Wexler (0Fla.), Robert Menendez (D-N.J.), Eliot Engel (D-N.Y.), and Gary Ackerman (D-N.Y.) ,said that with the case intensifying, Bush should qlear up concerns about the probe's integrity., Citing reports about the alleged AIPAC sting and leaks to the media, the letter said, "Mr. President, an honorable organization is on the line, as are the reputations of dignified individuals, and Congress has yet to hear from you or your ~dministration on this issue despite previous requests." Franklin, meanwhile, is working menial outdoor labor jobs to support his family, and remains uncertain where the case against him is going. Said one source who knows him: ~He is literally shaking. He has been destroyed." (Award-winning New York Times best-selling investigative authorand reporter Edwin Blac/< has covered allegations of Israelispying in the United States since the Pollard case. Black's current best seller is "Banking,on Baghdad"(Wiley), which chronicles 7,000 years ofIraqi h~ro~) • . .. T.he.Jewish Joumai O.. fGreate0r Los Angeies ALL INFORMATION CO~INED HERE IN IS UNCLAS SIFIEh DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60~c baw/sab/1sg 'Page 1,6f~ ~. - ,.. __ - •• --1:>." "'. ]'"' , L._..-(_ao._--__, NOW€J . -Advanced Search_ E-Delivery ~ [9JSe .• .::~. . , I· t~ J.. ' 1114/2005 FBI.Stings Seen as Part of Policy 'War' by Edwin BI~ck, Jewish Telegraphic Agency Franklin, who never had phoned. before, asked .Perle to "convey a message to Chalabi" in Iraq, according to. sources aware of the call. Ahmad Chalabi is the embattled p'resident of.the Iraqi National Congress. He is currently at the vortex of'a Pentagon-intelligence community conflict ov~r pre- ~nd post-war policy"but is stili endorsed by,neoconserVatives, such a~ Perle• In the recent past, Perle had only encountered Frankliria few times in passing, the sources said. Perle became "impatient" to end his brief . conversation with Franklin, and finally just declined to pass a message to. Chalapi.or to cooperate in.any w.ay, accor~ing to the sources. Perle refused to coma:nent. Last June, leading neoconservative Richard Perle received an unexpected phone call at his home. It was Larry Franklin calling. Franklin is' the veteran Ira~ specialist in the Pentagon's Near ,East So~th Asia office and the key Iraq War planner who had been'pressured by the FBI into launching aseries of c9unterintelligence stings. Perle, a former chairm?,n of the Pentagon's Defense Policy' Board, was' an architect of the 2003 Iraq ~~. . Wolle the purpose of the·mysterious call to Perle is still.unclear, a source with knowledge of Franklin's calls suggested t~at: Franklin might have been trying to warn· Perle and Chalabi that conflict between the counterintelligence community alJd the neoconservatives and the Chalabi camp was spinnil)g out of control. . ~( ~~ • ~ ~ CI ~ ~\~f f' .~••- ).1 Unbeknownst to Franklin, the FBI was listening. rJ C- A'- .. . ~ :'\.Uf:~~b 3~·r-_... ~\(.~. .Something about Franklin's unexpected call struck Perle as "weird," according to the sources. Why was Franklin calling? want to pick up a -FREE Jewish Journal? OR Home Order" Subscribe Now! Get the weekly :Jewish.Journalon your door step. E-Subscribe Now! Receive FREE weekly e· mail updates with news links nnd ovents. Personals Classified Calendar Newsletter Main Page Cover Story Nation 8r. World The Arts Search by zip code! SECTIONS The Jewish Journal OfGreater Los Angeles o o Page ~ of5 Editor"s Corner First Person OpinionCommunity, Up Front Torah, Torah, Torah My Jewish Library The Single Life The Circuit Tommywood Letters Obituaries Spirituality Kids Page GOOD STUFF BarIBat Mitzvot Candiellghting Singles Resources FORUM - Join Usl JEWISH LA GUIDE Kosher EATS! Schools Congregations Celebrations Event Calendar Sports ORANGECOUNTV The Jewish Journal of Orange County is available. By the tiQ'le Franklin phoned Perle, Franklin had been under surveillance for at least a year by the FBI's counterintelligence division, which is led by controversial counterintelligence chief David Szady. Franklin had been monitored since a meeting June 26, 2003, at the Tivoli Restaurant in Virginia, where he discussed a classified Ira~ policy document with officials of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). He also was monitored late last May while responding to a routine media inquiry by CBS reporters about Iran's intelligence activities in Iraq, according to multiple sources. The CBS call was pivotal. Among the reporters who spoke to Franklin In late May, according to multiple sources with direct knowledge of the call, was former CIA attorney Adam Ciralsky, who had joined CBS as a reporter. During that call, Franklin purportedly revealed classified information, according to the sources. ,. In late June, Szady's FBI counterintelligence division finally confronted a shocked·Franklin with evidence of his monitored calls. The bureau arranged for Franklin to be placed on administrative leave without pay, and then threatened him with years of imprisonment unless Franklin engaged in a series of stings against a list of prominent Washington targets, according to multiple sources with direct knowledge of the FBI's actions in the case. . Terrified, needing to provide for a wheelchair-bound wife and five children and without the benefit of legal representation, Franklin agreed to ensnare the' individuals on the FBI sting list, the sources said. The list might include as many as six names, according to sources. In a special Jewish Telegraphic Agency' investigation, this reporter first revealed Franklin's stings and the circumstances surrounding them. AIPAC was stung July 21. That day, Franklin met an AIPAC official in a Virginia mall and urged that information be passed to Israel that Israelis operating In nqrthern Kurdlstan were in dang~r of being kidnapped and ' killed by Irallian intelligence, according to multiple sources. That information - the validity of which has been questioned - was reportedly passed to the Israeli Embassy, thereby providing the FBIwith a basis for search warrants and threats of an 'espionage prosecution against AIPAC Policy Director Steve Rosen and AIPAC Iran specialist Keith Weissman, according to the sources. " AIPAC officials contacted declined to comment. Attorneys familiar with FBI security prosecutions identified Sec;tlon 794 anCi 798 of the Espionage Act as ideally suited to the FBI's sting strategy. Section 798, titled, "Disclosure of Classified·Information,"- applies to "whoever knowingly and willfully communicates, furnishes [or] transmits .::.. for the benefit of any foreign government to the detriment of the United States any classified information - concerning the communication of intelligence activities of the United States or any fo~eign government." The sweeping statute would cover classified information not only about America but also about Iran aQd Iraq. Reporter Janine Zacharia first revealed initial news of the July AIPAC sting in The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jewishjourna1.comlhomelpreview.php?~d=13528 1114/2005 ,The Jewish Journal Of Greater Los Angeles o o Page 3 of5 After the AIPAC sting on or about Aug. 20, Franklin - still representation - was directed by his FBI handlers to launch a sting against ChalabJ's Washington-based political adviser, Francis Brooke, according to multiple sources with direct knowledge of Franklin's stings. At the time, Washington intelligence circles were accusing Chalabl of passing sensitive American intelligence code-breaking information to Iranian intelligence. The charges agail1st Chalabi have since fallen from view. Brooke, a southerner who lives in a Washington-area home owned by Chalabl, .took the August call from Franklin on the kitchen phone. "Franklin called," Brooke related, "and said, 'You have a real problem on you'r hands with Iran and Chalabi.' I told him, 'It Is all horse--.' Larry got very angry at me. He said it was 'deadly serious.' I said, 'What the hell, if you say it is serious, OK. But we have no information about American code-breaking of Iranian intelligence.'" "So Larry says, 'I am talking to a bunch of media people, and I can spin this - but you need to level with me to get this straight,'" Brooke recalled. "This was not very much like Larry, and I just said, 'There is nothing to spin.'" Brooke dismissed the entire effort as part of a "vendetta against Chalabi organized by [then-CIA Director George] Tenet and others at the CIA." Franklin refused to comment. In August, Franklin, still without legal counsel, was also directed by the FBI to call Ciralsky, who by this time had moved from CBS to NBC, where he . was working on security developments in Iran, according to multiple sources with direct knowledge of Franklin's calls. Franklin tried to set up a • meeting with Ciralsky, but no such meeting ever occurred, according to sources familiar with the call, because shortly thereafter, on Aug. 27, the FBI's AIPAC raids were leaked to CBS. Franklin actions were now public. Before joining CBS, reporter Ciralsky was working as an attorney for the CIA but was allegedly forced out in 1999 during the course of an inquiry into his family background and his Jewish affiliations. Ciralsky later filed a harassment lawsuit against the CIA that is still pending. The man who supervised much of the CIA investigation of CJralsky and then the FBI's investigation of Franklin following the May conversation with Ciralsky was Szady. In a JTA investigation, this reporter revealed exclusively his involvement ~ith Ciralsky. Critics of the current investigation point to Szady's involvement in the probe of Ciralsky a decade ago to raise questions about a possibly larger agenda. One q~estion involves the media. Because Ciralsky is a reporter with NBC, some critics raised the specter of Szady's FBI counterintelligence division consciously trying to entrap a member of the media engaged in routinely contacting sources. One source with direct knowledge of Franklin's stings said it amounted to an "enemies list." 1114/2005 ·The Jewisli Journal OfGreater Los Angeles o Ciralsky refused to comment. o Page 4 of5 FBI officials repeatedly refused to discuss the Franklin stings. The bureau also refused to respond to questions about whether members of the media - including those at CBS, NBC and even this reporter - are under surveillance as part of their investigation. But at one point, a senior FBI official with knowledge of the case finally stated, "I cannot confirm or deny that Information [due to] the pending investigation." Some Washington insiders believe that the FBI's multiple stings are far from routine counterintelligence but represent a "war" between the counterintelligence community and policymakers, especially neocons. One key insider explained the war this way.: "It ,is two diametrically opposed ways of thinking. The neocons have an interventionist mindset willing to ally with anyone to defeat world terrorism, and they see the intelligence community as too passive. The intelligence community sees the neocons as wild men Willing to champion any foreign source - no ,matter how specious - if it suits their ideology." . Leading neoconservative figure Michael Rubin of the American Enterprise. Institute added ~is own thought. "This is a war of the intelligence community vs. the neoconservatives," Rubin observed. "It involves both the right and the left of the· intelligence community. It is a war about policy, the point being, the CIA must not be involved in policy. The CIA's role is to provide intelligence. and let the policymakers decide what to do with it, and it appears they are not sticking to that role - and that is a dangerous situation." "This is the politicizing of intelligence," he continued. "But the CIA, by its establishing principle.s, is not to be involved in politics." Rubin added that the sting effort "against AIPAC is the culmination of a 20- year witch-hunt from a small corps within the counterintellige'nce • community" that Rubin labeled "conspiracy theorists." He added, "What is the common denominator between the Ciralsky case and the AIPAC case? David Szady.," .Szady, who has been decorated twice by the CIA for distinguished service, answered one critic, writing, "I am not at liberty to comment on pe~ding investigations." Szady had issued a statement to this reporter earlier that he "has no anti-Semitic views, has never handled a case or investigation based upon an individual's ethnicity or religious views and would·never do so." One neoconservative at the center of the counterintelligence war said: "This is just the beginning. Nobody knows where this war is going." Edwin Black is the author of "IBM and the Holocaust" (Crown, 2001). Black's current best seller is "Banking on Baghdad" (Wiley), which chronicles 7,000 years ofIraqi history. This article first appeared in the. Forward. Let's talk about it... CS> 111412005 TheJewish JQurnal OfGreater Los.~geles o Page 5 of5 RelltJUcha.r..d-E..erle_OJL.CJ). er..~.y. fOLTro.RRs_Jita~_elel~ We rent" audio books on co. Free delivery. -Unique Camouflage Rubber Bracelets Show Free Trial. Your Support and Buy Several! Ads by Goooooogle Home I About Us I FAQ I Advertise I Subscribe I Archive I Forum I Contact UsI Privacy Policy © 2004 The Jewish Journal; All Rights·Reserved;13528 1114/2005 ~ AIPAC Comes Under Scrutiny as FBI Continues Israel Espionage Probe ~ e ALL INFORMATION CONTAI1JED 0 HEREIN IS mrCLASSIFIED " DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg Page 1of5 J C!~ PRINTTHIS WASHINGTON REPORTONMIDDLEEASTAFFAIRS Washington Report, December 2004, pages 22-23, 25 Israel and Judaism AIPAC Comes Under Scrutiny as FBI Continues Israel Espionage Probe By Allan C. Brownfeld It has been widely reported that the FBI Is Investigating the possibility that Lawrence Franklin, a Pentagon analyst, passed c1asslfted material to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), which then handed the Information over to the Israeli Embassy In Washington (see November 2004 Washington Report, p. 26). Reported the Sept. 4 economist: "The unfolding saga surrounding Lawrence Franklin Is•••that he gave classified documents on Iran to Israel. But there Is groWing speculation that the FBI Investigation of Mr. Franklin Is the tip of an Iceb~rg. The reported anger of federal agents at the leaking of the story Indicates a bigger probe that may have been under way for at least a year•••Mr. Franklin allegedly passed draft: documents on American policy toward Iran to AIPAC, a hugely Influential lobbying group In Washington, which In tum allegedly passed them to Israeli officials. Both AIPAC and Israel have denied any wrongdoing. The Israelis. maintain that they have been ultra-careful since the huge embarrassment In 1985 when Jonathan Pollard, an American Intelligence analyst, was caught spying for Israel•••The scandal Is difficult for Israel, which wields considerable Influence on American foreign policy•••It Is hard to put a positive spin on a spy In the Pentagon, even If he Is talking to your frlends.&rdquo Janes Intelligence Digest noted on Sept. 10 that, "Shortly before he retired In June as CIA director, George Tenet alleged on more than one occasion that an Israeli agent was operating In Washington. Tenet was challenged to Identify the agent, but for reasons that were never explained he did not do so. Nonetheless, the episode underlined grOWing unease In some quarters In Washington about the Influence Israel's right wing has In the Bush administration through the pro-Ukud neoconservatives-largely In the Pentagon-and the powerful American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) and Its associated organizations such as the Washington Institute for Near East Policy.&rdquo Four of the leading neoconservatives have been accused in the past of illegally providing classified information to Israel. The document.alleged to have been passed to AIPAC al1d the Israelis relates to U.S. policy.toward Iran. According to Jane's, "U.S. officials are concerned because that document was being debated by pollcymakers at the time, possibly putting the Israeli government lobbyists In a position to Influence the final directive. U.S. policy toward Iran Is crudal to the Israelis, who have drawn up plans to launch pre-emptive strikes against Iran's nuclear Installations to prevent the Islamic Republic acquiring nuclear weapons that could be used against Israel.&'rdquo 4° Philip Glraldl, a former CIA officer, wrote In the.Oct. 11 Issue of The American Consentatlve that, ~ tl~ljocS' http://Wrmea~printthiS.clickabilitY .cOinlptlcpt?actioti=tpt&title=AlPAC+Comes+Under+Scr... 1~812005 .) '" . " - - . - - ~ .- - - - GSQ.-VJ~_~6~l>-1" L ~'C..~~ . ... AIPAC Comes U~der Scrutiny as FBI Continues Israel Espionage Probe Q) 0 "The Franklin case stems from Investigations of Israeli diplomats that developed from the prosecution of spy Jonathan'Poliard. Pollard's conviction In 1987 provided little In-the way of a resolution: the Israeli government never cooperated In the Inquiry and did not provide an Inventory of the documents that Pollard had stolen. The FBI also knew that a second spy, believed to be In the Pentagon, passed Pollard classified file numbers that were desired by the Israelis. Hoping to catch the second spy,.the FBI continued its probe. Two years ago, the Investigators began to suspect that highly sensitive National Security Agency documents' were winding up In IsraeJrhands, possibly wlth"t1'ie connivance of AIPAC. In the judgment of counterintelligence specialists, the Israelis did not wish a repeat of the Pollard case, so they decided against recruiting another U.S. official and turning him Into a salaried spy. Instead, they opted to establish relationships with friends In the government who would voluntarily provide Information•••AIPAC would have served as a useful Intermediary or 'cut out' In such an arrangement, limiting the contact between the American government official and the Israeli Embassy.&rdquo Four of the leading neoconservatives have been accused In the past of illegally providing classified Information to Israel, though none was ever prosecuted. In 1970, the FBI recorded Richard Perle discussing classified Information with an Israeli Embassy official. Stephen Bryen, then a Senate Foreign Relations Committee staff member and later Perle's deputy at the Department of Defense, narrowly avoided Indictment In 1979 after he was overheard offering classified documents to an Israeli Embassy official. Douglas Feith, who In a position paper prepared for Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called for a "clean break from the peace process,H was fired In 1982 from the National Security Council on suspicion of passing confidential docum~nts to the Israeli·Embassy. He was Immediately re-hlred by Richard Perle at the Pentagon. 'Paul Wolfowltz--was InveStigated In 1978 over charges that he had provided a classified documel1t to the IsraeU-embassy'by'way of AIPAC. While AIPAC has long been·viewed as one of Washington's most effective lobbying groups, It has become Increasingly controversial, both within the Jewish community and In the larger society. Many have objected to Its close ties to the Ukud Party. In one Widely publicized exchange, Israeli Prime Minister Yltzhak Rabin asked AIPAC to concentrate on lobbying Congress and leave pollcymaklng and the.Whlte House alone. The current affair, wrote Orl Nir In the Sept. 3 Forward, "has cast light on the fine line that AIPAC walks between advocating a strong American-Israeli alliance and as acting as the representative of a foreign government. Both activities are legal, but serving a foreign government requires registration with the Department of Justice and entails severe legal restrictions, not applied to pro-Israel groups, Including AIPAC.&hellipAIPAC enjoys the support, admiration and even awe of Jewish organizational officials, many of whom raced to AIPAC's defense. Stili, some pro-Israel activists In Washington are privately suggesting that the current scandal prOVides AIPAC with a chance, In the words ofone communal official, for 'some soul-searching and reappraisal' regarding Its general modes of operatlon.&rdquo According to Nlr, "Critics also have accused AIPAC of adopting an agenda that too clearly mirrors the hawkish agenda of neoconservatives In the Bush administration, thereby fueling conspiratorial notions that President Bush was duped, Into Invading Iraq In order to advance Israeli Interests. Now, critics say, with Its Increasing fOC;us on Iran, AIPAC risks fueling the claims of those who would accuse the Jewish community of working with Washington neoconservatives to convince the White House to pursue regime change In Tehran.&rdquo Several Jewlsh'communalleaders complain that AIPAC officials have not done enough to maintain a clear wall between the lobbying group and Israel. AIPAC officials have reft the organization to serve In the Israeli government. Lenny Ben-David, formerly known as leonard Davis, for example, worked at AIPAC for 25 years-first In Washington, then in Jerusalem-before he was tapped by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in 1998 to be the deputy chief of mission In Israel's Washington Embassy. AIPAC and some of Its supporters have suggested that the FBI and the CIA are pursuing a vendetta against Israel, the Pentagon, neoconservatives, and possibly Jews In general. The neoconservatives have lashed out In a memo drafted by Michael Rubin of the American Enterprise Institute, alleging that the probe Is motivated by anti-Semitism. The memo criticizes the White House for not refuting press reports on the FBI investigation. "If there Is any truth to any of the Page 2 of5 http://wrmea.priiltthis:clicKabilitj:comlptlcpt?action=cpt&title=AIPAC+Comes+Uhder+Scr...1/8/2005 AIPAC Comes Under Scrutiny as FBI Continues Israel Espionage Probe Q 0 \ accusations, why doesn't the White House demand that they bring on the ev~dence?On the record," the memo stated. "There's-an Increasing anti':Semltlc witch hunt.&rdquo Continued Rubin, a former member of the Pentagon's policy planning staff who dealt with Iran policy: "I feel like I'm In Paris, not Washington. I'm disappointed at the lack of leadership that let things get where they are, and which Is allowing these bureaucrats to spin out of control.&rdquo The role played by AIPAC has produced some soul-searching within the organized Jewish community. "Several Jewish activists, speaking on condition of anonymity, cautioned against what they described as a defiant reaction on the part of some communal leaders who raised the specter of anti-Semitic conspiraCy," the Sept. 10 Forward reported. "'If every single time we get Into trouble we cry anti-Semitism, no one Is going to believe us when we confront the real·problem of anti-Semitism,' a senior official of a Jewish organization said. Another organizational official said: 'It's ridiculous to react like that before you know what happened there. In the absence of accurate knowledge, any comment Is Just sllly.'&rdquo The fallout for AlPAC, wrote Doug Bloomfield In the Sept. 9 WashIngton Jewish Week, could be serious: "There have been persistent charges•••that AIPAC directs the network of pro-Israel political action committees (PACS); campaign finance bundlers and Individual contributors. AIPAC has successfully fought such accusations all the way to the Supreme Court to avoid being designated a PAC because of the Impact that would have on the way It operates and raises money. The current probe could renew calls from the organization's critics for new Investigations by the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) and demands to know what has been uncovered by the FBI•••There will be questions about AIPAC's operations and Internal accountability. A penchant for hubris and Institutional mlndset of secrecy-reflected In Its hostile and contentious relationship with the media-add to the suspicion that there Is something to hlde•.,&rdquo Shortsighted Strategies The problems facing AIPAC come not only from Its enemies, argued the Sept. 3 Forward, but also are "partly a result of shortsighted strategic decisions by Israel's advocates. Faced With a shifting landscape, they have gambled on a risky strategy that may be blOWing up In their faces. For years, Israel's friends In this country have operated on the principle that Israel could not be held responsible for Its troubles. They have maintained that whatever Israel's mistakes, Palestinian hostility could not be blamed on Israel's policies. More recently, they've. broadened the principle to Insist that Arab and Muslim hostility to the U.S. cannot be blamed on its support for Israel. Both positions are becoming ,hard to maintain. GrOWing numbers of Israelis, up to and Including the military chief of staff, are openly acknowledging that Israeli actions can raise and lower the level of Palestinian rage and violence. As for the global terror war, the Idea that It Is related In part to America's reiatlonshlp to Israel Is now thoroughly mainstream. You can read It In the report of the 9/11 Commission•••As the urgency of discussion grows, resentment seems to mount against those who dedare the discussion illegitimate. It's a dangerous position to be In.&rdquo AIPAC's role has been controversial for many years. In 1995, Jonathan Mitchell, regional vice president for Southern California AIPAC, chastised a senior Israeli official for argUing that Congress and American Jews should not concern themselves with Palestinian behavior. Mitchell called Deputy Israeli Foreign Minister Vossl Beilin "absurd and arrogant" for comments he made In Jerusalem at a meeting With the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations. Beilin countered by accusing Mitchell of "trying to be more Israeli than the Israelis." Beilin was critical of those who urged an end to aid to the PlO, and said, "It Is not the business of JeWish organizations, not AIPAC's, not the American Jewish Congress' and not of any other country In the world except the State of Israel. The kind of people who are trying to be more Israeli than the Israelis themselves are causing damage to the pure national Interests of the State of Israel.&rdquo . In March 2003, about 5,000 AIPAC actiVists met In Washington and embarked upon a lobbying blitz against the Bush administration's "road map" for Middle East peace. AIPAC was not happy with speeches at Its meeting by National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice and Secretary of State Colin Powell dedaring that Israel must freeze settlement activity In the territories once the Palestinian Authority takes serious steps to curb terrorism. "Settlement activity Is simply Inconsistent with President Bush's two-state Vision," Powell said, draWing Jeers from some AIPAC members. Page 3 of5 http://Wrmea.printthis.clickability.conilptlcpt?action=epf&title=AIPAC+Comes+Under+Sci... 1/8/2005·- • AIPAC Comes Under Scrutiny as FBI Continues Israel Espionage Probe o 0 A number of Jewish leaders spoke In support of the Middle East peace plan and In criticism of AIP,,"C and other groups who'were opposing It;In-a letter toCongn!ss, these leaders said they wanted to "express our concern over recent efforts to sidetrack Implementation of the 'road map.' While the plan Is neither perfect nor a panacea, as 'passlonate supporters of Israel, we also know that the Jewish state needs this kind of energetic American dlplomacy.&rdquo Among those signing this statement were Edgar M. Bronfman, president of the World Jewish Congress, and current past presidents of the national United J~wlsh Appeal and Its successor the United Jewish Communities, Including Stanley Chesley, Lester Crown, Irwin Field, Alex Grass, Marvin Lender, Peggy Tishman and Larry Zucklln. Henry Siegman, once a leader In the American Jewish Congress and now a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, charges that many ~merlcan Jewish organizations, such as AIPAC, have substituted blind support for Israel for the traditional Jewish search for truth and justice. "We have lost much In American Jewish organlzatlonalllfe,R Siegman says., "I was a student and admirer of Rabbi Abraham Heschel. I read his books. We were friends. We marched together In the South during the civil· rights movement. He h~lped me understand the prophetic passion for truth and justice as the keystone of Judaism. This Is not, however, an understanding that now animates the American Jewish communlty••.Amerlcan Jewish organizations confuse support for the State of Israel and Its people with uncritical endorsement of the actions of Israeli governments,even when these governments do things that In' an American context these Jewish organizations would never tolerate. It was Inconceivable that a Jewish leader In America 20 or 30 years ago would be silent If a political party In the Israeli government called for the transfer of Palestinians-In other words, ethnic cleansing. Today, there are at least three such parties, but there has never been a word of criticism from American Jewish organlzations.&rdquo The fact that many Jewish groups and leaders are rushing to AIPAC's defense before all of the facts are known Is hardly unexpected. These same groups have campaigned for manyyears on behalf of convicted spy. Jonathan Pollard, whose guilt Is well known-and was admitted. While AIPAC's guilt or Innocence In this particular case remains to be seen, the probe Is moving forward. A federal grand Jury is expected to begin Interviewing people In connection to the Investigation. What we do know Is that AIPAC has used Its considerable influence to shape U.S. foreign policy in a manner that appears to have been harmful to long-term U.S. Interests In the Middle East and harmful, as well, to prospects for'peace between Israel and the Palestlnlan~. Whether AIPAC Is guilty of espionage or not, It must bear responsibility for advancing a narrow agenda which may be pleasing to Israel's right wing, but which misrepresents the views of both the majority of Israelis and the majority of American Jews. American Jewish groups would be wise to walt until all the facts are in before rising to AIPAC's defense-something they seem reluctant to do. The evidence that AIPAC Is not worthy of such support Is Widespread-and growing. Allan C. Brownfeld is a syndicated columnist and assodate editor of the Uncoln Review, a journal published by the Uncoln Institute for Research and Education, and editor of Issues, the quarterly Journal of the American Council for Judaism. Find this article at: http://www.wnnea.comlarchiveslDecember_2004/0412022.html CJ Check the box to indude the list of links referenced in the article. Page 4 of5 ~ttp:l/wrme~~print!his.~lic~abili! 1/8/2005 ~: ALL INFOP.MATImr CONTAINED ~ ~ i:;\ EEPEIN IS mrCLASSIFIED 0 ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw ~ Ilsg www.haarcrz.eom Last update. 16:062510312005 Pentagon analyst Franklin retur~s to work By Nathan Guttman, Haaretz Correspondent WASHINGTON - Pentagon analyst Larry Franklin was reinstated a few weeks ago, ~er sitting at home for half a year and being barred from returning to his job on the Iranian desk in the Department of Defense's policy division. Franklin was at the center ofa lengthy FBI investigation after suspicions arose that he transferred classified information about U.S. policy on Iran to members ofthe pro-Israel lobby AlPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committee). In the seven months since the affair made headlines on the CBS evening news, the investigation has been kept under tight wraps, but its ramifications are already being felt. While Franklin is back at work, and, say well-placed sources, is expected to reach a plea bargain, the spotlight has moved to the AlPAC officials- two senior members were suspended for the duration ofthe case and four other senior officials were forced to testify at length before the special investigative jury in Virginia, whose proceedings are classified. Even if the investigation is nowhere near completion, it has definitely reached a crossroads, at which investigators must decide on the suspects in the case- Larry Franklin alone; Franklin and two AIPAC officials, Steve Rosen and Keith Weissman; or whether, on top of those three, the entire AIPAC organization has acted unlawfully. AlPAC refused to say anything about the possibilitY ofa plea bargain. Sources close to the investigation suggested recently that it would end in a plea bargain. Franklin would plead to a lesser crime of unauthorized transfer of information, Rosen and Weissman would be charged with receiving classified information unlawfully, and AIPAC would remain unstained. Franklin's lawyer, Plato Cacheris, Thursday denied the reports, stating: "We have not entered any plea ofdefense with the Justice Department." ~)Il~~r< As for Franklin's reinstatement, a Pentagon spokesman, Maj. Paul \r -"'4~__ 65'Q,vJt=-~~15-,uL <Bt~' a~~~C . '-------~, -""" -0 Swiergrosz, confirmed that "Dr. Franklin is still a u.s. government employee," but declined to identify his position. Haaretz has learned that Franklin has been moved to a post different from the one he held previously and kept from handling classified information. From AlPAC's standpoint, the issue at hand is containment: can the affair be limited to Rosen and Weissman, or is the investigation directed at the lobby as a whole? It is clear that the FBI has as its objective an extensive investigation against AlPAC. Investigators have been looking into AlPAC's entire manner of operating, not just in the Franklin instance. An official questioned twice by the FBI, a witness, was astounded by itlvestigators' intimate familiarity with AIPAC. "They know everything there. They asked very precise questions regarding the organization's operations," he said. The intended breadth ofthe investigation is also evident from the FBI's dramatic moves - raiding AlPAC offices in December and issuing subpoenas to its four top executives. Executive Director Howard Kohr, Managing Director Richard Fishman, Research Director Rafael Danziger and Communications Director Renee Rothstein appeared before the investigative jury and were questioned at length. Investigators also reportedly tried to use Franklin, after th_e affair 'erupted, to incriminate as many senior AlPAC officials as possible. The Jerusalem Post reported four months ago.that investigators informed Franklin ofthe suspicions against him and asked for his cooperation. In a sting operation, he received information from the FBI agents that Iran was planning to attack Israelis operating in the Kurdish region in Iraq. Franklin, at the FBI's instructions, telephoned AIPAC's Rosen and Weissman and gave them the information, and they rushed to pass it on to Israeli diplomats, thereby falling into the FBI trap, AIPAC refuses to comment on the case, saying, "We do not comment on personnel matters!' A spokesman for AlPAC, Patrick Dorton, said Thursday that "it would not be appropriate for AlPAC to comment on issues that have to do with an ongoing federal investigation." The suspension ofthe two AlPAC officials, though never officially explained, is certainly a key turning point in the case. According to one assessment, AIPAC understands that regardless ofwhether a plea bargain is reached, it will be tough to get those two offthe hook, so AlPAC is keeping its distance for now. Their lawyer, Nathan Lewin, refused requests from Haaretz·for a comment. -. --- ,- ~ ~, 0 <:) ~ .., Asource close to the case said.that since the investigation began, AIPAC's ability to maintain good ties with U.S. administration officials has suffered. While Congress was quick to express support for AlPAC, its activists began having trouble getting appointments. "Obviously, after a case like this blows up, no one's in a hurry to return your calls," said the source. lhasen/objects/pagesJPrintArticleEn.jhtml?itemNo=556863 close window ,.. . :-.. I '1 - ~, .... "' ALL INFORMATION CONTAI~mD ~ HERE IN IS UNCLASSIFIED L"'\. \J DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc bawls~Bg FOlllWAJU) [fOUNDEDJ:N,j8~J7:. PUBLISHED:WEEICL'!Ja: NEW::iORK) News U.S. Aide Arrested Amid Signs That Lobby Probe W~dens By'ORI NIR Maya, 2005 W.AsHINGTON - Arecent FBI interrogation of an Israeli defense expert mayindicate that the Justice Department's investigation into the contacts between America's pro-Israel lobby and a. Pentagon analyst is broader in scope than previously believed. The expert, Uzi Arad, head of the Institute for Policy and Strategy at Israel's Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, said that two months ago FBI agents interviewed him about his contacts with the Pentagon Iran specialist, Lariy Franklin. During the hour-long interview, he said, tile FBI agents brought up the name of an American Jewish Committee official, Eran Lerman; who is a former senior official in Israeli military intelligence. Franklin was arrested and charged Wednesday with "disclosing classified information related to potential attacks upon U.S. forces in Iraq to individuals not entitled to receive the information." The Justice Department did not name the individuals who allegedly received $e.c~ssified information from Franklin, but media reports claim they are Steven Rosen and~Keith Weissman, two former officials at the American Israel Public Affairs Committee wh9;were recently dismissed by the pro-Israel1obbying organization. Arad's comments, an unusual disclosure ofa small wrinkle in the otherwise ultrasecretive FBI investigation, maysuggest that the FBI is investigating more than the alleged unlawful contac~ between Franklin and Aipac officials. Franklin is the first person to be indicted in the FBI investigation. Rosen and Weissman have not been charged. lnitialJy,·press reports said that Rosen and Weissman's alleged transfer ofsecret informationby Israeli diplomats was the focus of the investigation. The questioning ofArad may confirm speculation by some in the Jewishcommtmity that the investigation is related to a larger inquiry into Israeli or pro-Israeli attempts to influence America's security eStabUslunent and its policy in the.Middle East. Arad said the FBI agents asked him, among other things, wpy he had sent tq Franklin, less than a year ago, a research paper by Lerman on ways'to re~eIiergize America's relationship with Israel. ''They asked me who was Bran Lerman, althopgh they clearlyknewwho he was," Arad told the Forward in a telephone interview. Arad was a policy adviser to former Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu and once headed the research department of Israel's Mossad intelligence service. ,- ~ , ~4~ ~ Lerman joined th~ staffqf the AJGo~ttee in ~OOl. Kenneth Ban91er, a spokesman for the '5\l0\ (n j AJCommitte..e, sa.i.d.he had no-c-o.m..m..en-t,e FBI's q.uestioiling-- reg'ar.din'g .LeIman. ~l ,: ~SIi.;\Jlr..~"315-11C.- ~ -I G}\L~ i .... fi :rad said that his strategicpQ,institute had commissioned Ler~ to write the paper. He said that he did not reIl)em~er sending the article to Franklin but that the.FBI investigators showed him a letter that accompanied the article, carrying his signattir~.' 4rad. said he explained to the investigators thatthis was a nie'chanized'signatiire on an information package sent en masse to a mailing list of s~veral hundred former participants in the Interdisciplinary Center's annual strategic-affairs conference, commonly known as the Herzliya Conference. Franklin attended the December 2003 Herzliya Conference, though he did not deliver an address. In his paper, Lerman wrote that the once-dynamic U.S.-Israel strategic relationship had fallen into a "maintenance mode" in recent years and ought to be re-enermzedfor the benefit ofboth countries. At the December 2004',Herzliya Conference, address based on his research paper. Arad said the FBI agents asked him about his conversations with Franklin at the conference and several months later at a meeting between the two in the Pentagon cafeteria. H~ 'also said that both conversations were briefand that he could hardly remember their content. The FBI interview was also brief, as well, he noted. It was arranged in haste, as Arad was rushing to catch a plane from NewYork to Israel, and took place in a car while he on his way to the airport. This week, Franklin h~ded himself in, and was scheduled to make an initial appearance at a Northern Virginia courtbypress time.. In a statement, the Department ofJustice said that Franklin, S8, surrendered to authorities at the FBI's Washington Field Office following the filing Qf a criminal complaint Tuesday and the unsealing Wednesday of the indictment against him. The statement notes that the violation Franklin is charged with carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison. Recently Franklin was transferred from the Office of the Secretary of Defense, where he served as an Iran desk officer, to a less sensitive position in the Pentagon. The criminal complaint filed in the U.s. District Court for the Eastern'District ofVirginia, alleges that on June 26, 2003, Franklin had lunch at a restaurant in Arlington, Va., with two individuals, identified as "U.S. Person 1" and "U.s. Person 2." At the lunch, according to the Justice Department, Franklin disclosed classified information that has been designated "Top Secret" and related to potential attacks upon American forces in Iraq. The government claims that neither ofFranklin's lunch companions has the security clearance to receive the information. Allegedly Franklin told the two individuals that the information was "highly classified" and asked them not to "use" it, according to the Justice Department statelllent. This portion of the Justice Department statement implies that Franklin's lunch companions - alleged in press reports to have been Rosen and Weissman - knew that they were ha~dling information from a highly sensitive document. According to press reports, the FBI ~~ ~v~stigatin~ cl~s that after the ll:Jllch the two former Aipac officials transferred the o -- - - - ------:---- f , • "s~cretinformation to an IsraQdiPlomat in Washington. The Justice Department statement says that a search 6f Franklin's Pentagon office in-June 2004 found the June 2003 classified document containing the information that Franklin allegedly disclosed to the two individuals. The criminal co~plaint against Franklin also alleges that on other occasions he disclosed, without authorization, classified American government infonnation to a foreign official and to members of the news media. In addition, according to the Justice Department statement, about 83 separate classifiedAmerican government documents were found during a search of Franklin's West Virginia home in June 2004, most ofthem classified as top secret or secret. The dates of these documents spanned three decades. The investigation into this matter is continping, the Justice Department stated. The charges against Franklin disclose several other new details: . • According to an FBI affidavit that accompanies the charges, Franklin admitted during an FBI interrogation in June 2004 that he provided the information contained in the secret document to the two individuals. • The information that Franklin is charged with disclosing is related not to Iran - contrary to previous reports - but. to "potential attacks upon U.S. forces in Iraq."The government's main concern, according to the FBI affidavit, is that such information could be used to harm the-United States by "a country's discovery of our intelligence sources and methods." • Contrary to previous media reports, charges against Franklin do not allege the transfer of a secret document. Instead it is charged that he "verbally disclosed" information that "was contained" inatop-secret document. The distinction is important, legal experts say, because verbally transferring such information is a less serious offense. • The documentin question, according to the affidavit, was marked "on the first and last pages with a caption in all capital letters,II which identified it as "TOP SECRET with a denomination of its SCI [Sensitive Compartment Information] status" - the highest security classification. . )j0ml .I Qm1ig I Subscrlb, I About Tht fQrward Copyright 2005 ©The Forward I. ••• . . • •• WASHINGTON .d§ Print This Story ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg ~ 1111 II .lIt - - - -- ---....-...- Matthew E. Berger Lawrence Franklin. left. a Pentagon analyst charged by the FBI with leaking classified information to AIPAC officials. leaves a courthouse on ~ay 4 with his attorney. John Richards. BEHIND THE HEADLINES Criminal charges in AIPAC case leveled against Pentagon analyst By Ron Kampeas and Matthew E. Berger ALEXANDRIA, Va., May 4 (JTA) - Criminal charges against a Pentagon analyst, for allegedly leaking classified Iraq war information to two top officials at the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, raise new questions about whom the FBI is targeting and whether the pro-Israel powerhouse will be harmed as the case unfolds. Lawrence Franklin, who turned himself in for arrest Wednesday, was accused in an FBI criminal complaint of disclosing classified information "related to potential attacks on United States forces in Iraq" to two U.S. civilians over lunch in an Arlington, Va., restaurant on June 26, 2003. Franklin's two interlocutors, identified In the document only as "U.S. Person 1 and U.S. Person 2," are Steve Rosen, AIPAC's policydirector, and Keith Weissman, its senior Iran analyst, JTA has established. AIPAC fired the two last month in an apparent bid to distance itself from the case. Read as a whole, the criminal complaint contained some good news for AIPAC'J It suggests that beyond the allegations against Rosen and Weissman, AIPAC as an organization had no involvement in leaking any information. "AlPAC has been advised by the government that it is not a target of the investigation,," a source close to the organization told JTA. On the other hand, the headlines could hinder A1PAC's efforts to project a "back-to-business" face to grass-roots supporters ~nd Washington powerbrokers weeks before its annual policy conference, and at a time when it is trying to build support for Israel ahead of Israel's planned withdrawal this summer from the Gaza Strip. The policy conference is AIPAC's annual show of strength, culminating in a ~t()16~ ro 5~"'-UlF-~~lS"-.tJL I>,k.ej!1~ . -«n'.\.. 1 o o dinner expected to. be .att~nded by some 5,000 people at which~AlPAC leaders shout out the names of dozens of congressmen and'Cabinet officials present..;.. nearly 200 last year. If a significantly lower number show up this year, it could be embarrassing. Franklin, an Iran analyst who lives in Kearneysville, W. Va., was released on a $100,000 bond after appearing at U.S. District Court in Alexandria, Va. A preliminary hearing was set for May 27. "He intends to plead not guilty" and expects to be vindicated at trial, said his attorney, John Thorpe Richards. The criminal charge sheet was the first official accounting of a case that first made headlines last August, when FBI agents raided AIPAC's Washington headquarters and confiscated.files.belonging"'to Rosen and Weissman. "The information Franklin disclosed relating to potential attacks upon U.S" forces in Iraq could be used to the injury of the United States or to ,the advantage of a foreign country," special agent Catherine Hanna said in drafting the complaint. The'damage, she said, could arise from "jeopardizing the viability of the sources and methods." The information was from a document classified as "top secret," Hanna said. While the June 2003 lunch appears to be the linchpin of th~ criminal charges, there are other allegations, including that Franklin leaked classified information to journalists and to an unidentified "foreign official," and that he kept three decades' worth of classified information on his computer hard disk at home. Reports have suggested that Franklin also met with an Israeli Embassy official. The reference to a "foreign official" might point in that direction. However, the FBI has not gotten in touch with the Israeli Embassy, representatives say, and Israeli officials continue to maintain that they would never participate in illicit information gathering in the United States. IIlsrael does not carry out any operation in the United States that would be liable,. God forbid; to harm its closest ally," Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom told Israel Television. "Therefore all the brouhaha around this matter has nothing to do with the State of Israel." The United States, he added, "is a nation with which we conduct very intimate ties, with exchanges of the most classified kinds of information. So anyone who thinks we were involved - this is completely bogus." The complaint suggests answers to two major questions that have surrounded the investigation: Who is the target? And to what degree is AIPAC in danger? The question of a target arose after last.year's.raids,.when it emerged that agents had watched Rosen, Weissman and Franklin chatting over a meal at Tivoli in June 2003. Was the FBI agent in the restaurant following Franklin, or Rosen and Weissman? The arrest Wednesday lends support to the theory that Franklin had been the target of an investigation that reportedly was at least a year old at thatlunch meeting. Franklin's enthusiasm for a tough line against Iran had drawn the attention of colleag~~s in t!l~ Pentag.on. ~ •.:. ~-r '1 - .~ JTA previously has reported thatFranQhad"been under sClUtiny since he 0 allegedly met i~ December 2001 with former Iranian spy and arm~ merchant Manucher Ghorbanifar, who was on a CIA "burn lisr of people who could not be contacted, according to intelligence community sources. AlPAC could take heart from the fact that the criminal complaint did not mention the organization, or even suggest any organizational affiliation for the two "U.S. Persons" Franklin met with. ' Still, the complaint raised at least as many questions as it answered: '. • What now for Rosen·and Weissman? Leaking classified information has much clearer legal ramifications than receiving it, since reporters in Wa~hington routinely receive and relay classified information to their readers•. The complaint makes clear that the exchange in the restaurant was "verbal." It's unclear what, if any, charges could be brought against Rosen and Weissman for simply listening to Franklin unload. - On the other hand, the FBI had a clear interest in Rosen and Weissman, evidenced by the August raid at AIPAC headquarters and another one in December, and by the appearance earlier this year oftop AIPAC staffers before a federal grand jury. It was information arising out of the grand jury encounters that led AIPAC to fir~ the two men, AIPAC has said.. Rosen's lawyer said in a statement that no documents were exchanged, which dovetails with the FBI's claim that the exchange was verbal. "Steve Rosen never solicited, received or passed on any classified documents from Larry Franklin, and Mr. Franklin will never be able to say otherwise," Rosen's lawyer, Abbe Lowell, said in a statement. • U.S. Attorney Paul McNulty convened a grand jury in the case; why didn't he bring an indictment instead of a criminal complaint, which carries less weight? One answer could be that the FBI and Justice Department have been burned by reporting that depicts the case as a politically motivated jeremiad against Jewish lobbyists and/or neoconservatives such as Franklin. Indictments often are sealed. but a criminal complaint allows the FBI to explain at length why it feels charges are justified. • Finally, what did Rosen and Weissman learn at the Tivoli lunch? Until now, sources close to the two have suggested that the information related to White House policy on Iran - which, after all, was the specialty of both Franklin and Weissman - and that it had a relatively low secrecy classification. Hanna. the FBI special agent, alleges that the information was top secret, and related to dangers posed to U.S. troops in Iraq. A former FBI official said the complaint suggests a larger investigation, butgives few clues about where the probe starts and ends. "My best estimate is this was part of an already existing investigation, and from their perspective, they got lucky," the former official said. "They were either following Franklin or they were following these two guys," he said, referring to Rosen and Weissman. mPrint This Story Back to top A i"'!\t INFORHATION CONTAINED 0 ~IN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1s:g Pentagon Analyst In Israel Spy Case Is Call'ed a 'Patriot' BY ELI LAKE - Staff Reporter ofthe Sun May 27, 2005 URL: WASHINGTON - APentagon analyst charged with mishandling classified information at first cooperated·with an FBI probe oftwo lobbyists for the American Israel Public Affairs Committee when he allowed the bureau to surveil a meeting with Aipac lobbyist Keith Weissman in July 2004. Plato Cacheris, the lawyer for the Pentagon Iran analyst Lawrence Franklin, ~old The New York Sun yesterday that the FBI persuaded his clie~t to set up a meeting with Mr. Weissman on July 9, 2004, before being threatened with jail time. "They appealed to his sense ofpatriotism, and he cooperated,II Mr. Cacheris said 1n an interview. The charges against the two lobbyists, Mr. Weissman and Steven Rosen, will hang on their July 9, 2004, meeting with Mr. Franklin when he allegedly shared information verbally with Mr. Weissman - while under FBI surveillance - that American soldiers and Israeli agents in northern Iraq were under threat from Iranian Revolutionary Guard units. Mr. Rosen, after receiving the information from his colleague, Mr. Weissman, then allegedly shared it with the Israeli Embassy and the Washington Post. Sources familiar with the FBI's case said that the Justice Department is prepared to charge that Mr. Rosen passed the classified information on to the embassy and the newspaper. Until August 2004, Mr..Franklin was unaware that the FBI was prepared to chargehim with a crime, Mr. Cacheris said. It was after he voluntarily told the bureau that he had kept 83 classified documents at his home in West Virginia and had agreed to convey the intelligence to Mr. Weissman that the FBI said that it would press charges and arranged for a court-appointed attorney for Mr. Franklin. Originally, the bureau, according to Mr. Cacheris, asked Mr. Franklin to plead guilty to espionage, specifically under section 794 ofthe U.S. Code forcriines of IIgathering or delivering defense information to aid a foreign government.,', Notorious Soviet spy Aldridge Ames was charge4 under this section ofthe U.S. Code, which carries a maximum penalty ofexecution or life in prison. Mr. Franklin sought Mr. Cacheris out, the lawyer said, after he was asked to admit that he was a spy. Mr.. Cacheris, who represented Mr. Ames as well as Monica Lewinsky, agreed to take the case free ofcharge. "I feel the government is overreaching in this case. I think he's a patriot and a loyal American who intends no harm to this country," Mr. Cacheris said. ;-l-\~ Following Mr. Cacheris's agreement to defend Mr. Franklin, the bureau offered a deal whereby Mr. Franklin would plead guilty to the lesser charge ofmishandling classified material, or section 793 oftlie U.S. Code. The lesser charge carries a maximum penalty ~ ~~ G~-\»f-- adl?~\5~~~ <t>\L~ - o o " of 10 years in prison. Mr. Cacheris said he refused the deal and that he intends to take the' case to trial. Despite turning down the offer and ceasing to cooperate with the FBI, Mr. Franklin was charged with ~nly mishandling, not espionage, on Tuesday. Mr. Cacheris likened Mr. Franklin's conduct to that ofa fonner national security adviser, Samuel Berger, who was recently charged with a misdemeanor for stealing documents from t:Qe National Archives in his socks, and a former CIA director" John Deutsch, who had taken classified material'to his home. In both these cases, Messrs. Berger and Deutsch were charged with misdemeanors. "We don't think Mr. Franklin's conduct was any more egregious," Mr. Cacheris said. Mr. Cacheris told the Sun yesterday that he believed the FBI did not originally intend to investigate Mr. Franklin. "We believe there was a pre-existing investigation that Larry Franklin is not involved in," he said yesterday. While Mr. Cacheris refused to discuss the details ofthe meetings, other sources familiar with the case told the Sun that Mr. Franklin first approached Messrs. Rosen and Weissman in February or March 2003 for a meeting at the Ritz Carlton Hotel in Pentagon City, Va., with the intention ofpassing on threat information regarding Iran's plans for American soldiers in Iraq. According to one source familiar with the case, Mr. Franklin was told by an aide to an undersecr~tary ofdefense, Douglas Feith, that the two Aipac lobbyists could get the threat information to the National Security Council. Mr. Rosen, in particular, has a reputation for high-level contacts with policy-makers in the executive branch. According to sources familiar with the case, the three men at this 2003 meeting discussed passing the threat information to National Security Council official Elliott Abrams. By March 2003, the Bush administration had decided to work with Iranian-sponsored opposition groups to build an interim government in Baghdad. Indeed, the recently elected prime minister, Ibrahim Jafari, was initially a leader of an Iranian-supported party, Dawa, and was included in the first Iraqi Governing Council. At the same'time, American envoys were holding intensive negotiations about Iraq with the Iranians under the auspices ofa U.N. multicountry group designed to coordinate Afghanistan policy. These developments, according to Mr. Franklin's former colleagues and other government officials, worried the Pentagon ~alyst, who, in tum, attempted to reverse what he saw as a disastrous policy decision. Mr. Franklin had, in his work on Iran at the Pentagon in late 2001, identified what one source described as "Iranian hunter-killer teams" in Afghanistan that were threatening American Special Forces. By the spring of 2003, he believed American forces in ~raq would be under a similar threat from units of Iran's Revolutionary Guard and that this information had to get to the White House. On June 26, 2003, Mr. Franklin held a second lunch with Messrs. Weissman and Rosen and discussed, among other things, developments in the formation ofan Iran policy paper and new threats he had learned about in Iraq. In that meeting, Mr. Cacheris said he provided the two lobbyists with a list ofevents and names ofIranian officials that he had compiled personally elaborating the threat to American soldiers. IINo classified o documents were passed," Mr. Cacheris said. '~A lis~ ofevents and names on Iran arid Iraq was'passed in the June 2003 meeting." Mr. Cacheris emphasized that this list was neither a classified nor official document. Mr. Franklin would not meet with Mr. Weissman again for more than a year, when he would meet him in northern Virginia under :fBI surveillance on July 9. A grand jury convening in Alexandria, Va., is expec~ed to relea~e a formal indictment ofMr. Franklin today. · - ... Message ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED O HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED A DATE 07-29-2010' BY 60324 uc ba~Jlsg Page 1 of3 • ~~ KRAMARSIC, BRETT M. (WF) (FBI) From: PORATH, ROBERT J.(WF) (FBI) Sent: Friday, June 03,20057:59 AM To: FORTIN,'BRIAN G. (WF) (FBI); DOUGLAS, STEPHANIE (WF) (FBI); KRAMARSIC, BRETT M. (WF) (FBI); HANNA, CATHERINE M. (WF) (FBI); MCDERMOTT. WILLIAM R.(WF) (FBI); BRIDGES, TRACEY J. (WF) (FBI); ODONNELL, THOMAS J. (WF) (FBI); ANDERSON, JESSICA T. (WF) (FBI); PAULLING. SCOlT M. (WF) (FBI); LOEFFERT, JANICE S. (WF) (FBI); MARKLEY, JAMES S. (WF) (FBI); LURIE, ERIC S. (WF) (FBI); FALLER. LARISSA (WF) (FBI); THOMAS, KIMBERLY J. (WF) (FBI); JOHANSEN, MARK D. (CD) (FBI); WRIGHT, SUSAN C. (CD) (FBI); BUTlER, MJ. (CD) (FBI); STRZOK, PETER P. (CD) (FBI); MOFFA, JONATHAN C. (CD) (FBI); GAY. SUSAN (WF) (FBI) Subject: article .uNCLASSIEIEQ NON.RECORQ FBI Tapped Talks About Possible Secrets Case Against Ex-AIPAC Officials Could Focus On Several Contacts With Defense Analyst The Washington Post By Jerry Markon June 3, 2005 ARLINGTON, VA --In July 2004, a Defense Department analyst and a senior official from an influential pro-Israel lobbying group met at the Pentagon City mall in Arlington. Amid the stores and shoppers, the-analyst warned that Irjlnian agents were planning attacks against American soldiers and Israeli agents in Iraq, sources familiar with the meeting said. Alarmed, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee official, Keith Weissman, left the mall and went to the office of colleague Steve Rosen. The-two men then relayed the information to the Israeli Embassy in Washington and a reporter for The Washington Post. What the AIPAC officials did not know, the sources said, was that the fBJ was listening in -- to both the meeting and their subsequent phone calls •• and that the Pentagon analyst, Lawrence Franklin, was cooperating in an investigation of whether classified U.S. information was being passed on to the government of Israel. That meeting and those phone calls are a focus of a criminal case <tLL ( I ,..- prosecutors arl;l building against Rosen and Weissman, Who recently left their'fl\z..~ 6/3/2005 f;5R-u)r-~G3tS--,JC- ~'L ~~ . -45/t Message Q d Page 2 of3 jobs at AIPAC, according to multiple sources familiar with th~ -investigation. Franklin has already been charged, and a looming court battle will probably turn on whether he and others were illegally passing government secrets or were merely conduits of the type of policy-related information that is frequently bandied about in official Washington. The meeting at the mall is Ilot mentioned in the publicly filed charges, and new details are emerging about a series of fBI-monitored meetings between Franklin and the former AIPAC officials dating back to early 2003. But many questions remain unanswered, such as whether the information Franklin allegedly passed along at those sessions was classified, and if it was, whether Rosen and Weissman knew it was classified, and whether any damage was done to U.S. national security. Rosen and Weissman have been notified that prosecutors are preparing to charge them with disclosing classified information, sources familiar with the investigation said. Federal prosecutors and the FBI would not comment, nor would John Nassikas, an attorney for Weissman. An attorney for Rosen, Abbe D. Lowell, said that "when all the facts come out, the government will have more to explain about its conduct than Steve Rosen will about his." Earlier, he said that Rosen "never solicited, received or passed on any classified documents" from Franklin. A spokesman for the Israeli Embassy did not return phone calls. A Post spokesman confirmed that the report~r, Glenn Kessler, recently declined a Justice Degartme~~requestto be interviewed. Kessler would not comment yesterday. Franklin's attorney, Plato Cacheris, confirmed that Franklin briefly cooperated with investigators in the summer of 2004, during the time of the meeting at the mall. Cacheris said'that Franklin, whom he described as a "loyal and patriotic American citizen," is no longer cooperating and plans to go to trial. Last month, Franklin was charged in a criminal complaint in U.S. District Cou·rt in Alexandria with disclosing classified information related to potential attacks on U.S. forces in Iraq. Court documents did not reveal who received the information, but federal law enforcement sources have said that Franklin disclosed it to Rosen and Weissman at an Arlington restaurant in June 2003. The sources also said the attacks would have been carri~d out by Iran. At the time, the U.S. government was concerned about Iranian activities in Iraq after the U.S.-led invasion that year. Federal prosecutors in Alexandria have notified Franklin that he would be indicted bya grand jury, and Franklin has been told to appear in federal court June 13. Sources familiar with the case said the court appearance relates to a sealed indictment. Franklin was also charged again last week in federal court in West Virginia with possessing 83 classified documents dating back three decades. They were found at his West Virginia home. 6/3/2005 Message Q Page 3 of3 The contacts between-Franklin, an Iran specialist, alJd form~~ AlpAC policy director Rosen and senior analyst Weissman extend back before the June 2003 lunch. In February 2003, the three met at the Ritz-Carlton Pentagon City hotel in Arlington in a session th~t they only learned later was under F~I surveillance, sources said. It is unclear whether agents were following Frankl'n or the AIPAC officials. After the 2004 meeting, sources said that Rosen and Weissman called Kessler and relayed what Franklin had told Weissman about possible Iranian attacks against Americans and Israelis in Iraq. Law enforcement sources said that Ke~sler, who did not write an article based on the phone·conversation, is not a target of the investigation. UNCLASSIFIED 6/3/2005 u.s. Ey~ressing Uprising In Iran q' \J o Page 1 of3 washingtQDJ;lost.~ U.S. Eyes Pressing Uprising In Iran Officials Cite Al Qaeda Links, Nuclear Program By Glenn Kessler Washington Post StaffWriter SundaYt May 25t 2003; Page AOI AdvertiMment ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS TIHCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg The Bush admini~tration, alanned by intelligence suggesting that al Qaeda operatives in Iran had a role in the May 12 suicide bombings in Saudi Arabia, has suspended once-promising contacts with Iran and appears ready to embrace an aggressive policy oftrying to destabilize the Iranian government, administration officials said. Senior Bush administration officials will meet Tuesday at the White House to discuss the evolving strategy toward the Islamic republic, with Pentagon officials pressing hard for public and private actions th~t they believe could lead to the toppling ofthe government through a popular uprising, officials said. The State Department, which had encouraged some form ofengagement with the Iranians, appears inclined to accept ~uch a policy, especially if Iran does not take any visible steps to deal with the suspected al Qaeda operatives before Tuesday, officials said. But State Department officials are concerned that the level ofpopular discontent there is much lower than Pentagon officials believe, leading to the possibility that U.S. efforts could ultimately discredit reformers in Iran. In any case, the Saudi Arabia bombings have ended the tentative signs ofengagement between Iran and . the United States that had emerged during the wars against Afghanistan and Iraq. u.S. and Iranian officials had met periodically to discuss issues of mutual concern, including searchand- r~scue missions and the tracking down ofal Qaeda.operatives. But, after the suicide bombings at three residential compounds in Riyadh, the Bush administration canceled the next planned meeting. "We're headed down the same path ofthe last 20 years," one State Department official said. "An inflexible, unimaginative policy ofjust say no.II u.S. officials have also been deeply concerned about Iran's nuclear weapons program, which has the support ofboth elected reforiners and conservative clerics. The Bush administration has pressed the International Atomic E~ergy Agency, the U.N. nuclear watchdog, to issue a critical report next month on Iran's nuclear activities. Officials have sought to convince Russia and,China -- two major suppliers of Iran's nuclear power program -- that Iran is detennined to possess nuclear weapons, a campaign that one U.S. official said is winning support. But a major factor in the new stance toward Iran consists ofwhat have been called "very troubling intercepts" before and after the Riyadh attacks, which killed 34 people, including nine suicide bombers. The intercepts suggested that al Qaeda operatives in Iran were involved in the planning ofthe bombings. Earlier this week, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld accused Iran ofharboring al Qaeda members. "There's no question but that there have been and are today senior al Qaeda leaders in Iran, and they are bUSY," Rumsfeld said. Iranian officials;however, have vehemently denied that they have granted al Qaeda leaders safe haven in the country. Until the Saudi bombings, some officials said, Iran had been relatively cooperative on al Qaeda. Sinc~;~ \S-IJ C- (O~-\JIr-~ l 'lo . ~~ -' 6/7/2005 {f> ~~washipgtonp? U.S. Ey~ressing Uprising In Iran JI U Page 2 of3 the Sept. 11,2001, attacks, Iran~has turned over al Qaeda officials to Saudi Arabia and Afgha~stan. ~n talks, U.S. officials had repeatedly warned Iranian officials thatifariy al Qaeda operatives in Iran are implicated in attacks against Americans, it would have serious consequences for relations between the two countries. Those talks, however, were held with representatives ofIran's foreign ministry~ Other parts ofthe Iranian government are contr911ed not by elected reformers, but by conservative mullahs. A senior administration official who is skeptical"of the Pentagon's arguments said most ofthe al Qaeda members -- fewer than a dozen -- appear to be located in an isolated area ofnortheastern Iran, near the .border with Afghanistan. He described the area as a drug-smuggling terrorist haven that is tolerated by key members ofthe Revolutionary Guards in part because they skiqt money offsome ofthe activities there. It is not clear how much control the central Iranian government has over this area, he said. "I don't think the elected government knows much about it;" he said. "Why should you punish the rest of Iran," he asked, just because the government cannot act if! this area? Flynt Leverett, who recently left the White House to join the Brookings Institution's Saban Center for Middle East Policy, said the administration may be taking a gamble. "It is imprudent to assume that the Islamic Republic will collapse like a house of cards in a time frame that is going to be meaningful to us," he said. "What it means is we will end up with an Iran that has nuclear weapons and no dialogue with the United States with regard to our terrorist concerns." Ever since President Bush labeled Iran last year as part ofan "axis ofevil" -- along with North Korea and Iraq ~- the administration has struggled to define its. policy toward the lslamic republic, which terminated relations with the United States after Iran's i 979 revolution. The administration never formally adopted a policy of"regime change," but it also never seriously tried to establish a dialogue. In July, Bush signaled a harder line when he issued a strongly worded presi~ential statement in which he praised large pro-democracy street demonstrations in Iran. Administration officials said at the time that they had abandoned any hope ofworking with President Khatami and his reformistallies in the Iranian government, and would tum their attention toward democracy supporters among the Iranian people. But the prospect ofwar with Iraq reopened some discreet contacts~ which took place under U.N. supervision in Europe. The contacts encouraged some in the State Department to believe that there was an opening for greater cooperation. In an interview in February with the Los Angeles Times, Deputy Secretary ofState Richard L. Armitage drew a distinction between the confrontational approach the administration had taken with Iraq and North Korea and the approach it had adopted with Iran. "The axis ofevil was a valid comment, [but] I would note there's one dramatic difference between Iran and the other two axes of'evil, and that would be its dem09racy. [And] you approach a democracy differently," Armitage said. At one ofthe meetings, in early January, the United States signaled that it would target the Iraq-based camps ofthe Mujaheddin-e Khalq (MEK), or People's Mujaheddin, a major group opposing the Iranian government. - The MEK soon became caught up in the policy struggle between the State Department and the Pentagon. 6/7/2005 •.ili"i\ u·s· Eye<:5eSSing Uprising In Iran o Page 3 of3 After the camps were bombed, the U.S. military arranged a with the -group, infuriating the Iranians. Some'Pentagon officials, impressed by the military discipline and equipment ofthe thousands ofMEK troops, began to envision them as a potential military force for use against Tehran, much like the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan. But the MBK is also listed as a terrorist organization by the State Department. Under pressure from State, the White House earlier this month ordered the Pentagon to disarm the MEK troops -- a decision that was secretly conveyed by U.S. officials to Iranian representatives at a meeting in Geneva on May 3. Nine days later, the suicide bombers strock in Saudi Arabia. © 2003 .The Washington Post Company Advertising Links What's this? - Official Site . Lendingtree - Find a mortgage. refinance, home equity 9r auto loan now. Receive up to four loan offers within minutes. When banks compete, you win. Refinanco Rates Hit Record Lows Get $150.000 loan for $720 per month. Refinance while rates are low. - Official Site Find a real estate agent. search online listings. request financing options and more at our full·service real estate resource. Buying or se.lling a home? It's all here. W\ 6/7/2005 ALL INFORlIATION CONTAINED ~REIN IS lrMCLASSIFIED ~ \:;.lATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/s~ Page 1 of2 Document 1 of 1 Copyright 2003 Saint Paul Pioneer Press All Rights Reserved Saint Paul Pioneer Press (Minnesota) Ma,Y 231, 2003 Friday SECTION: MAIN; Pg. SA LENGTH: 778 words Pdnt)yindqw I pqse Window HEADLINE: Bush advisers weigh undermining Iran regime BYLINE: BY WARREN P. STROBEL; Washington Bureau BODY: WASHINGTON .... Prompted by evidence that Iran Is harboring top al-Qalda operatives linked to last week's suicide bombings In Saudi Arabia and fears that Tehran may be closer to bUilding a nuclear weapon than previously believed, the Bush administration has begun debating whether to try to destabilize the Islamic republic, U.S. officials said Thursday. Officials In Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld's office are using both Issues to press their view that the United States should adopt overt and covert measures to undermine the regime, said the officials, who are Involved In the debate. Other officials argue that such a campaign would backfire by discrediting the moderate Iranians who are demanding political. reforms. Although one senior official engaged In the debate said "the military option Is never off the table," others said no one was suggesting an Invasion of Iran. However, some officials say the United States should launch a limited alrstrlke on Iran's nuclear weapons facilities If Iran appears on the verge of producing a nuclear weapon. By. some estimates, Iran could have a nuclear weapon within two years. ' Some Pentagon officials suggested using the remnants of an Iranian opposition group once backed by Saddam Hussein, the Mujahedeen el..Khalq (MEK), to Instigate armed opposition to the Iranian government. U.S. military forces In Iraq have disarmed the roughly 6,OOO-strong' MEK, which Is on the State Department's list of foreign terrorist groups. But the group's weapons are In storage, and It hasn't disbanded. However, national security adviser Condoleezza Rice and other top officials rejected the Idea, saying that while some might consider the MEK freedom fighters, "a terrorist Is a terrorist is a terrorist," according to officials Involved In the debate. Bush has designated Iran a member otan "axls of evil," along with Iraq and North Korea. But until now, he's pursued a middle course with Iran, approving talks on Issues of common concern such as Afghanistan, while not trying to-re-establlsh diplomatic ties. A formal statement of U.S. policy toward Iran, called a National Security Presidential Directive, has been on hold about a year because of Internal administration debates and the war In Iraq, American officials said. The document Is being resurrected, they said. Bush's senior foreign-polley advisers were to have met at the White House on Thursday to discuss Iran policy, said a knowledgeable administration offiCial, but the meeting was postponed until next week to give Iran several more days to meet U.S. demands that it turn over the suspected al-Qalda terrorists.· If It doesn't, Washington Is likely to react with harsher measures, the official said. The United States has suspended a series of meetings between U.S. and Iranian diplomats In Geneva at which the two countries .... which have no formal diplomatic relations .... have been discussing terrorism, Afghanistan and Iraq. 6/7/2005 o Page 2of2 'rhe suspension followed Intelligence data, Including intercepted telephone calls, Indlcatlr)g that an al-Qalda cell based In Iran helped organize the bombings In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, which were apparently part of a larger alQalda plot that was partially foiled by saud,l authorities. The bombings killed 34 people. The cell of 10 or so al-Qalda members Is run by top al-Qalda operative salf al Adel, who Is third on the U.S. government's list of most-wanted al-Qalda'ieaders, following Osama bin Laden,and his deputy, Ayman al-Zawahri. "There's no question but that there have been and are today senior al Qalda I~aders In Iran, and they are busy," Rumsfeld said this week. Iranian officials have denied harboring al-Qalda fugltl~es, and U.S. officials acknowledge that Iran has turned over some al-Qalda suspects to Saudi Arabia and Pakistan and blocked others from entering Iran. On Thursday, a close aide to Iranian President Mohammad Khataml demanded that Washington prove Its charges. Saeed Pourazlzl said In Tehran that It was Iran's pollc{to crack down on al-Qalda -- not support It·- and that the network "I~ a terrorist group threatening Iran's Interests." "Its extremist Interpretation of Islam contradicts the Islamic democracy Iran Is trying to promote., There Is no commonality of anything between us." The senior U.S. Intelligence official said It wasn't clear whether al-Adel's group, which Is believed to be In an area of southeastern Iran near the Pakistan border, was operating with the acqUiescence o,f at least part,of the Iranian government. ' Advocates of regime change want to bolster popular opposition In Iran to the religious leadership. The Associated Press contributed to this report. LOAD-DATE: May 23, 2003 https:llw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/ptintldopri~t.asp?SearchInfoID=42077432-46... 6/7/2005 ~ ~EXIS®-NEXIS® View Printable Page .-1.' ." .. rA\L INFORRATION CONTAINED 0--, r.r #I. ~REIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw!sab/lsg Copyright 2003 The Washington Post Qrbt Wtl5f)iugtonf$M The Washington Post June 15,2003 Sunday Final Edition SECTION: ASECTION; Pg. A20 LENGTH: 1448 words HEADLINE: Pressure Builds for President to Declare Strategy on Iran BYLINE: Michael Dobbs, Washington Post StaffWriter BODY: Page 24 of26 Soon after George W. Bush.took office in January 2001, his advisers began drafting a strategy for dealing with Iran, a radical Islamic state long suspected by Washington ofsupporting international terrorism and pursuing weapons ofmass destruction. More than two years later, the national security presidential directive on Iran has gone through several competing drafts and has yet to be approved by Bush's senior advisers, according to well-placed sources. In the meantime, experts in and outside the government are focusing, on Iran as the United States' next big foreign policy crisis, with some predicting that the country could acquire a nuclear weapon as early as 2006. Critics on the left and the right point to the unfinished directive as evidence the administration lacks a coherent strategy toward a country Bush described asa key member ofthe "axis ofevil,tI along with North Korea and Saddam Hussein's Iraq. "Our policy toward Iran is neither fish nor fowl, neither engagement nor regime change," said Flynt L. Leverett, a Bush adviser on the Middle East who -left the National Security Council staff in March and is now with the Brookings Institution. The Bush administration has yet to formulate a tme Iran policy, agreed Michael A. Ledeen,a Middle East expert with the American Enterprise Institute. With other neoconservative intellectuals, Ledeen has founded ,the Coalition for Democracy in Iran, which is looking for ways to·foment a democratic revolution to sweep away the mullahs who came to power in 1979. Senior administration officials refused to talk about the status ofthe Bush policy directive on Iran, on the grounds that it is classified, but they say they have had some success in mobilizing international opinion against Iran's nuclear weapons program. As evide~ce, t~ey cite recent threats by Russia to cut offnuclear assistance to Tehran and moves by the International Atomic Energy Agency to censure Iran for failing to report the processing ofnuclear materials. https:/ 6/7/2005 ,~ LEXIS®-NEXIS® View Printable Page /'" ~,.. i 0 -F'. o Page 25 of26 While the officials have stopped short ofembracing a policy of"regime change" in Iran, U.S. officials from Bush down have talked about providing moral support to the "reform movement" in Iran in its struggle against an unelected government. As defined by Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, the U.S. goal is to speak directly to the Iranian people "over the heads oftheir leaders to let them know that we agree with them.II The internal and external debate about what to do about Iran has been brought to a head by recent revelations suggesting the Iranian nuclear weapons program is much further along than many suspected. Tomorrow, the lAEA Board of Governors in Vienna is to discuss findings showing that Iran has a wide range ofoptions for producing fissile material for a nuclear bomb, from using heavy water reactors to produce plutonium to experiments in uranium enrichment. u.s. officials have also accused Iran ofharboring members ofthe al Qaeda terrorist network who escaped from Afghanistan after the fall ofthe Taliban in December 2001. They say some al Qaeda supporters hiding in Iran appear to have known in advance about recent terrorist attacks in Saudi Arabia, although there is no direct evidence ofoperational ties between the Iranian government and al Qaeda. The escalating Iranian nuclear threat and suspicions ofIranian ties to terrorists have sharpened longstanding divisions in the administration over how to deal with Tehran. In the past, the State Department has put the emphasis on opening a dialogue with reformist elements in the Iranian leadership while the Pentagon has been more interested in looking for ways to destabilize the authoritarian Islamic government. Bureaucratic tensions have reached the level where each side has begun accusing the other of leaking unfavorable stories to the media to block policy initiiltives. "The knives are out,1I said a Pentagon official, who criticized national security adviser Condoleezza Rice for failing to end the dispute by issuing clear policy guidelines. Powell, meanwhile, insisted to journalists that there has be~n no change in policy on Irail, despite what he depicted as frenzied media speculation "about what this person in that department might think or that person in another department might think." The Iran debate goes back to a failed attempt by the Clinton administration to open an "unconditional dialoguell with Tehran. Even though the Iranians rejected the U.S. offer ofunconditional talks, some Bush administration officials led by the State Departmentts director for policy planning, Richard N. Haass, favored making renewed overtures., The proposals for a dialogue with Iran were partly inspired by the 1994 framework agreement with North Korea under which the North Korean government agreed to accept international controls over its nuclear program in return for economic assistance, including the construction of a civilian nuclear reactor. But the State Department approach ran into strong opposition from the Pentagon and Vice President·Cheney's office, and was shot down in interagency meetings at the end of200l. While there would be no "grand bargain" with the Iranian leadership, the Bush administration agreed to a more limited diplomatic dialogue, focusing on specific areas such as the war in Afghanistan or cooperation over Iraq. Several rounds ofsuch talks took place in Geneva and Paris, with the involvement ofa special presidential envoy, Zalmay Khalilzad, but were suspended after th~ bombings in Saudi Arabia on May 12. The administration debate has been echoed by a much more public debate among Middle East analysts,!research!searchlsubmitViewTagged 6/7/2005 ,1 'LExIS®-NEXIS® View Printable Page ".' • i 0 j);;~~<,~}y o Page 26 of26 nuclear proliferation experts, and leaders ofthe Iranian diaspora. Congress has also weighed in with legislation sponsored by,Sen. Sam Brownback (R-Kan.) that would funnel more than $ 50 million to Iranian pro-democracy initiatives, including private California-based satellite television and radio stations set up by Iranian exiles. "We are not calling for a military attack on Iran," said Brownback, whose proposed Iran Democracy Act has drawn bipartisan support but is opposed by the leadership ofthe Foreign Relations Committee. The goal, he said, is to support Iranian democracy activists, including students who took to the streets of Tehran again last week to protest the closure of opposition newspaper and the jailing ofdissidents. Just how far the United States should go in supporting the protests is the subject ofheated argument inside and outside the government, even among conservatives. Some argue Iran is ripe for revolution. Others contend there is little guarantee ofradical change in Tehran in the three-year period some independent proliferation experts estimate it will take before Iran could acquire nuclear weapons, and the United States should be thinking about other options, including preemptive action against suspected nuclear sites. "The internal democratic forces in Iran are real and growing, but they're not going to save us from having to think about what we are going to do about the Iranian nuclear program and support for terrorism," said Reuel Marc Gerecht, a CIA case officer for Iran now with the American Enterprise Institute. Some aQalysts say that U.S. financial and propaganda support for the Iranian democracy movement could be counterproductive. "It allows the hardliners to argue that there is an external threat, and they must crack down in the name ofnational unity," said Kaveh Ehsani, an editor ofthe pro-reform journal Dialogue in Iran, now visiting the United States. "There is a kind ofan unholy alliance between the Bush administration and the Iranian hardliners." "We have tried appeasement, we have tried containment, and we have tried engagement," countered S. Rob Sobhani, a co-founder ofthe Coalition for Democracy in Iran and adjunct professor ofgovernment at Georgetown University. "All these policies have failed. What have we got to lose by empowerment?" The White House has avoided taking a position on the Brownback legislation and has restricted its encourage~ent ofdemocracy in Iran to verbal broadsides against the mullahs. In comments Thursday, Rice described Iran's pursuit of weapons ofmass destruction as "not acceptable" and said that the United States "cannot tolerate circumstances in which al Qaeda operatives come in and out ofIran.II She also accused Iran ofstirring up tro~ble among Shiite communities in southern Iraq. "We have to stand with the aspirations of the Iranian people which have been clearly expressed," she told a meeting in Los Angeles,as thousands ofIranians took to the streets ofTehranin anti-government protests. LOAD-DATE: June 15, 2003 https:/ 6/7/2005 ,.'i J:;EXI~®-NEXIS® View Printe Page J' nrFOPHATION COlITAINED ~ HEREIN IS Lrn!CLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg Copyright 2003 The Washington Post ~t Wtl5f)inghm ~g.Gt The Washington Post August 9, 2003 Saturday Final Edition SECTION: A SECTION; Pg. 1\01 LENGTH: 1059 words HEADLINE: Meetings With Iran-Contra Arms Dealer Confinned BYLINE: Bradley Graham and P~ter Slevin, Washington Post StaffWriters BODY: Page 21 of26 Defense Secretary Donald H.Rumsfeld acknowledged yesterday that Pentagon officials met secretly with a discredited expatriate Iranian arms merchant who figured prominently 'in the Iran-contra scandal ofthe mid-1980s, characterizing the contact as an unexceptional effort to gain possibly useful infonnation. While Rumsfeld said that the contact occurred more than a year ago and that nothing came of it, his aides scrambled during the day to piece together more details amid other reports thatRumsfeld's account may have been incomplete. Last night, a senior defense official disclosed that another meeting with the Iranian anns dealer, Manucher Ghorbanifar, occurred in June in Paris. The official said that, while the first contact, in late 2001, had been formally sanctioned by the U.S. government in response to an Iranian government offer to provide information relevant to the war on terrorism, the second one resultedfrom "an unplanned, unscheduled encounter." A senior administration official said, however, that Pentagon staffmembers held one or two other meetings with Ghorbanifar..last year in Italy. The sessions so troubled Secretary ofState Colin L. Powell, the of~cial said, that he complained to Rumsfeld and Condoleezza Rice, President Bush's national security adviser. Powell maintained that the Pentagon activIties were unauthorized and undennined U.S. policy toward Iran by taking place outside the terms defined by Bush and his top advisers. The White House instructed the Pe,ntagon to halt meetings that do not conform to policy decisions, said the official, who requested anonymity. The Defense Department personnel who met with Ghorbanifar came from the policy directorate. . Sources identified them as Harold Rhode, a specialist on Iran and Iraq who recently served in Baghdad as the Pentagon liaison to Iraqi National Congress leader Ahmed Chalabi, and Larry Franklin, a Defense https:/Iwww.nexis.comlresearch/search/submitViewTagged 6/7/2005 '\ l.EXIS®-NEXIS® View Prin~ Page #' U Intelligence Agency analyst. Page 22 of26 State Department officials were surprised by news ofthe latest meeting with Ghorbanifar. ren~ion runs deep in the Bush administration between State an~ the Pentagon, which under Rumsfeld has aspired to a powerful role in foreign policy. The two agencies have sparred repeatedly over strategy toward Iran and Iraq. The United States does not have formal relations with Iran, although a small number ofsanctioned meetings between U.S. and Iranian officials have taken place, most notably to address U.S. war plans in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Bush administration has struggled to develop a coherent and consistent approach to Iran. In his State ofthe Union address last year, Bush characterized Iran as being part ofan axis ofevil, along with Iraq and North Korea, and administration officials have repeatedly accused Iran ofsupporting terrorist groups and ofseeking to acquire nuclear weapons. While broad agre~ment exists within the administration favoring changes in Iran's Islamic government, officials differ on how to accomplish ili~. ' More than two years after the administration began drafting a national security presidential directive on Iran, ilie policy document remains unfinished. While the State Department favors increased dialogue and engagement with potential reformers inside Iran, prominent Pentagon civilians believe the policy should be more aggressive, including measures to destabilize the existing government in Tehran. The Iran-contra scandal erupted over a decision by the Reagan administration to sell weapons to Iran in an effort to win the release ofU.S. hostages in Lebanon. The proceeds ofthe anns sales were illegally funneled to contra fighters opposing Nicaragua's leftist Sandinista government. Ghorbanifar was enl~sted in the effo~, helping to arrange the delivery by Israel of508 TOW antitank missiles to Iran. The White House had drafted him as an intermediary despite warnings from the CIA that he was a cheat and had failed lie-detector tests. The intelligence aget).cy had instructed its operatives not to do business with him. News ofthe Pentagon's contact with Ghorbanifar was first reported yesterday by Newsday, and Rumsfeld was asked about the story when he emerged with Bush from a meeting at the president's ranch in Crawford, Tex. Saying he had just been told ofthe Newsday article by a senior aide and by Rice, Rumsfeld acknowledge4 that "one or two" Pentagon officials "were approached by some people who had information about Iranians that w~nted to provide information to the United States government." He said that a meeting took place "more than a year ago" and that the information received was circulated to various federal departments and agencies but did no~ lead to anything. "That is to say, as I understand it, there wasn't anything there that was ofsubstance or ofvalue that needed to be pursued further,II he said. . Asked ifthe Pentagon contact was intended to circumvent official U.S. exchanges with Iran, Rumsfeld replied: "Oh, absolutely not. I mean, everyone in the interagency process, I'm told, was apprised ofit, and it went nowhere. It was just -- iliis happens, ofcourse, frequently, that in -- people come in, offering suggestions or information or possible contacts, and sometimes they're pursued. Obviously, if it looks as https:/ 6/7/2005 •. ;''\ LEXIS®-NE,XIS® View Prin~ Page / U 0 though something might be interesting, it's pursued. If it isn't, it isn't." Page 23 of26 Standing by Rumsfeld's side, Bush was asked ifthe meeting was a good idea and ifhisadministration wants a change in government. "We support the aspirations ofthose who desire freedom in Iran,1I the president said, then took a question on a differentsubject. According to the account given later by the senior Pentagon official, the contact in 2001 occurred after Iranian officials passed word to the administration that they had information that might be useful in the global war on terrorism. Two Pentagon officials met with the Iranians in several sessions over a threeday period in Italy. Ghorbanifar attended these meetings, "but he was not the individual who had approached the United States or the one with the information,II the official said. What his role was, however, the official did not know. The official said the June meeting involved'one ofthe two Pentagon representatives who had been present at the 2001 meeting, but he declined to say which one. Staffwriter Dana Priest contributed to this report. LOAD-DATE: August 9, 2003 6/7/2005 '\'{"EXIS@-NeXIS@ViewPrintablePageALLINFORl'lATION COlITAHrED Q" ~?~ <::> HEREIN IS lfMCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc aw/sab/1sg Copyright 2003 Guardian Newspapers Limited The Observer August 10, 2003 SECTION: Observer News Pages, Pg. 22 LENGTH: 863 words Page 17 of26 HEADLINE: IRAQ CONFLICT: Make Iran next, says Ayatollahs. grandson: Khomeini calls US freedom the best in the world from base in occupied Baghdad BYLINE: by Jamie Wilson, Baghdad BODY: SAYYID Hussein Khomeini is sitting cross-legged on a sofa inside a garish palm-fringed mansion nestled on the banks ofthe Tigris. It is the very heart ofAmerican-occupied Baghdad, not the frrst place that you might look for the grandson ofAyatollah Khomeini. The late Iranian leader built his Islamic revolution on a deep hatred ofeverything associated with the Stars and Stripes. But then very little about the younger Khomeini is quite what might be expected. 'American liberty and freedom is the b~st freedom in the world,' he said, puffing on a cigarette and sipping a glass ofsweet tea. 'The freedom for the individual that is 'written into the American Constitution you do not see in such concentration in any other constitution in the world. The Americans are here in Iraq, so freedom is here too.' It is an extraordinary statement from a man whose grandfather labelled the US 'the Great Satan', but what Khomeini has to say about the current situation in Iran is even more radical: 'Iranians need freedom now, and if they can only achieve it with American interference I think they would welcome it. As an Iranian, I would welcome it.I Not surprisingly, Khomeini, 45, has caused something ofa stir in Baghdad, with the US media beating a path to the door ofthe house where he is staying. According to his armed bodyguards, the luxurious house has been taken over by an Iraqi cleric, who shares Khomeini's view that religion and state should be separated. It used to belong to Izzat Ibrahim, vice-chairman ofthe deposed Revolutionary Command Council and one ofSaddam Hussein's closest advisers. The King of Clubs on the list ofmost wanted Baathists, Ibrahim remains at large, although he is unlikely to return to evict the current tenants. There is, however, plenty to remind the visitor ofthe previous owner. Ablack Rolls-Royce with a golden grill is gathering dust in the drive, while the sitting room, with its three gold-trim. sofas, is also home to a couple ofenormous glass tanks containing dozens oftropical fish and several cages ofcanaries, chirping away merrily. Wearing a black turban - a piece ofclothing that marks him out as a descendant ofthe Prophet Muhammad - Khomeini dismisses. as 'nonsense' a question about whether his grandfather would approve ofhis support for the Americans. 'He is not here, and in this case we cannot predict what position he would take,' he said. As for Iraqi resistance to the US occupying forces - or liberators as Khomeini insists on calling them - in his opinion there is none. 6/7/2005 4-~~'LEXIS®-lfflXIS® View Printable Page ;~.~. 0 () , - Page 18 of26 'The pe~sons·who are carrying out the attacks have been paid previously to attack the US and the Americans arejust in a position.of defending themselves,' he said. So what is a man whose grandfather cemented the Islamic theocracy in Iran by exploiting the 1979 US Embassy hostage crisis doing espousing views that could 'have come straight from an American ,foreign policy briefing or have been written by the press office ofthe Coalition Provisional Authority situated in the former presidential palace a couple ofmiles down the road? Exactly how close Khomeini's ties are with the US is not clear, but the cleric has met officials from the CPA on several occasions. 'He' favourite Khomeini!', one senior US official joked at a dinner the other night. A spokesman said that they found his ideas about the separation ofreligion and state 'interesting'. Although he does not command a wide following, the very fact ofwho he is could in time make him a significant player, while any voice helping to dilute calls from some Iraqi'Shia leaders fora system of clerical rule in Iraq will be welcomed with open arms by the Americans. But'the US might just have bigger plansJor Khomeini. He spent 14 years ofhis life in Iraq, between 1964 and 1979, while his grandfather was plotting the Islamic revolution and conducting a campaign"of snapping at the,heels ofthe Shah from the holy city ofNajaf. Listening to his grandson condemning the current situation in Tehran, it is difficult not to get a sense that perhaps history is repeating itself. The Bush administration, which includes Iran in its diminishing axis ofevil, has repeatedly accused the country ofsupporting terrorist groups and seeking to acquire nuclear weapons. But apart from general agreement that a change of government in Iran would be a good thing, there is no broad consensus within the administration about how'best to achieve that aim. It is two years since the State Department began drafting it national security presidential directive on Iran, but the document remains . unfinished. Doves in Colin Powell's State Department are said to favour increased dialog':le with potential reformers in the country, while Donald RumsfeId's Pentagon is thought to be intent on pursuing aggressive destabilisation tactics towards Tehran. Whatever way the administration decides to play it, Khomeini could be useful to both sides. Asked when he thought he might return to Iran, Khomeini replied 'Inshallah' - Jt is God's will. But some observers might argue that it is just as"likely to be the Pentagon's. LOAD-DATE: August 14,2003 6/7/2005 ~ ...... ·~The Herald-Mail ONLINE - Franklin case goes to grand jury (print view) -OO'R-. '- ~ sa ALL INFO~~TION CONTAI~D . The Herald-Mail ONLINE HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Page 1 of2 MARTINSBURG, W.Va. - Probable cause was found Thursday at the U.S., District Courthouse in Martinsburg to send to a grand jury a charge that a Pentagon analyst illegally took classified government documents to his Kearneysville, W.Va., home. Friday June 10, 2005 Franklin case goes to grand jury by PEPPER BALLARD The charge against Lawrence Anthony Franklin, 58, who holds a doctorate in Asian studies and taught history courses at Shepherd University for the past five years, will be referred to the next grand jury, U.S. Magistrate JUdge David J. Joel said Thursday after his finding at the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia. Lawrence Franklin, center, surrounded by his attorneys, leaves U.S. District Court in Martinsburg, W.Va., Thursday. (Photo credit: by Kevin G. Gilbert I Staff Photographer) "Dr. Franklin knowingly and unlawfully possessed classified documents in a place he was not permitted to keep them," Joel said. "He admitted he possessed these'documents." Franklin faces up to 10 years in prison and a $250,000 fine if convicted of the charge. A June 30, 2004, search of Franklin's home turned up 83 classified documents, 37 of which were classified as top secret, meaning the release of which would cause "exceptionally greatdamage" to national security, and 34 of which were classified as secret, meaning the release of which would cause "great damage" to national security, FBI Special Agent Thomas Convoy, who spe9ializes in counterterrorism and espionage, testified Thursday. The charge centered on six documents, written between Oqtober 2003 and·June 2004, which included CIA docum.ents about al-Qaida and Osama bin Laden, terrorism documents and an Iraq memorandum, Convoy testified., Franklin was authorized to carry classified documents in Maryland, Virginia and ~ ~ Washington, D.C., but not in West Virginia, Convoy testified. '4 r Convoy testified that Franklinwas a member of the Department of Defense since 197'...If" j and held top-secret clearance since then, but it since has blilen revoked. ~1tlt.a,JV http://www.herald-mail.coml?module=displaystorj&stoty-...:.icJ=114919&format=print _ ,6/19120qS;. - f2SR....WF- ~3·)S ... J\1·~ ~'c..~~ ~ ~,~e Herald-Mail ONLINE - Franklin case goes to grandjury (printview) Page 2 of2 ~....,' ~ -... 0 0 F:ranklin'.$ attorney, Plato Cacheris, contended that his client was inappropriately charged. "There is no allegation in this complaint that he intended to injure the U.S.," Cacheris said. He said that such an allegation would have needed to support the claim that Franklin unlawfully held the documents. Franklini wearing a dark suit, sat. behind Cacheris' chair throughout the hearing, nearly motionless. Cacheris said Franklin "had those documents in his home because he was preparing for an interview" for a government position. Convoy testified Franklin was under surveillance prior to the search., "Did you see him transmit those documents to any unauthorized people?" Cacheris asked Convoy. "No, I did not," he responded. u.S. AttomeyThomas E.. Johnston, of West Virginia's northem district, said Franklin "was not authorized to retain these documents, at least at his home." "There is no evidenc~ he delivered them to the employee or officer of the U.S. intended to receive the,m," he said. Johnston said Cacheris' contention that he had to show intent to cause injury to the country "does not apply to this particular charge.II Joel, 'in announcing his finding, said, "\Nhether or not the government properly charged" Franklin is "a matter for another day." In May, Franklin was charged with providing top..secr~t information about potential attacks against U.S.. forces in Iraq to two executives of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, the influential pro-Israel lobbying group. Already out on $100,000 bond on the May charge, Franklin was released after this mostrecent charge on $50,000 bond. Joel ordered Thursday that Franklin continue on his present bond. The Associated Press contributed to this story. CopyrightThe Herald-Mail ONLINE hup:/ 6/10/2005 Cheers for Wolfy Foundation for Defense of Democracies> In the. Me9ia > Cheers for Wolfy ALL INFOPRATION CONTAINED HEPEIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sabJ1sg The New York·Post May 31, 2003·/35893.htm Page'! of2 Last Sunday saw a remarkable event in Washington - one that defied stereotypes about Muslims,and the Bush administration's "hard-liners": Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz, widely identified (and denounced) as the main architect of America's Iraq intervention, won 'multiple standing ovations from an audience of hundreds of Muslims He praised the coalition's use of force to remove evil. and he hailed the new reality in Irag. For the first time in 26 years, he said. Shia Muslims had freedom to observe their Arbaeen f~stival in Iraq., The room exploded in applause. The venue~ the first-ever national convention of Shia Muslims from the United States and Canada. Wolfowitz is said to be ~he hardest of neoconse.rvative hardliners. The Shias h~v.e a reputation as the most extreme. anti-Western, ultraradical Muslims. Yet they came'together through the ideal of freedom, and the principle of liberation through the exercise of U.S. military power. Pundits and experts have been wrong about both Wolfowitz and his Shia hosts. Most of the media paint Wolfowitz as an arch-conspiratorial fanatic. Yet the truth. as anybody who has met with him quickly learns•. is that he has an extensive apd nuanced understanding of Islam. He served as U.S. ambassador to Indonesia for three years under President Ronald Reagan. He is also a defender of democracy. taking pride in his key role in helping change the Philippines in the 1980s. He supported the removal of dictator Ferdinand Marcos and the triumph of democratic champion C6razon Aquino. Shia Muslims. for their part. are typically described as extremists in the mold of Ayatollah Khomeini -' dismissed with claims that all Shias everywher~ support the Lebanese radicals of Hezbollah. The most recent dire prediction is that the Shia majority in Iraq will establish a rigid Islamic order. But Shias are victims of mass murder in Pakistan, where followers of the Saudi-backed Wahhabi sect hunt and kill them relentlessly. When the Pakistani group Sipah-e-Sahaba (Order of the Prophet's Companions) murdered American reporter Daniel Pearl, he was their first victim who was not a Shia Muslim. Before him, the group had slain hundreds of innocents. I~ addition, Shia Muslims, including a con~idera,b!e,community in the New York are~, are better educated than many other Muslims. Their dedication to self-improvement often makes them a target. In Saudi Arabia, wh~re they are the majority in the oil-rich Eastern Province, they are also an ~conomic elite. But within the Saudi kingdom, they still suffer extraordinary cruelties at the hands of the Wahhabis, who teach in Saudi schools that Shia Islam is the product of a Jewish c9nspiracy. Life is tough forShi8;s, a, minority of 200 millio~, or 15 percent of the world's Muslims. In America, where estimates of the total Muslim popUlation vary from 2 million to 10 million, one in four is Shia. Most came here from Pakistan and Iraq to escape violence. T.h.e Shia na.tion_al Wa~shington, h~ld ~y the Universal MusOm Association o(America http://www.defenddemocracy.orglcnlib/custom_tags/contentlprin~_ email_doc.htm?action=p... 6/9/2005 Foundation for Defense OfDe~' }.r:J~ · .• . ocracies - In theMedia n Page 2 of2 (UMAA) with 3~OOO participants, epresented a new trend in American Musli~e. Until now~ the discourse on Islam in America was dominated, from the Muslim side. by the "Wahhabi lobby" - groups toeing the extremist line of the Saudi regime. The "Wahhabi lobby" includes such entities as the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) and the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA). These groups have skewed discussion of Islam and Muslims in this country, by presenting America as an aggres~ive power internationally and as an enemy of Muslims. Shia Muslims living in America see the world in very differef}t t~rms. Agha Shaukat Jafri, a Shia community leader in New York and organizer of the UMAA convention~ said~ "We see America as our homeland and ourselves as American Muslims. We consider ourselves an integral part of its body politic. We condemn all forms of terrorism, and we consider these so-called Muslim fighters, who carry out terror, as enemies ofour faith.i ' He described the reception for Wolfowitz as "very warm." He added: 'We should thank the Bush administration for liberating the Shias of Iraq. I think Dr. Wolfowitz understands our viewpoint and our deep opposition to extremism. We were thrilled to have him attend and to hear his words." Others, including non-Muslims, who attended the event were struck by the enthusiasm shown to Paul Wolfowitz. But Jafri put the emphasis in the right place: liThe convention inaugurated a n~w period in the history of American Muslims, of heightened awareness of our responsibilities to the country we live in and hope for the future flourishing of Islam and democracy. At our convention next year, we would like to have President Bush as a guest." And why did a story like this go unreported in the rest of our media? Stephen Schwartz is author of "The Two Faces ofIslam: The House ofSa'ud From Tradition to Te"or, "published by Doubleday, and director ofthe Islam and Democracy Program at the Foundation for the Defense ofDemocracies. Media Type: Print & Online [~~!lt] I[C~ose t~is.~.ndow] @ Copyright 2005 The Foundation for the Defense of Democracies an iaPRs site 6/~/2905 ~L INFOrotATION CONTAHJED Q - REIN IS lTMCLASSIFIED ,ATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sabJ sg For Official Use Only FOREIGN MEDIA PERCEPTION SUMMARY Tuesday, July 22, 2003 ITerrorism I Afghanistan I I Iraq aZ) lIZ-North I IZ-Centrall IZ-South I I IZooWMD I IZ-RegimelPoIiticall IZoo Humanitarian Issues I IYemenlHorn of Africa I Iran IGCC I IndialPakistan I Central Asian States I Disclaimer: The articles presented in the Foreign Media Perception are derived entirely from open sources in and around the CENTCOM AOR. The articles selected are a"representative sample of the local media vie\vs and interpretations of current events. The "GeneralThemes" section is a summary of the most prevalent messages and is not an endorsement ofthe validity of the information contained in the articles. General Themes: A foreign media source in the CENTCOM AOR reported that an organization calling itself AI-Jihad Brigades Organization called on the Iraqis not to deal \vith the ne\v provisional Governing Council. They threatened to kill anyone who supports the Governing Council and the coalition forces occupying Iraq. Foreign media sources report that the Iraqi Christian Democratic Party has refused to recognize Iraq's transitional Governing Council, describing its members as administrative 'workers \vithout po\vers. Foreign sources report that Pakistan is seriously considering sending troops to Iraq as a result of the formation of the Governing Council should the Iraqi people request support. 13. Jedda Arab News (Saudi Arabia): Tis the Season to Be Worried Paul Wolfowitz, in the latest Vanity Fair, basically justified using a "convenient" argument, i.e. weapons ofmass destruction, to achieve the great goal:, Iraqi oil. Such politically vulgar messages are not new from Wolfo\vitz and his neo-con gang, but they spread reasonable doubt regarding America's "democratic" intentions for the Middle East. Now as Wolfo\vitz is visiting Baghdad, his face can't conceal a sense of worry. Worry regarding the exposed lies, the increased number ofkillings ofAmerican military personnel, and the growing public opinion against the war. Wolfo\vitz is like a stray cat stuck in a comer. Stray cats when stuck in a comer usually attack .The question that is asked frequently is: Who fed all these lies about the Iraqi weapons WMD program to the president? Most fingers point at the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans, headed by Adam Shulsky, a hard-line neo-conservative. The Office of Special Plans was set up in the fall of2001 as a two-man shop, but it grew into an eighteen-member nerve center ofthe Pentagon's effort to create disinformation, alleging that Iraq possessed WMD and had connections with terrorist groups. -------- --- -------- o Much ofthe garbage produced by that office found its"way into speeches by Rumsfeld, Cheney and Bush. It should be noted that the office was created after Sept. 11 by two of the most fervent and determined neo-cons: Paul Wolfo,vitz himself, the deputy defense secretary, and Douglas Feith, undersecretary ofdefense for policy, to probe into Saddam's WMD programs and his links to al-Qa'ida, because, it is alleged, they did not trost ot~er intelligenc~ agencies ofthe US government to come up with the goods. Most prominent neo-cons are right-wing Jews, and t~nd to be pro-Israeli zealots who,believe that Amer~can and Israeli interests are inseparable -- much to the alarm ofthe liberal pro~ peace Jews, whether in America, Europe, or Israel i~elf. Friends of Ariel Sharon's Likud party, they ten9 to loathe Arabs and Muslims. For them, the cause of "liberating" Iraq had little to do with the well being ofIraqis, just .as the cause of "liberating" Iran and ending its nuclear program -- recently advocated by Shimon Peres -- has little to do with the well being ofIranians. What they seek is an improvement in Israel's military and strategic environment. So-who will put the brakes on this madness, defend US national interests and give the administration wise counsel? Congress? It doesn't appear that way. The issue should go back to the American people. The integrity and credibility oftheir values and their future economic prosperity are very much at stake here. Pe9ple in the Middle East need to see the.ugly words ofWolfo,vitz and his like muted, and they need to see objective democratic results. Only then will Wolfo,vitz and his gang be m~ginalized. At least for a while. IL ALL INFORMATION CONTAI1~D HEREIN IS lTNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg The United States and Shi'ite Religious Factions in Post-Ba'thist Iraq JuanC91e In post-Saddam Husayn Iraq, Slli'ite militias rapidly established their authority in East Baghdad and other urban 1Zeighborhoodsofthe south. Among the vqrious groups which emerged, the Sadr Movement stands Ollt as militant and cohesive. The sectarian, anti-American Sadrists wish to impose a puritanical, Khomeinist vision on Iraq. Their political influence is potentially milch greater than their numbers. Incorporating them i~to a democratic Iraq while ensuring that they do not come to dominate it poses a severe challenge to tile US Administration. 1 planning the war on Iraq, the American Defense Department a~d· intelligen<.:e organizations appear to have been unaware that millions of Iraqi Shi'ites had joined a militant and puritanical movement dedicated to the establishment of an I~an-style Islamic Republic in Iraq, even though these developments been detailed in many Arabic-language books and articles. On February 18,2003, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul WOlfowitz gave an interview on National Public Radio in which he maintained that "The Iraqis are ... by and large quite secular. They are overwhelmingly Shi'a wh~ch is different from the Wahabis of the peninsula, and they don't bring the sensitivity of having the holy cities of Islam being on their territory."· Even mQre disturbingly, this quote shows that Wolfowitz did not realize that religious Iraqi ShiCites are extremely sensitive about foreigners in their shrine cities such as Najafand Karbala, or that these cities are religio~~ power centers of great symbolic potency. US Defense Department leaders such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and his deputies, Wolfowitz and Douglas Feith, mistakenly thought that the middle and lower strata of the BaCth bureaucracy, police, and army would survive the war, and that they could simply hand it over to secular expatriate figure Ahmad Chalabi and his Iraqi National Congress. Although from a Shi'ite backgrou!1d, Chalabi was largely unknown in Iraq and was wanted in Jordan on embezzlement charges.. The CIA and the State Department broke with Chalabi late in 2002 when he proved unable -Juan Cole is Professor ofModern Middle Eastern and South Asian History at the University ofMichigan. He is editor of the International Journal of Middle East Studies, and author of numerous books and articles. His recent works include Modernity and the Millennium (NewYork: Columbia University Press, 1998) and Sacred Space and Holy War: The Politics, Culture and History ofShi~ite Islam (London: I.B. Tauris, 2002). • 1. "Deputy SecretaryWolfowitz Interview with National Public Radio," February 19,2003 at http:/ /www.washingtontile.netl2003IFeblFcb21IBURS09.HTM. MJDDLEEASfJOURNAL*VOLUMBS7.NO.4,AUTUMN2003 II CoreF'anaI pes 543 II ------------------ IL ,544*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL to account for about $2 million of the $4 million they had given his Iraqi National .Congress. The major religious Shi'ite groups with which the Americans were negotiating were part of Chalabi's group and included the Tehran-based Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, the London branch of the al-Da'wa Party, and the Khoei Foundation, of which only al-Da'wa ·had much popularity on the ground in Iraq. The US was ignorant of the Sadr Movement, the main indigenous Shi'ite force. This ignorance wa~ to cost the US great political capital in" the first months of the occupation. - When the Ba'th fell on April 9, 2003, Shi'ite militias seemed suddenly to emerge and take control of many urban areas in the south of the country, as wen as in the desperately poor slums of East Baghdad. The moral authority of Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani and his more quietist colleagues in Najaf had been known to the US, but it transpired that other ayatollahs and leaders had more political clout. The rank and file of Iraqi Shi'ites in the urban areas was far more radicalized by the last decade of Ba'thrule than anyone on the outside had realized. These developments alarmed Washington, given that some 60% to 65% of Iraqis are Shi'ites, and this group would therefore predominate in a democratic Iraq. The religious groups constitute only one section of the Shi'ite population, perhaps a third or more, but they are well organized and armed. My thesis here is that the Sadr Movement is at the moment the most important tendency among religious Shi'ites in post-Ba'thist· Iraq, and that it is best seen as a sectarian phenomenon in the "sociology of religions" sense. It is prima,rily a youth movement and its rank and file tend to be poor. It is highly puritanical and xenophobic, and it is characterized by an exclusivism unusual in Iraqi Shi'ism. To any extent that it emerges as a leading social force in Iraq, it will prove polarizing and destabilizing. In spring and summer of 2003 its leadership had decided not to challenge actively the coalition military. In contemporary theories of the sociology of religion, a Usect" is characterized by a high degree of tension with mainstream society, employing a rhetoric of difference, antagonism, and separation.2 The "high-tension" model of the sect predicts that. it will attempt strongly to demarcate itself off from the mainstream of society. It will also cast out those members who are perceived to be too accommodating of non-sectarian norms. That is, it demands high levels of loyalty and obedience in the pursuit of exclusivism. IRAQI SHl'ISM IN HISrORY Under the Ottomans, a Sunni political elite flourished in what is now Iraq, with political ties to Istanbul. Shi 'ism· remained vigorous, however. In the eigh~eenth and nineteenth centuries, many -tribespeople of the south converted to the Shi'ite branch of Islam, under the influence of missionaries sent out from the shrine cities of Najaf and Karbala, where Shi'ite holy figures Imam 'Ali and Imam Husayn were interred. -2. Rodney StarkandWilliam Sims Bain~ridge, The Future ofReligion (Berkeley and LosAngeles: University ofCalifomia Press, 1985). pp. 19-34, 135. +. II o The Rulemt~e Turbail: Last September, Paul Wolfolvitz was the special guest at a memorial service in Arlington, Va.~ for an influential Shiite cleric killed in a car bombing in Najat: Iraq. The deputy defense secretary hailed Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir ai-Hakim as a Ittrue Iraqi patriot;" and he quoted from the Gettysburg Address as he likened the slain leader to the Union soldiers who haq died to preserve their country. It was a eulogy that ai-Hakim undoubtedly wouid have found jarring. His Islamist political party, the Supreme Council for the Islamic Re~olution in Iraq, and its 15,OOO-man militia had been funded by Iran, a member gg President Bush's "axis Pievil." And ai-Hakim himselfhad long been wary ~perceived American'imperialism in the Middle East, even as his party, known as SCIRI (pronounced "SEA-ree") [and otherwise also known in Supreme Assembly for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SAIRI)], cooperated. with the Coalition Provisional Authority on the.transfer to Iraqi sovereignty -- the likely reason he was targeted for assassination. As symbolism goes, the memorial service served to highlight the tangled politics in postSaddam Iraq, where idealized notionsM"friend" and "foe" have dissolved into a murJder reality. Once, Pentagon war planners like Wolfowitz envisioned the toppling ~ Saddam Hussein with clarity, predicting that the long-suppressed Shiite majority in Iraq would greet Americans as liberators and that democracy would naturally flower. But clarity has !Jeen washed away by images ~ charred American bodies swinging from bridges and naked Iraqi prisoners on dog leashes. Yet to emerge is a clear outline 9ia new Iraq, which has been tugged in opposite directions by official enemies -- Iran and the United.States -that happen to have shared a common interest in Sadda~'s removal. As the largest mainstream Shiite party, SCIRI is an important player in Iraq's future, but one with an ambivalent history with the United States. It was oneMthe opposition groups that the United States counted on to help bring down Sad9am. Yet SCIRI is also a vehicle in which Iran has invested heavily in a bid for influence in post-Saddam Iraq. And so despiteWolfowi~'s hailing 2fthe slain Ayatollah aI-Hakim as a kind ~ Shiite Abraham Lincoln, it is far from clear that his Islamist party, which supports an Iraqi government run according to Islamic principles, will help build the kind ~ secular democracy that the United States said it hoped to leave behind in Iraq. It is likely that the new Iraqi constitution will be influenced in some manner by Islamic principles, but it's anyb04Y's guess whether a sovereign Iraq -- assuming it stays united -- will look more like a secular Turkey, a cleric-run Iran or something in between. There are too many competing motives and agendas to predict any outcome with certainty, no matter what face US policymakers put on it. The blurring ~ Iranian, American and Iraqi interests came into shm> relief last month when Iraqi and American forces raided the Baghdad home and offices )if Iraqi National Congress leader Ahmad Chalabi on suspicion that the one-time Pentagon favorite had betrayed US secrets to Iran. It was a c.onfusing turn ~ events, made even more perplexing by the fact that Chalabi, a Shiite, had worked openly with Iranians for many y-ears, most prominently-through his contacts withSCIRI, which was knQwn to be an arm ~ Iranian intelligence. In fact, SCIRI was active in Chalabi's INC from 1992 through 1996 and was named in the 1998 Iraqi Liberation Act, signed into law by President Clinton, as one ~ the opposition groups that the United States should work with to topple Saddam. It was thus no secret that Chalabi had, a relationship I , • ..,.. o o with Iranian intelligence. But the salient question quickly became: Which American official was so stupid as to tell the INC leader that the United States h~d broken Iran's secret communications code, information that US intelligence said Chalabi then passed on to Iran? Chalabi had long been an informal conduit between the United States and Iran, which have not had formal diplomatic relations since American hostages were seized in the 1979 Islamic revolution. Through SCIRI, the United States kept a back door to Tehran propped open. Had that game now gone awry? SCIRI was founded in 1980, at the beginning ~the Iran-Iraq war, by Iraqi Shiite clerics who sought a haven from oppression by Saddamwith fellow Shiites in neighboring Iran. But the relationship was controversial from the beginning, according to Imam Mustafa al-Qazwini, an Iraqi-born Shiite in Los Angeles whose father was a founder R! SCIRI. A handsome 42-year..old with a neatly trimmed, graying beard, alQazwini wears a black turban, symbolizing his family's descent from the prophet Mohammed. Anaturalized.US citizen, he speaks fluent, colloguial En lish. We met earlier this month at a "%ashington conference ~the J!!ii~~.t~~L~ii!iim\*s~ocHltioil~pf \nieric', an organization !ifpolitically active AmericanShiite Muslims. His father, Ayatollah Mortada al-Qazwini, broke with SCIRI's ai-Hakim soon after the group's founding amid a dispute about its alliance with Iran, al-Qazwini told me. His father believed that Iraqi Shiites would be better served by leaders who remained independent ~ foreign governments -- Iranian or American. In the mid-1980s, the Qazwini clan left Iran for the United States and its open political system. The elder al-Qazwini returned to Iraq last year, settling in Karbala, and, in the model b1Grand Ayatollah Ali al..Sistani, remains aloof from politics in the beliefthat clergy should not playa direct role in governance, his son told me. AI-Qazwini said that he and his father have rebuffed overtures from the US State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency over the years because they did not want to align themselves with any foreign governments. "I always feel, if you can work freely from these governments you should," al-Qazwini said. "Generally Iraqis don't like the ideaMdependence. Once someone is seen as collaborating with a foreign government, they might not be as trusted.II That has been a problem to varying degrees for both Chalabi and SCIRI in Iraq, he added. Still, SCIRI, now led by Ayatollah al-Hakim's younger brother, Abdul Aziz ai-Hakim, retains significant clout as the best organized Shiite party, in part because [{the support it had from Iran. SCIRI is believed to have taken from Iran an amount similar to the more than $30 million Chalabi's INC accepted in U.S. funding before being abruptly cut off last month. And despite its quasi..official relationship with the United States, SCIRI mostly kept the Great Satan at arm's length. Until 2002, most contacts with the United States were made informally through Chalabi and Kurdish representatives, according to SCOO's US-based representative, Karim Khutar al-Musawi, who told me about the Eroup over coffee recently in Washington's Mayflower Hotel. Aside from acting as a kin~ ~ liaison between the United States and Iran, in the mid..'90s SCIRI agents also worked openly with Chalabi in northern Iraq on operations to undermine Saddam. Chalabi was then working for the CIA, whose small team in northerri Iraq was headed by former CIA operative Bob Baer. "SCIRI was never under any sort ~ Western supervision or control. They did exactly what they wanted. And they reported to Tehran,II Baer told me. As an American agent, Baer was keen to learn all he could about Iran. Chalabi invited him to meet his contacts in Tehran, but Baer had to decline. "I would (!'- o o have been happy to, but that was a firing offense. The State Department would have gone nuts," he said. But there was no restriction on meeting with SCIRI, which, after all, was partmthe American-backed Iraqi National Congress. . So, Baer said, he talked often with SCIRI agents in northern Iraq, where the Americans and Iranians shared a common enemy in Saddam Hussein. A master manipulator, Chalabi frequently played Iranian and American intelligence off each other, Baer said. The most serious stunt occurred in February 1995, wheri'Chalabi was gathering support for an uprising against Saddam. The Americans were noncommittal and, among other moves, the INC leader went fishing for Iranian support. He forged a letter from America's National Security Council that appeared to direct him to assassinate Saddam, then left it on his desk for Iranian intelligence agents to read, hoping the disinformation would convince the Iranians thatthe United States was serious about toppling Saddam, Baer said. "He was being very practical about this. He needed the Iranians to thinkth~lan would go through so they would let loose with the Badr Brigades,II the armed wing !!f SCIRI. Chalabi's uprising, and a parallel coup planned by Sunni Iraqi military officers inside Iraq, collapsed amid betrayals by the Kurds and continued ambivalence from Washington. The debacle caused both the CIA and SCIRI to part ways with Chalabi in 1996. But by 2002, when it looked as if President Bush was serious about toppling Saddam, SCIRI began sniffing around again. Its representative, al-Musawi, set up shop in Washington. And in August 2002, SCIRI logged its first formal contact with the United States when Ayatollah al-Hakim~ounger brother, Abdul, traveled to Washington as its representative for a pre-war round 91 meetings with Bush administration officials. AI-Hakim"and other Iraqi opposition figures met with Secretary ~. Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary ~ State Colin Powell and (via satellite hookup) Vice President Dick Cheney, al-Musawi said. Also at the 2002 meetings were Chalabi, Iyad Allawi -- the recently named interim prime minister ~ Iraq, who has longtime ties to the CIA -- and two Kurdish representatives, Massoud Barzani and lalal Talabani. "This was the first official contact for SCIRI, because before we did not ~utomatically believe in the American direction -- whether they meant it or not," al-Musawi said, referring to the United States' historical ambivalence toward removing Saddam, most prominently its failure to support Kurds and Shiites in their revolt after the Persian Gulf War, which Saddam brutally suppressed. Graham Fuller, former vice chairman ~the National Intelligence Council at the CIA and an expert on Islam,. said that the United States must deal with SCOO, despite America's preference that Iraq have a strictly secular government. Although SCIRI wants Iraq's government to be run according to Islamic principles, that probably does not mean an Iranian-style theocracy Fuller said. SCOO's al-Musawi confirmed that view, explaining that the party wants a "kind gj separationMchurch and state" in which clergy would not become politicians or government officials. Added Fuller ~ SCIRI: "They are uncomfortable with American goals in the region, and they would see the American policy as hostile, rightly or Wrongly, to any Islamic state, however you interpret that ... They're warymAmerican imperialism in general. But that dQesn't mean they weren't willing to cooperate in furthering the greater goal ~ removing Saddam.II Abdul Aziz ai-Hakim became SCIRI's representative on the United States' handpicked Iraqi Governing Council after the March 2003 invasion &fIraq. But when his brother was killed in the car bombing at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf last August, aI-Hakim blamed the United States for creating instability and demanded an end to the occupation. Such positions are part ~ -- ----- o o SCIRI's balancing act, Fuller said. "As t~e majority, the Shiites are the beneficiary J!i [any] democracy, so they're willing to cut the United States a lot ~ slack as long as the US is bringing about the goalMdemocracy. But once they get to democracy, they want the United States to please leave," he said. A SCIRI member, Adel Abdul Mahdi, will serve as Iraq's finance minister in the interim government that takes power in Iraq June 30. Mahdi recently declared that the majority Shiites would not stand for limited Kurdish self-rule in the north, setting the stage for a showdown with the Kurds who have said they will secede from the central government without some guarantee Rfautonomy. Shiites, meanwhile, believe that radical Sunni Muslims -- both Iraqis and those newly arrived from other countries -- are targeting their leaders for assassination.with suicide bombings in an attempt to drive a wedge between the twq sects. What's more, "AI-Qaida is trying to make a war between the Sunni and Shia, to destroy the"American project in Iraq and break up the country so the Wahhabis can have influence" with Sunnis, asserted al-Musawi, referring to the strict fu~damentalist brand ~ Islam that is the official.state religion in Saudi Arabia. In that regard Iran, like the United States, also faces uncertainty about its interests in post-Saddam Iraq. A Wahhabi foothold in its next-door neighbor would be an unwelcome development for Iranian Shiites, whom Wahhabis loathe as infidels. Saddam had kept both Sunni and Shiite religious fervor in check through his authoritarian rule. But now there is no guarantee it can be contained. Looming behind this internal political struggle between religious factions are the two major. powers Rlthe Gulf, Saudi Arabia and Iran. I The degree to which Iraq might become a chessboard on which they move their pawns remains uncertain. There are already indications that Wahhabi Islam is taking root in Iraq, worried Shiites say. AI-Qazwini, the Shiite imam from Los Angeles, said that on a recent visit to Baghdad he discovered that the Urn al-Tubul mosque had been renamed after 13th century Islamic theologian Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya, an intellectual founder ~ Saudi Arabia. IlThere are big signs for the Ibn Taymiyya mosque now. You can see $.em from the highway," al-Qazwini said. Fuller thinks it makes sense, with all the countervailing forces in the region, for the United States to deal with all major players, even those that have ties to Iran. liThe United States has slowly come around," he said. "The first Bush administration didn't want to touch the Shia. They were afraid the Shia would take over in Iraq" with an Iranian-style theocracy. But, he added, "I think now the US has leamed something about the Shia and their more complex nature. The Shia do not love us, but. they are grateful that we threw out Saddam. Now they want us to complete the job and leave.II It remains unclear which ler~cy will have the most lasting imprint in the new Iraq -- that ~ Abraham Lincoln or that ~ the turbaned clerics in Tehran. Source: Salon (US), Mary Jacoby, June 16,2004 http://fairose.laccesshost.comlnews2/salon24.htm ,. ANTI·:e WAR.S ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED O' ~REIN IS UNCLASSIFIED ~TE 07~29~2010 BY 60324 uc bali1/sab/lsg Page 1 of6 C!~PRINTTHIS May 28, 2004 Chalabi-gate: None Dare Call It Treason Neocons behind bars? Sounds good to me•••• by Justin Raimondo The fallout from Chalabi-gate continues to rain down on the heads of the War Party, opening up the exciting prospect that some neoconsmight well wind up behind bars. The charge? Espionage, as Sidney Blumenthal informs us: '~t a well-appointed conservative think tank in downtown Washington and across the Potomac River at the Pentagon, FBI agents have begun paying quiet calls on prominent neoconservatives, who are being interviewed in an investigation of.potential espionage, ac.cording to intelligence sources. 'Who gave Ahmed Chalabi· classified information about the plans of the U.S. government and military?" This information, says Vince Cannistraro, formerly at the CIA and the Pentagon, was so "very, very sensitive" that only a few U.S. government officials had access to it: "The evidence has pointed quite clearly, not only the fact that Chalabi might be an agent of influence of the Iranian government and that [Chalabi's intelligence chief, Aras Karim Habib] may be a paid agent of the Iranian intelligence service, but it is shown that there is a leak of classified information from the United States to Iran through Chalabi and Karim and that is the particular point that the FBI is investigating. In other words, some U.S. officials are under investigation on suspicion of providing classified information to these people that ended up in Iran." Blumenthal }tas more: '~ former staff member of the Offic.e of Special Plans and a currently serving defense official, two of those said to be questioned by the FBI, are considered witnesses, at least for now. Higher figures are under suspicion. Were they· ,witting or unwitting? If those who are being questioned turn ouf to· be misleading, they can- be charged ultimately with perjury an,q file:/lC:\DOCUME-l\agolwink\LOCALS-l\Temp\XN729MWP.htm 6/13/2005 I ... ; , - Page 2 of6 ., obstruction ofjustice.Qr them, the Watergate PrinQZe applies: It's not the crime, it's the coverup." The lie~ Chalabi fed to Washington policymakers, who eagerly scarfed them up and regurgitated them to the American public, originated with Iranian intelligence, as we are beginning to learn. But the neocon-Tehran information superhighway ran in both directions. As Julian Borger reports in the Guardian: '~n intelligence source in Washington said the CIA confirmed its long-held suspicions when it discovered that a piece of information from an electronic communications intercept by the National Security Agency had ended up in Iranian hands. The information was so sensitive that its circulation had been restricted to a handful of officials. 'This was 'sensitive compartmented information' - SCI - and it was tracked right back to the Iranians through Aras Habib,' the intelligence source said." UPI's Richard Sale reports that "the Federal Bureau of Investigation has launched a full field investigation into the matter,II and gives more information on what was compromised and how the Iranians pulled off this intelligence coup: "Chalabi allegedly passed National Security Agency/CIA intercepts to intelligence agents of the Iranian government using intermediaries or 'cutouts' or 'gophers' within the INC, another former CIA agent said. Some of the intercepts, dated from December, were the basis for a rec~nt Newsweek story, but there are others of a later date in possession of the FBI, this source said." How did Chalabi get his hot little hands on highly secret information? That's why the FBI - instead of going after, say, Brandon .Mayfield, or some other completely innocent person, as per usual - is now calling on "prominent" neocons at Washington's poshest thinktanks. I hope they're bringing an ample supply of handcuffs. But whom might they be handcuffing and frog-marching out the door, into a waiting paddywagon? UPI gives us the scoop, citing "a former very senior CIA official" as saying: "'Chalabi passed specially compartmented intelligence, extraordinarily sensitive stuff, to the. Iranians.' This source said that some of the intercepts are believed to have been given Chalabi by two U.S. officials of the Coalition Provision Authority, both of whom are not named here ·because UPI could not reach them for comment." Well, they aren't named, but they might as well have been: "Qne former CPA official has returned to the United States and is 'employed at ·the American Enterprise Institute, the fQrme~ very senior file:/IQ:\DOCUME-l\agolwink\LOCALS-l\Temp\XN729MWP.htm 6/13/2005 Page 3 of6 ~ offi;ial s~id, a fact wQh FBI sources confinned wQout additional comment. The other is still (l working Pentagon official, federal law enforcement officials and former CIA officials said." Independent journalist Bob Dreyfuss, whose excellent articles on the neocons in The American Prospect and Mother Jones puts him up there with Jim Lobe, Michael Lind, and Joshua Marshall as a veritable maven of neocon-ology, names names: "The two officials in the UPI story are, according to my sources, Harold Rhode, an officzal'in the Pentagon's Office of Net Assessment, and Michael Rubin, now at the American Enterprise Institute." Rubin, formerly of the Office of Special Plans and the CPA, who served as liaison with Chalabi's group, the Iraqi National Congress, certainly fits the bill. No wonder he's been so tI' cranky lately, what with FBI agents barging into his office and giving him the third degree. Rhode, a longtime Pentagon official assigned to the Office of Net Assessment and a specialist on Islam, is reportedly Douglas Feith's chief enforcer of the anti-Arab party line among the civilian Pentagon hierarchy. In refusing to be interviewed by Dreyfuss for a piece on the neocons in Mother Jones, Rhode's laconic reply was: "Those who speak, pay." Prescient words, arid truer than perhaps even Rhode realized at the time. Hauled up before·a grand jury, however, Rhode, Rubin, and the. rest of Chalabi's Pentagon fan club may have .no choice about speaking - especially with the prosp~ct of a long "vacationII at a ·federal facility staring them in the face. - Much is being made of bow the Iranians "duped" us into invading Iraq, and "used" the U.S. in getting rid of Saddam Hussein and "paving the way," as Julian Borger puts it, for a Shi'ite-ruled Iraq. But a simple map of the region- and rudimentary knowledge of the history of the past ~ecade or so would ha~e revealed as much. As I wrote in this space over a year ago: "In view of Iran's growing sphere of influence in Iraq, it seems rather disingenuous to destroy the Sunni minority government run by the Ba'ath Party and then deny any responsibility for the Shi'ite-y outcome. The U.S. has made a gift of Iraq to Teheran, reigniting the religious passions that overthrew the U.S.-backed Shah Reza· Pahlavi of Iran and propelled Khomeini to power." In charting the outlines of "phase two" of the invasion of Iraq, that same week ,last year, I pointed out: file:/lC:\DOCUME-l\agolwink\LOCALS....l\Temp\XN729MWP.htm 6/13/2005 " Page 4 of6 • . ~ IITh~ mai~ political c£equence of the war, internatjg is to increase Iranian influence: if free elections were held in the southern Shi'a provin_ces of Iraq, they would undoubtedly usher in some sort of 'Islami~ Republic.' The effort by the neocons in the administration to install Ahmed Chalabi as the Pentagon's puppet, far from forestalling this possibility, only makes it a more c~edible threat to the postwar order." But why would the militantly pro-Israel neocons, American partisans of the ultra-nationalist Likud party, act as patrons and promoters of an outfit, Chalabi's INC, that was really a cover for Iranian intelligence - their alleged mortal enemies? That's what I couldn't quite figure out, at least not until I read Robert Parry's excellent piece on the subject, and here's the money quote: - '~s Chalabi's operation fed anti-Saddam propaganda into the u.s. decisionmaking machinery, Bush also should have been alert to the Israeli role in opening doors for Chalabi in Washington. One intelligence source told me that Israel's Likud government had quietly promoted Chalabi and his Iraqi National Congress with Washington's influential neoconservatives. That would help explain why the neoconservatives, who share an ideological alliance with the conservative Likud, would embrace and defend Chalabi even as the CIA and the State Department denounced him as a cpn man. "The idea of Israel promoting an Iranian agent also is not far-fetched if one understands the history. The elder Bush could tell his son about the long-standing strategic ties that have ~isted between Israel and Iran, both before and after the. Islamic revolution of 1979. It was Menachem Begin's Likud Party that rebuilt the covert intelligence relationship in 1980. Since then, it has been maintained through thick and thin, despite Iran's public anti-Israeli rhetoric." The enemy of my enemy is my friend: it's a principle, often invoked to justify a course of action seemingly in contradiction to the professed ideology of the actors. Lined up against a common enemy, American Likudniks and Ahmed Chalabi, an Iranian intelligence asset, teamed up to drag us into the Iraqi quagmire, with both members of this oddly coupled tag-team benefiting from the deal. While the neocons fed Chalabi - and his intelligence chief, Arras Karim Habib, a paid Iraqi agent - a steady diet of u.s. secrets, Chalabi fed the neocons (in government and much of the American media) a fresh serving- of tall tales cooked up in the INC's kitchen, and delivered piping hot to Judith Miller's doorstep. The Iranians, for their part, feasted on u.s. secrets so deep and dark that only a few top officials were privy to them - and had a good chunk of Iraq handed to th~m, while a d~ facto Kurdish state emerged as a buffer between Isr~~l an9. the ~hfite power rising in the East. The whole thing- was file:/lC:\DOCUME-l\agolwink\LOCALS-l\Temp\XN729MWP.htm 6/13/2005 ," Page 5 of6 , ..' sup;osed' to have beeQresided over by the ostensiQ pro-Western Chalabi, t4e neocons' Alger Hiss. That was the pl~Jl, at any rate, but something seems to have gone awry.... As in the Abu Ghraib photo-gallery of horrors, the nature of the crime suggests that a few lowly spear carriers -Rubin is just barely out of knee pants, and Rhode was certainly not in the loop on super-sensitive intelligence - didn't pull this off all on their own. Before it's all over, Chalabi-gate will reach into the favored nesting place of the neocons, the very top echelons .of the Pentagon. As UPI editor Martin Walker reports: "The real target goes beyond Chalabi. The hunt is on, in the Republican Party, in Congress, in the CIA and State Department and in a media which is being deluged with leaks, for' Chalabi's friends and sponsors in Washington - the group known as the neo-cons. In particular, the targets seem to be Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, the former assistant secretary (in Reagan's day) Richard Perle, Vice President Dick Cheney's national security aide Scooter Libby, and the National Security Council's Middle East aide Elliott Abrams. The leaking against them - from sources who insist on .anonymity, but some CIA and FBI veterans - is intense. Some of the sources are now private citizens, making a good living through business connections in the Arab world." Speaking of business connections, how does Richard Perle maKe his living except by using his governmentconnections to profit handsomely from the war-driven neocon agenda? Oh well, never mind that: let's get to the juicy 'part. Walker also reports that these poor persecuted neocons "are now beginning to fight back,II and in a familiar fashion: "Richard Perle told this reporter Tuesday that the gloves were off. ... Perle has no doubts that some of the attacks on him are- coming directly from the CIA, in. order to cover their own exposed rears, attacking Chalabi's intelligence to distract attention from their own mistakes. 7 believe that much of th~ CIA operation in Iraq was owned by Saddam Hussein,' Perle said. 'There were 45 decapitation attempts against Saddam - and he survived them all. How could that be, if he was not manipulating the intelligence?'" Gee, I guess this means that, on account of all those failed IIdecapitation attempts" on Fidel Castro over the years, the Cuban Communists exercised joint ownership of the CIA along with Saddam's Ba'athists. Oh, what a Perle of wisdom, but the Prince of Darkness was just getting started: "Perle went on to suggest an even darker motiv_e behind the attacks on the neo-cons; that the real target was Israel's Likud governm~nt a11:d the file:/IC:\DOCUME-l\agolwink\LOCALS-l\Temp\XN729MWP.htm 6/13/2005 Page 6 of6 .." sta~nch ~upportfor /;tel's prime minister Ariel sOon in the Bush administration. When this was put to one CIA source, the reply was mocking: 'That's what they always do. As soon as these guys get any criticism, they scream Israel and anti-Semitism, and I think people are finally beginning to see through that smokescreen.'" How and why an investigation into Iranian penetration of our most closely guarded secrets constitutes evidence of "anti-Semitism" is a question I'll leave (or weightier intellects to ponder. But such an unseemly outburst ought to put to rest any' doubts about a neocon-Iranian convergence of interests: we know something's afoot when both Richard Perle and the Iranian mullahs sound absolutely identical in tone as well as content. We knew what the neocons were capable of: smearing their enemies, lying about practicallyanything, even outing a CIA agent doing high-priority undercover work. Is anyone surprised that they're capable of espionage? Perle is right about one thing:· it's time to take the gloves off. -Justin Raimondo Find this article at: hltp:/lwMY.antiwar.comijustinl?articleid=2683 oCheck the bOx to include the list of links referenced in the article. file:IIC:\DOCUME-l\agolwink\LOCALS-l\Temp\XN729MWP.htm 6/13/2005 ..... ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED The New Yorker: PRINTABLES HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED ~ oDATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/sQ~U;1 THE NEW YORKER. FACT lEfTEI\ A\0a"1 WASHINGION REAL INSIDERS by JEFFREY GOLDBERG A pro-Israel lobby and an F.B.I. sting. Issue of 2005-07-04 Posted 2005-06-27 Page i or9.. Several years ago, I had dinner at Galileo, a Washington restaurant,. with Steven Rosen, who was the the director offoreign-policy issues at the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. The group, whi( is better known by its acronym, AIPACt lobbies for Israel's financial and physical security. Like many .lobbyists, Rosen cultivated reporters, hoping to influence their writing while keeping his name out of print He is a voluble man, and liked to ,demonstrate his erudition and dispense aphori~ms. One that he ofte~ repeated could serve as the credo ofK Street, theRodeo Drive ofWashington's'influence ~ industry:. "A lobby is like a night flower: it thrives in the dark and dies in the sun." Lobbyists tend to believe that legislators are susceptible to persuasion in ways that executive-branch bureaucrats are not, and before Rosen came to AlPAC, in 1982 (he had been at the RAND Corporation, t defense-oriented think tank), the group focussed mainly on Congress. ButRosen arrived brandishing f new idea: that the organization could influence the outcome ofpolicy disputes within the executive ~ranch-in particular, the Pentagon, the State Department, and the National Security Council. Rosen began to court officials. He traded in gossip and speculation, and his reports to AlPAC's leaders helped them track currents in Middle East policymaking before those currents coalesced into executivi orders. Rosen also used his contacts to carry A1PAC'S agenda to the White House. An early success car in 1983, when he helpedlobby for a strategic cooperation agreement between Israel and the United States, which was signed over the objections ofCaspar Weinberger, the Secretary ofDefense, and which led to a new level of-intelligence sharing and -military sales. AlPAC is a leviathan among lobbies, as influential in its sphere as the National Rifle Association and th . American Association ofRetired Persons are in theirs, although it is, by comparison, much smaller. (AIPAC has ~bout a hundred thousand members, the N.R.A. more than four million.) President Bush, speaking at the annual AIPAC conference in May of2004, said, "You've always understood and warneagainst the evil ambition ofterrorism and their networks. In a dangerous new century, your work is more vital than ever." AIPAC is unique in the top tier oflobbies because its concerns are the economic ' health and security ofa foreign nation, and because its members are drawn almost entirely from a sing ethnic group. AIPAC's pr~fes~ional staft'=-it employs about a hundred people at its headquarters, two blocks from the Capitol-analyzes,congressional voting records and shares the results with its members, who can then contribute money to candidates directly or to a network of proIsrael political-action committees~ The Center for Responsive Politics, .a public-policy group, estimates that between 1990 at!d 2004 these PA( gave candidates and parties more than twenty million dollars~ Robert H. Asher, a former AIPAC president, told me that the PACs are usu8Ily given euphemistic names eel started a PAC called Citizens Concerned for the National Interest," he said. Asher, who is from Chicago, is a retired manufacturer oflamps and shades, ,and a member ofthe so-called Gang ofFourformer presidents ofAlPAC, who steered the group's policies for more than two decades. (The three 0 others are LanyWeinb~~ a California real"estate developer and a fonner owner ofthe Po~and T!"lIiI-? ~ - http://www.newyorker.comlprintableslfaetl05Q704f!1.J.~ ~~~~15- .eP~OO~[ z.,"Ii\' 'The New Yorker: PRINTABLES o .o Page20f9 Blazers;'Edward Levy, a construction-materials executive from Detroit; and Mayer "Bubba" Mitchell, a retired builder based in Mobile, Alabama.) AIPAC, Asher explained, is loyal to its friends and merciless to its enemies. In 1982, Asher led a campaign to defeat Paul Findley, a Republican congressman from Springfield, Hlinois, who once referred to himself as "¥asir Arafat's best friend in Congress," and who later compared Arafat to Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. "There was a real desire to h~lp Findley out of Congress," Asher said. He identified an obscure Democratic lawyer in Springfield, Richard Durbin, as someone whQ could defeat-Findley.. "We met at my apartment in Chicago, and I recruited him to run for Congress," he recalled. "I probed; his views and I explained things that I had learned mostly from AIPAC. I wanted to make sure,we were supporting someone who was not only against Paul Findley but also a friend of.Israel." Asher went on, "He beat Findley with a lot ofhelp from Jews, in-state and out-of-state. Now, how did the Jewish money find him? I travelled around the country talking about how we had the opportunity to defeat someone unfriendly to Israel. And the gates opened." Durbin, who 'Went on to win a Senate seat, is now the Democratic whip. He is a fierce critic ofBush's Iraq policy but, like AIPAC, generally supports the Administration's approach to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict., Durbin says that he considers Asher to be his "most loyal friend in the Jewish community." Mayer Mitchell led a similar campaign, three years ago, to defeat Earl Hilliard, an Alabama congressman who was a critic oflsr~el. Mitchell helped direct support to a young Harvard Law School graduate named Artur Davis, who challenged Hilliard in the Democratic primary, and he solicited donations from AIPAC supporters across America. Davis won the primary, and the seat. "I, asked Bubba how he felt after Davis won," Asher said, "and he said, CJust like you did when Durbin got elected.' " Mitchell declined'to comment. AIPAC's leaders can be immoderately frank about the group's influence. At dinner that night with Steven Rosen, I mentioned a controversy that had enveloped AIPAC in 1992., David Steiner, a New Jersey real-estate developer who was then serving as AlPAC's president, was caught on tape boasting that he had "cut a deal" with the Administration ofGeorge H.·W.. Bush to provide more aid to Israel. Steiner also said that he was "negotiating" with the incoming Clinton Admini~tration over the appointment of a pro-Israel Secretary ofState. "We have a dozen people in his"-Clinton's-"headquarters .. " and they are all going-to get big jobs," Steiner said. Soon after- the tape's existence was disclos~d, Steiner resigned his post. I aske~ Rosen ifAIPAC suffered a,loss ofinfluence after the Steiner affair. Ahalf smile appeared on his face; and he pushed a napkin across the table. "You see this napkin?" he said. "In twenty-four hours, we could have the signatures ofseventy senators on this n~pkin~" Rosen was influential from the start. He was originally recruited for the job by Larry Weinberg, one ofthe Gang ofFour, and he helped"choose the group's leaders, including the current executive director, Howard Kohr, a Republican who began his AIPAC career as Rosen's deputy. Rosen, who can be argumentative and impolitic, was never a candidate for the top post. "He's a bit ofa kochleJlf'-the Yiddish term for a pot-stirrer, or meddler-Martin Indyk, who also served as Rosen's deputy, and who went on to become Preside~t Clinton's Ambassador to Israel, says. Rosen has. had an unusually eventful private life, marrying and divorcing six times (he is living again with his first wife); and he has a well-developed sense of paranoia. When we met, he would sometimes lower his voice, even when he was preparing to deliver an anodyne pronouncement. "Hostile ears·are always listening," he was fond ofsaying. Nevertheless, he is a keen analyst ofMiddle East politics, and a savvy bureaucratic infighter. His 6/27/2005 The New Yorker: PRINTABLES o o Page 3 of.9 views on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict are not notablY"4aw.kish;' he. onc~ c~l~ed bimselfCCtoo right for the left, and too left for the right." He is a hard-liner on.only one subject-Iran-and this preoccupation help"ed shape A1PAC's position: that Iran poses a greater threat to ~srael than any other n~tion. In this way, AIPAC i~ in agreement with a long line ofIsraeli leaders; including Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, who fears Iran's nuclear intentions more than lie ever feared Saddam Hussein's. (AIPAcJobbied Congress in favor ofthe ~q war, but Iraq ~as not been one of its chief concems.).Rosen's main role at A1PAC, he once told me, was to collect evidence of· "Iranian perfidy" and share it with the United States. Unlike American n~oconselVatives, who have openly supported the Liktia Party over the m~re liberal Labor'Party, AIPAC does not generally take sides,in Israeli politics. But on Iran AIPAc's views resemble those ofthe neoconselVatives. In 1996, Rosen and other AIPAc,stattmembers helped write, and engineer the passage ot: the Iran and'Libya Sanctions Act, which imposed. sanctions on foreign oil companies doing business with tliose two countries; AIPAC ,is determine~-, above all, to deny Iran tl!e ability to m~ufactUre nuclear weapons. Iran was a main focus ofthis year's AIPAC policy conference, which was held in May at t~e Washington Convention Cente~. Ariel Sharon and ~ecretary ofState Condoleezza Rice, amorig others, addre.sse<ffive tQousand AIPAC ~embers. O~e hall ofthe convention centeJ; was ~en up by a Disney-style walk-through display ofan Iranian nuclear facility.. It was 19.tsch, but not ineffeCtive, and Rosen undoubtedly would'have apprecia~ed it. Rosen,-however, was not there. He was fired eartier this year by Howard Kohr, nine months after he becameimplicated in 89 F.B.I. espionage investiga~o~. Rosen's lawyer, Abbe Lowell, expects him to be indicted on charges of.passing-,secret information'about Iranian intelligence activities in Iraq to an official of the 'Israeli ~mfjassy and to a Washi~gton Post repQrter. Ajunior co~league, Keith Weis~man, who selVed as an Iran ~alyst for A1?AC until he) t90; was fired, may face similar charges. The perS9n wh~, in essence, ended Rosen's career is a fifty-eight-year-old Pentagon analyst named ~awrence Anthony Franklin, who is even more pr~occupied with Iran than Steven Rosen.. Franklin, until re~ently the Pentagon's Iran desk officer, was indicted last mo~th on espionage, ch~ges. The Justice Department has accused him ofgiving "national-defense iiifonn~tion" to Rosen and Weissman, and classified inf9nnation to an Israeli official. FraD:k1i~ has pleaded not ,guilty; a tentative trial date is set for September. If convicted, he will face at least ten y~rs in prison. I first met Franklin in November of2002. Paul Wolfowitz, then the Deputy Secretary ofDefense, was receiving the HenryM.. (Scoop) Jack~on award from the Jewish Institute for_National Security Affairs, a conselVative-leaning group that tries to buil~ close relations between-the American and Israeli militaries. In the ballroom ofthe Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Pentagon 'City; a shopping mall, were a number ofAmerican generals and the.Israeli Ambassador to the United States, D~nny Ayalon. Fr~in, a ~m man with blond hair and a military bearing, is a colonel in the Air Force ReselVe who spent several years as an al}alyst at the pefense.Intelligence·Agency. He has a doctorate in Asian studies and describes himselfas a capable speaker ofFafsi. In addition, he was a Catholic in a largely Jewish network ofPentagon Iran hawks. Franklin.was particularly close to the neoconservative Harold Rhode, an official in the Office of Net Assessment, the Pen~gon' s in-house think tank. Franklin was also close to Michael Ledeen, who, twenty years ago, played an important role in the Iran;-Contra scandal by helping arrange meetings between the American government and the Iranian anns dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar. .Ledeen, now a resident scholar at the American Enterprise InstitUte, is one ofthe most outspoken ' advo~tes inWashin~on ofconfrontation with the Tehran regime. _,!Q~pri!1!!!bie§!f~~tJo.59791fa~[~c~.· 6/27/2005 TheNew Yorker: PRINTABLES o o Page 4 of9 The conversation at the banquet~ and just about everywhere else in official Washington at that time, centered on the coming war in Iraq. "We may well hope that With the demise ofa truly evil and despotic regime in Iraq, we will see the liberation of one ofthe most talented peoples in the Arab world," Wolfowitz said in his speech. Franklin did not seem especially concerned with the topic at hand: As we stood outside the banquet hall, he said that Iran, not Iraq, would tum out to be the most difficult challenge in the war on terror. · Then, as now, the Administration was divided on the question ofIran. Many ofthe political appointees at the Defense Department hoped that America would support dissidents in an- attempt to overthrow·Iran's ruling clerics, while the State Department argued for containment. Even within the Defense Department, many officials believed that it would be imprudent to make regime change in Tehran a top priority., "There are neocons who thought Iran should come sooner and neocons who thought it should come later/' Reuel Marc Gerecht, ofthe American Enterprise. Institute, told me., As for Franklin~ Gerecht, a fo~er Iran specialist in the c;:lA. 's Directorate of Operations, said, "It's fair to say thatLany was imp~tient with Bush Administration policy on Iran." In the Pentagon's policy office, I learned later, it was sometimes said that Franklin inhabited a place called planet Franklin., Gerecht referred to him as "sweet, bumbling Larry." Ayear later, on areporting assignment in Israel, I ran into Franklin at the Herzliya Conference, which is the Davos ofthe Israeli security establishment. He said, that he was there on Defense Department business., We talked briefly about Iraq-it was eight montHs after the invasion-~d, as we spoke, General Moshe Ya'a1on, then the Israeli Army chiefofstaff: swept into the room surrounded by bodyguards and unifonned aides. "Wow," Franklin said. We stepped outside, and he talked only about Iran's threat to America. "Our intelligence is blind," he said. "It's the most dangerous country in the world to the U.S.,.and we have nothing on the ground. We don't understand anything that goes on. I mean, the C.I.A. doesn't have anything. This goes way deeper than Tenet"-George Tenet, who was the director ofcentral intelligence at the time.>He continued, "Do you know how dangeroys to our forces in the Gulf? We have great force~oncentration issues now'~-the presence of Americ~troops in Iraq-~'and the Iranians are very interested in making life difficult for American forces. They have the capability. You watch what they're do,ing in Iraq. Their infiltration is everywhere.." Franklin seeme~ more frustrated with American policy in Iran than he had the year before. "We don't understand that it'"s doable-regime change is doable," he said. "The people are so desperate to become free, and the mullahs are so unpopular. They're so pro-American, the people." Referring to the Bush Administration, he said, "That's what they don't understand," and he added, "And they also don't understand how anti-American the mullahs are.," Franklin was convinced that the Iranians would commit acts ofterrorism against Americans, on American soil. "'J;hese guys are a threat to us in Iraq and even at home," he said. Franklin was not a high-ranpng Pentagon official; he was five steps removed in the hierarchy from Douglas Feith, th~ Under-Secretary for Policy. For two years, though, he had been trying to change Atp.erican policy., His efforts took many fonns, including calls to reporters, meetings with Rosen and Weissman and with the political counsellor at the Israeli Embassy, Naor Gilan. According to Tracy O'Grady-Walsh~ a Pentagon spokeswoman, he w~ not acting on behalfof his superiors: "IfLany Franklin was fonnally or infonnally lobbying, he was doing it on his own." , ", Franklin also·sought infonnation from Iranian dissidents who might aid his cause. In December of2001, he and Rhode met in Rome with Michael'Ledeen and'a group ofIranians, including Manucher Ghorbanifar. Ledeen, who helped arrange the meeting, told me that the dissidents gave Franklin and Rhode infonnation about Iranian threats against American soldiers in Afghanistan. ·http://www.newyorker.comlprintableslf~ctl05Q7_04ftLf~~t 6/27/2005 The New Yorker: PRINTABLES , 0 o Page 5 of9 (Rhode- did not return calls seeking comment.) Franklin was initially skeptical~about the meeting, Ledeen said, but emerged believing that America could do business with these dissidents. Franklin's meetings with Gilon and with the two AIPAC men make up the heart ofthe indictment against him. The indictment alleges that Rosen-"CC;.I," or "Co-Conspirator 1"-caIIed the Pentagon in early August of2002, looking for the name ofan Iran specialist. He made contact with Franklin a short time later, but, according to the indictment, they did not meet until February of2003.. In their meetings, according to seve~ people with knowledge ofthe conversations, Franklin told the lobbyists that Secretary of State Colin Powell was resisting attempts by the Pentagon to formulate a tougher Iran policy. He apparently hoped to use AIPAC to lobby the Administration. The Franklin indictment suggests that the F.BJ. had been watching Rosen as well; for instance, it. . alleges that, in February of2003, Rosen, on his way to a meeting with Franklin, told someone'on' , the phone that he "was excited to meet with a 'Pentagon 8\1Y' because this person was a 'real insi~er..' " Franklin, Rose~, and Weissman met openly four times in 2003.. At one point, the indictment reads, somewhat mysteriously, "On or about March 10,2003, Franklin, CC-I and CC2"- Rosen and Weissman"'::"~cmet at Union Station early in the morning. In the course ofthe meeting, the three men moved from one restaurant to another restaurant and then finished the meeting in an empty restaurant." On June 26, 2003, at a lunch at the Tivoli Restaurant, near the Pentagon, Franklin reportedly told Rosen and Weissman about a draft ofa National Security Presidential Directive that outlined a series oftougher steps that the U.S. could"take against the Iranian leadership. The draft was written by a young Pentagon aide named Michael Rubin (who is now affiliated with the American Enterprise Institute). Franklin did not hand over a copy ofthe draft, but he described its contents, and, according to the indictment, talked about the "state ofinternal United States government deliberations." The'indictment also alleges that Franklin gave the two men "highly classified" information about potential attacks on American forces in Iraq. In mid-August of2002, according to the indictment, Franklin met with Oilon-'identified simply as "FO," or "foreign official"-at a restaurant, and Oilon explained to Franklin that he was the "policy" person at the Embassy. The two met regularly, the indictment alleges, often at the Pentagon OfficerS' Athletic'Club, to discuss "foreign-policy issues," particularly regarding a "Middle Eastern couniry"-Iran, by all accounts-and "its nuclear program." The indictment suggests that Franklin was receiving information and policy advice from Gilon; after one meeting, Franklin drafted an "Action Memo" to his supervisors incorporating Oilon's suggestions. Oilon is an expert on weapons proliferation, according to Danny Ayalon, the Israeli Ambassador, and has briefed reporters about Israel's position on Iran. A-ccording to Lawrence Di Rita, a Pentagon spokesman, it is part of the "job description" ofDefense D~partment desk 6ffigers to meet with their foreign counterparts. "Desk officers meet with foreign officials all the time, not with ministers, but interactions with people at their level," he said.. The indictment contends, however, that on two occasions Franklin gave Oilon classified information. The is~ue ofIsrael's activities in Washington is unusually sensitive. Twenty years ago, a civilian Naval Intelligence analyst named Jonathan Pollard·was caught stealing American secrets on behalfof an Israeli intelligence cell-a "rogue" cell, the Israelis later claimed. Pollard said that he 'was driven to treason because, as a Jew, he could not abide what he saw as America's unwillingness to share crucial intelligen~ with Israel. Pollard's actions were an embarrassment for American Jews, who fear the accusation of"dualloyalty"-the idea that they split their allegiance between the United States and Israel. For Israel, the case was a moral and political disaster. And there are some in the American intelligence community who suspect that Israel has never stopped spying on the United States.!printableslfactJ0507.04(a_fac! 6/27/2005 The New Yorker: PRINTABLES '0 o Page60f9 b7E ~ii~rthis month, Ayalon told me iliat lS~el dQes not "collect any intelligence on the United S~tes, period, full stop.. We won't do anything to risk tpis most important relationship.~' In any case, he said, there was no need to spy, ~'because cooperation is so intimate and effective between Israel and th~ U.S." Ayalon als9, said that Gilon, who is returning ~o Jerusalem later this summer, remains an important member ofhis staff; in recent months, Gilon has attended meetings at the. State Department, the Pentagon, and the White House. n June of2004, F.B.I. agents searched Franklin's Pentagon office and his h9me in·West .rginia, and allegedly found eighty-three classified documents. Some had to do with the Iran ebate, but some pertained to Al Qaeda and Iraq. (A separate federal indictment, citing the ocumentS, has be~anded d~~. i_n.}\'~t VIrginia.) ~~9r:d~pg.tQ a~p'er:sQn;:with.~owl~~g~ of ~~i!l~S-~as~,Jh~ilg~J~\q;~~ftT!6':af~~~q~#i~W~!~§ffi~~et~~W-9j@~g:~g..~~~~ .:": ~~~'::'~~~~lIffanldiii:fiiced· 'ift:,hi~;,Ii.QiJsef29.ulg~~!f~li~nijii~ a...- ~9.!t~llie~~IlfS2~~:J?~~!!!;~w.h~;!!ig[#,.Q~l&~v~~:I~:wYe~;;~gr~~.g.;t9t~9Jw1m~~!~~~~g~Oh9t i?~~~!f~Jl1:W.~i~!~!ialllio~~~~ppiieiitlY;lie:MiaS~ndtgiYeii~fii:reiUrnr~j~p'eCj.~Pt9.iP.~~~j~·"::-·-:::> {!~ni'e1i,*;Soon,he was wired, and was asked to contact the two AIP!\C employees. On July-21s~~ Fiiiiidin called Weissman and said that he had to speak to him immediately-that it was a matter oflife and death: They arranged to meet outside the Nordstrom's department store at Pentagon €ity.. Amonth before that meeting, The New Yorker had published an article by Seymour HerSh about the ~ctivities o(Israeli intelligence agents in northern Iraq. Franklin, who held a top-secret security clearance, allegedly told Weissman that he had new, classified info.rmation indicating that Iranian agents were planning to kidnap and kill the Israelis referred to by Hersh. American intelligenc~ Iqtew ~out tile threat, Franklin ~aid, but Israel ~ight not. He also said that the -Iranians had infi~trated southern Iraq, and were planning attacks o~ American soldiers. Rosen and Weissman, Franklit) hoped, .could insure that senior Administration officials received this news.. It is unclear whether what ;FranklilJ. relayed was troeor whether it had been manufactured ~y the F.B.I. TheBureau has refused to comment on the case. Weissman hurried back to AlPAC's headquarters. and briefed Rosen and Howard Kohr, AIPAC's executive director. According to AIPAC sources, Rosen and Weissman-asked K.ohr to gtve the information to Elliott Abrams, the senior Middle East official on the National Security CounciL Kohr didn't get in touch with Abrams, but Rosen andW~issman made two calls. They called. Oilon and told him about the threat to Israeli agents in Iraq, and then they called Glenn Kessler, a diplomatic correspondent at the Washington Post. and told him about the threat to Americans. Amonth later, on the morning ofAugust 27,2004, F.B.I. agents vi~ited Rosen· at his home, in Silver Spring, Maryland, se~king to question him. Rosen quickly called AlPAC'S lawyers. That night, CBS News reported that an unnamed Israeli "mole" had been discovered in ~he Pentagon, and that the mole had been passing documents to two officials of.AI?AC, who were passing the documents on tQ Israeli officials. Within days, the names ofFranklin, Rosen, and Weissman were made p~bl~c. TheF.B:I. informed Franklin that he was going tQ be charged with illegal possession ofclassified documents. Franklin was said by friends to be frightened, ~nd surprised. He said that he could not afford to hire a lawyer. The F.B.I. arranged for a court-appoiIited' att~rney to represent him.. The lawyer, a former federal prosecutor, advised him to plead guilty to espionage charges, ana receive a prison sentence of six to eight years. &16~1Jlj~~F~id1i~t~cii;~fi~~i~li~~I;~~4~~9;~m~;~J~;.~9~m~t!eI~:.o~~n .~ ~ _.~ • ..........---...._~..~~..~Lo~ p... _- -=-:a..-..-"'=:. ~.'''- 'C'I.~'''''~"_,,,,--,,:,:"'Ilo.~ . . http://www.newyorker.corolpri~!!l!?I~{~~t!Q?Q7Q4t~Ja~ _-. _ _ . '6/27/2005' TheNew Y-orker: PRINTABL0ES o Page.70f9 policy. "I called him and said, 'Larry, what's going on?' "·Ledeen recalled. "He said, 'Don't worry.. Sharansky' "-Natan Sharansky, the former Soviet dissident-" 'survived years in the Gulag, and I'll survive prison, too.' I said, 'What are you talking about?' He told me what was going on. I asked him ifhe had a good lawyer."'Ledeen called the criminal-defense attorney Plato Cacheris. "I knew him from when he served as Fawn's attorney," Ledeen said, referring to Fawn Hall, who was Colonel Oliver North's secretary at the time ofthe Iran-Contra affair. Cacheris has also represented Monica Lewinsky and the F.B.I. agent Robert Hanssen, who spied for Moscow. Cacheris offered to represent Franklin pro bono, and Franklin accepted the offer.. AIPAC launched a special appeal for donations-for the organization, ~ot for Rosen and Weissman.. "Your generosity at this time will help ensure that false allegations do not hamper our ability or yours to work for a strong U.S.-Israel relationship and a safe and secure Israel," AlPAC'S leaders wrote in the letter accompanying the appeal. But in December four AIPAC officials, including Kohr, were subpoenaed to testify before a grand jury in Alexandria, Virginia. In March, AlPAC's principal lawyer, Nathan Lewin, met with the U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District ofVirginia, Paul McNul~, who agreed to let Lewin see some ofthe evidence ofthe Pentagon City sting. According to an AIPAC source, an eleven-second portion ofthe telephone conversation between Rosen, Weissman, and the Post's Glenn Kessler, which the F.B.I. had recorded, was played for Lewin. In tha~ conversation, Rosen is alleged to have told Kessler about Iranian·agents in.southem Iraq-information that Weissman had received from Franklin. In the part ofthe conversation that Lewin heard, Rosen jokes about "not getting in trouble" over the infonnation. He also ~otes, "At least we have no Official Secrets Ace'-the British law that makes journalists li~ble to prosecutiQn ifthey publish classified material. Prosecutors argu~d to Lewin that this sPltement proved that Rosen and Weissman were aware that the info~ation ,Franklin had given them was classified, and thatRosen must therefore have mown that he was passing classified information to Oilon, a foreign official. Lewin, who declined to comment on the case, recommended that AlPAC fire Rosen and Weissman. He also told the board that McNulty had promised that AIPAC itselfwould not be a target ofthe espionage investigation. An AIPAC spokesman, Patrick Dorton, said ofthe firing, "Rosen and Weissman were dismissed because they engaged in conduct that was not part oftheirjobs, and because this conduct did not comport with the standards that AIPAC expects and requires ofits When iasked Abbe Lowell, Rosen's lawyer, about the firings, he said, "Steve Rosen's dealings with Larry Franklin were akin to his dealings with executive-branch officials for more than two decades and were well1a).own, encouraged, and appreciated by AIPAC.." Last month, I met with Low~ll and Rosen in Lowell's office, which these days is a center of Washington sqandal management.. (He also represents the fallen lobbyist Jack Abramoff.) Lowell had instructed Rosen not to discuss specifics of}he case, but Rosen expressed disbeliefthat his career had'been ended by an F.B.I. investigation. "I'm being looked at for things I've done for twen~-three years, which other foreign-poli9Y groups, hundreds offoreign-policy groups, are doing," Rosen said, and went on, "Ourjob. at AIPAC was to understand what the government is doing, in order to help fonn better policies, in the interests ofthe U.S. I've never done anything illegal orharmful to the U.S. I never even dreamed ofdoing anything harmful to the U.S." Later, he said, "We did not knowingly receive classified infonnation from Lany Franklin." Lowell added, "When the facts are known, this will be a case not about Rosen and Weissman's actions but about the government's actions." Lowell said that he would not rehearse his arguments against any charges until there is an indictment. J' Rosen said that he was particularly upset by the al~egation that, because he had informed OiloD http://www~newyorker~comlprintableslfactJOS0704faJ~ct 6/27/2005 TheNew Yorker:.PRINTABL0ES o P~ge8of9 that Israeli lives might be in danger, he.was a spy forIsrael. "IfI had been given information that British or Australian soldiers were going to be kidnapped or killed in Iraq, I think I would have done the same thing," he said."'!'d have tried to warn them by calling friends at those e~bassies." He wants to believe that he could return to AIPAC if he is exonerated, but this does not seem likely. AIPAC leaders are downplayillg Rosen's importance to the organization.. "AIPAC is focussed primarily on legislative lobbying," Dorton told me. Rosen's severance pay will end in September, although AIPAC, in accordance with its bylaws, will continue to pay legal fees for Rosen and Weissman. Rosen's defenders are critical ofAIPAC for its handling ofthe controversy. Martin Indyk, who is now the director ofthe Saban Center for Middle East Policy, a think tank within the Brookings Institution, thinks that AIPAC made a tactical mistake by cutting offthe two men. "It appears they've abandoned their own on the battlefield," he says. "Because they cut Steve on: they leave. him no choice." Indykwouldn't elaborate, but the implication was clear: Rosen and Weissman will defend themselves by arguing that they were working in concert with the nighest officials of the organization, including Kohr. Until there is an indictment, the government's full case against Rosen and Weissman cannot be known; no one in the Justice Department will comment. The laws concerning the di~semination ofgovernment secrets are sometimes ambiguous and often unenforced, and prosecutors in such cases face complex choices. According to Lee Strickland, a former chief privacy officer ofthe C.I.A., prosecutors pressing espionage charges against Rosen and Weissman would have t9 prove that the information the two men gave to Gilon not merely was classified but rose to the level of "national-defense information," meaning that it could cause dire harm to the United States.. Yet a reporter who called the Embassy to discuss the same iJiformation in the course of preparing a story-thus violating the same statute-would almost certainly not be pro~ecuted., Strickland continued, "Twice in the Clinton Administration we had proposals to broaden the statutes to include the recipients, not just the leakers, ofclassified information.. TheNew York Times and the Washington Post went bat-shit about this legislation. They saw it as an attempt to shut down . leaks." IfAmerican law did punish those who receive, and then pass on, or publish, privileged information, much oftheWasllington press corps would be in jail, ~ccording t